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Full text of "The book of Enoch : translated from Professor Dillmann's Ethiopic text emended and revised in accordance with hitherto uncollated Ethiopic mss. and with the Gizeh and other Greek and Latin fragments which are here published in full"

1330 

EL 

3107 A-2l 



LIBRARY 
KNOX COLLEGE 

TORONTO 



THE BOOK OF ENOCH 



JR. H. CHARLES 



LIBRARY 
KNOX COLLEGE 



fionfcott 

HENRY FROWDE 

Oxford University Press Warehouse 

Amen Corner. E.C. 




MACMILLAN & CO., 112 FOURTH AVENUE 



L13RACY 

KNOX COLLEGE, 

XORON TO. 



THE 

BOOK OF ENOCH 



TRANSLATED FROM 



PROFESSOR DILLMANN'S ETHIOPIC TEXT 



EMENDED AND REVISED IN ACCORDANCE WITH HITHERTO 

UNCOLLATED ETHIOPIC MSS. AND WITH THE GIZEH 

AND OTHER GREEK AND LATIN FRAGMENTS 

WHICH ARE HERE PUBLISHED IN FULL 



WITH INTRODUCTION, NOTES, APPENDICES, AND INDICES 

BY 

R. H. CHARLES, M.A. 

TRINITY COLLEGE, DUBLIN, AND EXETER COLLEGE, OXFORD 



AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 
1893 

/ 

LIBRARY 
KNOX COLLEGE 



©xfoiro 

PRINTED AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 

BY HORACE HART, PRINTER TO THE UNIVERSITY 




IN MUCH GRATITUDE 
TO 

THE REV. T. K. CHEYNE, D. D. 

ORIEL PROFESSOR OF INTERPRETATION 
CANON OF ROCHESTER 

AND TO 

THE REV. W. SANDAY, D. D. 

IRELAND PROFESSOR OF EXEGESIS 



PREFACE 



It is unnecessary to apologize for the appearance of this 
book, as some such work has long been a desideratum to 
scholars. A knowledge of Enoch is indispensable to New 
Testament students. 

It would be best perhaps, at the outset, to mention 
briefly the features in which this edition differs from 
previous editions of Enoch. 

I. First, the Translation is made, in the main, from a 
British Museum MS. which is incomparably better than 
those on which Professor Dillmann's Ethiopic text is based. 
But as this MS., which I designate G, is still unpublished, 
I have followed Dillmann's text, and, in every instance in 
which I have deviated from it in deference to G or other 
British Museum MSS., I have given in my Critical Notes 
the Ethiopic reading adopted, and that as a rule as it 
stands in the MS. followed, though it may be vicious 
alike in orthography and syntax. These instances are in 
all about six hundred. It will be remarked that on p. 4 
they are said to be three hundred and twenty-two. The 
explanation of this discrepancy is to be found in the fact 
that the bulk of this book was already in type when the 
Gizeh MS. was published by M. Bouriant, and that I have 
allowed the Introduction to remain as it already stood 
before the publication of this Greek fragment. But as the 
examination of this fragment speedily made it clear that 
I had under-estimated the value of these new Ethiopic 



viii The Book of Enoch. 

MSS., I was obliged to follow their authority in three 
hundred additional instances against Dillmann's text. 
However, as I could introduce only a limited number of 
these new readings into the Critical Notes already in type, 
the reader will not unfrequently have to consult Ap- 
pendix C for the text followed in the Translation in the 
earlier chapters. In addition to the new readings incor- 
porated in the Translation, a number of others are proposed 
in Appendices C, D, and E. These are preceded by the 
readings they are intended to displace, and are always 
printed in italics. I might add that the Gizeh fragment, 
which, through the kindness of the Delegates of the Press, 
is added on pp. 326-370, will be found to be free from the 
serious blemishes of M. Bouriant's edition. 

To the kindness of the Rev. M. R. James, King's College, 
Cambridge, I owe the Latin fragment in Appendix E. 
This fragment was lately discovered by Mr. James in the 
British Museum. It will be seen that it helps to emend 
the Ethiopic text in a few points. 

II. Of late years the criticism of Enoch has reached 
certain assured results. From these duly given and sub- 
stantiated a fresh departure in criticism is made. The 
so-called Grundschrift is shown to proceed from at least 
four different authors. The book thus becomes intelligible, 
and much light is thereby thrown on the internal his- 
tory, and thought-developement of the Jews in the two 
centuries preceding the Christian era. The present writer 
is convinced that until this plurality of authorship is 
recognized, no true or adequate interpretation of Enoch 
is possible. In the book of Enoch we have a typical 
example of the Oriental method of editing. Less important 
books were constantly rescued from oblivion by incorpora- 
tion in larger books. Plagiarism and literary property 
were ideas alike foreign to the Palestinian consciousness 
of the time. As the name of David attracted different col- 
lections of the Psalms, and the name of Solomon successive 



Preface. ix 

collections of proverbs, so the name of Enoch attracted 
various treatments of celestial and terrestrial phenomena 
as well as of the problem of the suffering righteous. 

III. The history of important conceptions which appear 
frequently in Enoch, such as that of Hades, the Kesurrection, 
the Messiah, &c, is traced but briefly, as the present writer 
hopes to issue later an independent work on the Eschatology 
of pre-Christian Apocryphal and Apocalyptic literature. 

IV. An attempt is made to give some account of the 
influence of Enoch on subsequent literature, especially that 
of the New Testament. 

The Slavonic Enoch, which is mentioned occasionally in 
the following pages, I hope to publish shortly. This 
Apocryph, which is critically revised and translated by 
my friend Mr. Morfill, the Reader in Russian and the other 
Slavonic Languages, will be furnished with an Introduction 
and Notes. 

The many changes introduced into the text when already 
in type, as well as the incorporation of much fresh material, 
have made, I fear, the presence of occasional errors inevit- 
able. I shall be grateful for any corrections. 

My best thanks are due to Dr. Sanday, to whom I am under 
manifold obligations, and in connexion with whose Seminar 
this work was primarily undertaken ; to Dr. Neubauer, 
whom I have consulted with advantage in season and out 
of season : to Professor Margoliouth, for his courteous and 
ever-ready help in questions affecting the Ethiopic text : 
and finally and chiefly to my wife, whose constant sympathy 
and unwearied labour in the verification of references and the 
formation of indices have materially lightened the burthen 
of my work. 

R. H. CHARLES. 

April, 1893 



CONTENTS 



General Introduction . . . . . 1-53 

§ 1. Short Account of the Book (pp. I, a). § 2. The Ethiopic 
MSS. (pp. 2-5). § 3. Greek Version (p. 5). § 4. Emenda- 
tions (pp. 5,6). § 5. Editions of the Ethiopic Text — Laurence, 
Dillmann (p. 6). § 6. Translations — Laurence, Hoffmann, 
Dillmann, Schodde (pp. 6-9). § 7. Critical Inquiries — Liicke, 
Hofmann, Dillman, Jellinek, Gildemeister, Ewald, Weisse, 
Kostlin, Hilgenfeld, Volkmar, Geiger, Langen, Sieffert, Holtz- 
mann, Hallevi, Philippi, Wittichen, Gebhardt, Anger, Vernes, 
Kuenen, Tideman, Drummond, Hausrath, Lipsius, Westcott, 
Schodde, Wieseler, Schiirer, Stanton, Eeuss, Holtzmann, 
Pfieiderer, Baldens perger, Salmon, Peter, Deane, Thomson, 
Cheyne, De Faye (pp. 9-21). § 8. From a Hebrew Original 
through the Medium of a Greek Translation (pp. 21, 22). 
§ 9. The Object of Apocalyptic Literature (pp. 22-24). 
§ to. The different Elements in the Book of Enoch, with 
their respective Characteristics and Dates. This book a 
fragmentary survival of an Enochic literature with large 
additions from an Apocalypse of Noah, derived from at least 
six authors. Part I (pp. 25, 26), i-xxxvi, before 170 B.C., 
mainly from the prophetic standpoint of such chapters as 
Is. lxv, lxvi, but with a more developed eschatology. Part II 
(pp. 26-28), lxxxiii-xc, written between 166-161 B.C., mainly 
from the same standpoint as Daniel. An immense advance 
on the naive and sensuous conceptions of i-xxxvi. The king- 
dom to be introduced by the warlike efforts of Judas Macca- 
baeus and to last for ever on earth. Part III (pp. 28, 29), 
xci-civ, written between 134-94 B.C., introduces a world of 
new conceptions in which the centre of interest has passed 
from the material world to the spiritual ; the Messianic king- 
dom has become merely of temporary duration, and heaven 
itself, not the Messianic kingdom, has become the goal of the 
hopes of the righteous. Part IV (pp. 29, 30), the Similitudes 
xxxvii-lxx, written between 94-79 B.C. or 70-64 B.C. The 
varying relations in which the Maccabees stood to the Chasid 



Xll 



The Book of Enoch. 



party reflected in the books of Enoch (p. 30). The varying 
conceptions of the Messiah in these books corresponding to the 
historical events of the times (pp. 30, 31). The teaching of 
the Similitudes stands in clear contrast with xci-civ (p. 32). 
Part V (p. 32), the Book of Celestial Physics lxxii-lxxviii, 
Ixxxii, lxxix; date uncertain. Part VI (pp. 32, 33), 
Noachian and other interpolations ; incorporated in the 
main before the Christian era. § 11. The Influence of 
Enoch on Jewish Literature — the Book of Jubilees, the 
Apocalypse of Baruch, IV. Ezra, Testaments of the Twelve 
Patriarchs (pp. 33-38). The Influence of Enoch on Patristic 
Literature — the Epistle of Barnabas, Justin Martyr, Ire- 
naeus, Athenagoras, Tertullian, Clemens Alex., Origen, 
Anatolius, Hilary, Chrysostom, Jerome, Augustine, Apos- 
tolic Constitutions, Syncellus (pp. 38-41). Influence of 
Enoch on the New Testament — the General Epistles, Booh 
of Bevelation, Pauline Epistles, Epistle to the Hebrews, 
Acts of the Apostles, Gospels (pp. 41-49). On New 
Testament doctrine of the Messianic Kingdom, the Messiah, 
Sheol and the Resurrection, Demonology (pp. 50-53). 



The Book of Enoch. — Special Introductions, 
Translation, Critical and Exegetical 
Notes 

Section I (chapters i-xxxvi) . 

Introduction. — A. Critical Structure. B. Relation of 
this Section to (a) lxxii-lxxxii ; (b) lxxxiii-xc; (c) xci- 
civ. C. Its Date. D. The Problem and its Solution . 

Translation and Critical and Exegetical Notes 
Section II. — The Similitudes (chapters xxxvii-lxxi) . 

Introduction. — A. Critical Structure. B. Belation of 
xxxvii-lxxi to the rest of the booh. C. Date. D. The 
Problem and its Solution 

Translation and Critical and Exegetical Notes 

Section III. — The Book op Celestial Physics (chapters 
lxxii-lxxxii) 

Introduction. — A. Its Critical Structure and Object 
B. Its Independence of i-xxxvi. C. Its Calendar and 
the Knowledge therein implied .... 

Translation and Critical and Exegetical Notes 
Section IV. — The Dream- Visions (chapters lxxxiii-xc) 

Introduction. — A. Critical Structure. B. Belation of 
this Section to (a) i-xxxvi ; (&) xci-civ. C. The Date 
D. The Problem and its Solution 

Translation and Critical and Exegetical Notes 



55-308 

55-105 



55-57 

57-io5 

106-186 



106-109 
1 10-186 

187-219 

187-191 
191-219 
220-259 



220-223 
223-259 



Contents. 



Xlll 



Section V (chapters xci-civ) 

Introduction. — A. Critical Structure. B. Relation of 
xci-civ to (a) i-xxxvi; (b) lxxxiii-xc. C. Authorship 
and Date. D. The Problem and its Solution 
Translation and Critical and Exegetical Notes 



PAGE 
260-308 



26O-265 
265-308 



Appendix A. — Additional Bibliography — Bouriant, 
Migne, Goldschmidt, Lods, Bissell, Schwally, 
Zockler, Battiffol, Dillmann, Charles 

Appendix B. — ' The Son of Man ' 

Appendix C. — The Gizeh Greek Fragment (i-xxxii) 
with Introduction and Notes 

Appendix D. — Additional Notes on xxxvii-cviii 

Appendix E. — The New Latin Fragment, cvi. 1-18 
with Introduction and Notes 



309-311 
312-317 

318-370 
372-375 



Index I. — Passages from the Scriptures and other 

ancient books 377-383 

Index II. — Names and Subjects . . . . 385-391 



CONTRACTIONS 

Din. = Dillmann. 

A, B, C, &c. refer to Ethiopic MSS. See p. 2. 

Syn. Gk. = the Greek fragments preserved in Syncellus. 

Giz. Gk. = the Gizeh Greek fragment. 

The remaining contractions are for the most part familiar. 



ERRATA 



Page 5, line 10 from top, for B.C. read a.d. 

„ 38, ,, 13 „ for three times and twice read twice and once 

>> 3 8 > » J 7> l8 » ^«* e Ep. Barn. xvi. 6. Cf. En. xci. 13. 

,, 66, „ 8 ,, for eyebrows read eyelids 

„ 66, „ 21 „ /or Gk. to oti\$uv read Giz. Gk. <ttI&u<> 

„ 7°> » J 6 » ? /or which read of those who 

„ 7 1 * » 2 4 » /<w Af WlT rea^ Ai$4T 

,, 73, erase Crit. Note on x. 7. 

,1 74> m 25 „ for fafcOD* read ffflPOl* 

,, 76, ,, 4 from bottom, for Papius read Papias 

,, 80, „ 6 from top, remove comma after forth 

„ 81, „ 6 „ for the walls of the house read its walls 

» 81, ,,23 „ /or thereon read (thereon) 

„ 84, last line, for Gk. read Syn. Gk. 

„ 92, line 21 from top, for W\L read fflh. 

„ 98, „ 16 „ for h»- (twice) read It (twice) 

„ 98, „ 18 „ for „ „ read „ „ 

» 99> » * 7 » f or tnen rea ^ there 

,, 101, ,, 14 „ for then read and thence 

,, 101, ,, 23 „ for then read there 

„ 104, ,, 16 „ for one of these blows read they blow 

„ 105, „ 15 „ for hu read It 

„ 116, ,,22 „ before The original add Are beautifully re- 
splendent. 

„ 120, ,, 19 „ for Fanuel read Rufael 

,, 120, ,,19 „ for 4J&& read 4*4*/i>£V. (In this instance the 
reading of G M is corrupt.) 

„ 121, „ 21 „ /or GM read G 

„ 124, „ 29-30 „ for Taken over into the Interpolations read 
from whence it was borrowed : cf. also 

„ 180, „ 29 „ for *JftO« read Xlfr 

„ 248, erase exegetical note on xc. 3 . 

„ 286, last line, for land read law 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 



§ i. Short Account of the Book. 

In Gen. v. 24 it is said of Enoch that he walked with God. 
This expression was taken in later times to mean not only 
that he led a godly life, but also that he was the recipient of 
superhuman knowledge. It was not unnatural, therefore, 
that an Apocalyptic literature began to circulate under his 
name in the centuries when such literature was rife. In the 
present book, translated from the Ethiopic, we have large 
fragments of such a literature, proceeding from a variety 
of authors. Additional portions of this literature may be 
discovered in the coming years. Only recently two Slavonic 
MSS., which belong to this literature, but are quite inde- 
pendent of the present book, have been printed in Russia. 

The present book from the Ethiopic belongs to the second 
and first centuries B.C. All the writers of the New Testa- 
ment were familiar with it, and were more or less influenced 
by it in thought and diction 1 . It is quoted as a genuine 
production of Enoch by S. Jude, and as Scripture by 
S. Barnabas. The authors of the Book of Jubilees, the 
Apocalypse of Baruch and IV Ezra, laid it under con- 
tribution. With the earlier Fathers and Apologists it had 
all the weight of a canonical book, but towards the close 
of the third and the beginning of the fourth centuries it 
began to be discredited, and finally fell under the ban of the 

1 For a full account of its influence ture, see the closing Chapter of this 
on earlier Jewish and Christian litera- Introduction. 



2 The Book of Enoch. 

Church. Almost the latest reference to it in the Early 
Church is made by George Syncellus in his Chronography 
about 800 a. d., who has preserved for us some long passages 
in Greek. The book was then lost sight of till 1773, when 
an Ethiopic version of it was found in Abyssinia by Bruce. 
This traveller brought home three copies of it, two old MSS. 
and a transcript from one of them. From one of these 
Laurence made the first modern translation of Enoch in 183 1. 



§ 2. The Ethiopic MSS. 

There are seventeen MSS. of this book in Europe. Of 
these one is in Paris, a transcript of B in the Bodleian. 
Another is in the Vatican Library, but of this MS. I know 
nothing further. The remaining fifteen are designated by 
the letters A B C D, &c. Of these Laurence based his text 
on A, and Din. on A B C D E. For a description of these five 
MSS. see Dln/s Liber Henoch, Aethiopice, Annotat. pp. 1, 2. 

Of the remaining MSS., all of which are in the British 
Museum, two were obtained by purchase, F, L in 1861 and 
1862, and the rest fell into the hands of the expedition 
against King Theodore at Magdala. 

These MSS. with their Nos. in the British Museum Cata- 
logue are as follows : 

F. Add. 24185 19th cent. Divided into 106 chs. 

G. Orient. 485 Beginning of 16th cent. Without usual division 

and numbering of chs. 



G 1 . 


jj 


» 


Consists only of xcvii.6 b — 

cviii. 10. 
See Crit. Note on xci. 6. 


H. 


Orient. 484 


1 8th cent. 


Divided into 108 chs. 


I. 


„ 486 


55 


Chs. i-lx. I2 a wanting. 


K. 


,, 490 


55 


Divided into 107 chs. 


L. 


Add. 24990 


55 




M. 


Orient. 491 


55 


Without usual numbering 
and division into chs. 


N. 


» 49 2 


55 


Divided into 87 chs. 


0. 


» 499 


55 


Divided into 106 chs. 



General Introduction. 3 

I collated these MSS. with Dim's Ethiopia text on more 
than three hundred passages. The result of this test was 
so favourable to G and G 1 that I made a complete collation 
of these MSS. and have given the bulk of their variants in 
my critical notes. 

The superiority of G to all other MSS. will be evident 
from the following seventeen passages. In these I have adopted 
a different text from Din. in accordance with the Ethiopic 
MSS. which were supported by the independent testimony of 
the Greek of S. Jude 15, of the Greek fragments of Enoch 
in G. Syncellus, and of the Greek fragment of Enoch published 
by Mai in Patrum Nova Bibliotheca, vol. ii. These passages 
and the MSS. that support the reading adopted are — 



Enoch i. 9 


G M supported by 


S. Juc 1 


e 15. 




vi. 3 


GM 


jj 


Greek of Syncellus. 


5 


GM 


j> 


jj 


jj 


viii. 3 


GKM 


?j 


jj 




j 


ix. 4 


GM 


>j 


jj 




j 


8 


GM 


jj 


jj 




. 


x - 3 


GM 


jj 


jj 




j 


10 


GM 


jj 


jj 




j 


10 


GKM 


jj 


j» 




j 


11 


FGHL 


>j 


jj 




j 


xv. 8 


G 


jj 


jj 




j 


11 


G 


j> 


jj 




j 


12 


M 


jj 


jj 




j 


xvi. 1 


EN 


jj 


jj 








AEFGHKLMNO 


jj 




j 


Ixxxix. 42 


G 


jj 


j» 


fragment of Mai 


45 


D 


jj 


jj 


i 


j 



For the evidence of the above MSS. on these passages see 
Crit. Notes in loc. It will be remarked that G agrees four- 
teen times out of the seventeen with the Gk., and M eleven 
times, K three times, EFHLN twice, and ADO once 
each. Hence it would appear that the five MSS. ABCDE 
on which Dln/s text is founded and in a somewhat less degree 
IF H I K L N O rest on a recension which did not affect G 

B 2 



4 The Book of Enoch. 

at all and was probably subsequent to it and only partially 
affected M. This probable conclusion becomes a certainty 
when we examine the rest of the book. The following list 
of passages in which we have departed from Dln/s text, in 
deference to the better readings of the British Museum MSB., 
shows that G represents an ancient unrevised text, and that 
G 1 M are nearly related to G ; but that all the rest belong 
more or less closely to another type of text, of which we may 
regard Dln/s text as a partially adequate representation. 
This latter type of text gives an inferior meaning, frequently 
when opposed to G alone, and nearly always when opposed 
to GM, G G 1 , or G G 2 M, or these supported by one, two, or 
more of the other MSS. Thus I have followed against Din. 

, G alone 102 times. 

G with one or more of CDEFHKLNO . .7 

GM 126 

G M with one or more of ABCDEFHIKLNO 38 

GG 1 12 

GG 1 withENandILO 2 

GG'M 19 

G X M 2 

M alone or with Greek or with other MSS. . 1 1 

D with Greek 1 

E N with Greek . . . . . . 1 

FI 1 

322 

Thus in 323 instances I have followed the above MSS. 
against Din. In every instance, however, I have also given 
Dln/s text with its translation that the reader may form his 
own judgment. 

Before passing from this subject I will give a few passages 
to show how weakly at times Dln/s text is supported even by 
inferior MSS. See Crit. Notes on xxxix. 7 where G M and 
seven other MSS. are against him; liii. 7 where G M and 
nine other MSS. ; lxvii. 3 where G M and eight other MSS. ; 
lxvii. 13 where G M and all MSS. but BC; xc. 18 where 



General Introduction. 5 

GM and nine MSS.; xc. 19 where G M and eight MSS.; 
xeiii. 10 where G M and seven MSS. 

I will adduce one more point under this head. On xcviii. % 
all MSS. but G G 1 M agree in giving a vox nulla. The 
agreement of these later MSS. in presenting a counterfeit 
word points either to a recension or to the same ancestry. 

§ 3. Greek Version. 

Only fragments of this version have come down to us pre- 
served in the chronography of George Syncellus (about 
800 B.C.). These are vi-ix. 4; viii. 4-x. 14; xv. 8-xvi. 1; 
and in a Vatican MS. (Cod. Gr. 1809) published by Mai in 
the Patrum Nova Bibliotheca, vol. ii. Only lxxxix. 42-49 
is found in this MS. I have printed these fragments in 
parallel columns with the translation from the Ethiopic. 

The Greek version has, no doubt, undergone corruption in 
the process of transmission ; yet in many respects it presents 
a more faithful text than the Ethiopic. This we might infer 
to some extent from what has gone before, and the following 
instances where it undoubtedly preserves the truer reading 
will more than confirm this view: — vi. 6; viii. 1 ; ix. 6, 10 ; 
x. 14; xv. 11; lxxxix. 45, 48. In these instances we have 
followed the Greek version against all the Ethiopic MSS. 
The Greek version is by no means free from corruptions. 

As the Greek fragment which has lately been discovered at 
Cairo has not yet been published, I have not been able to 
avail myself of it. 

§ 4. Emendations. 

The text presented by the best MSS. is still far from 
perfect, and contains many primitive errors. Some of these 
have been emended successfully by Din. and Hallevi. I have 
introduced into the text emendations of Din. in the following 
passages : — lvi. 7 ; lxii. 1 ; xc. 38 ; and emendations of Hallevi 
in lxvii. 13; lxxvii. 1-3; ci. 4, 9; and emendations of my 
own in xvi. 1; xli. 9; xlvi. 2; lx. 6, 19, 24; lxiii. 7; 



6 The Book of Enoch. 

Ixxvi. 6, to; xc. 20, 21. For the reasons see Crit. Notes 
in loc. 

There are still many passages which are undoubtedly 
corrupt. On many of them I have given suggestions of 
Hallevi and of my own. See Crit. Notes on lxv. 10 ; Ixix. 
1, 13, &c. 

§ 5. Editions of the Ethiopic Text. 
Laurence, Libri Enoch Versio Aethiopica, Oxoniae, 1838. 
Dillmann, Liber Henoch, Aethiopice, ad quinque codicum fidem 
edit us, cum variis lectionibus. Lipsiae, 1851. For an account 
of the MSS. see pp. 2-5. 

§ 6. Translations. 

Four translations with introductions and commentary have 
already appeared. The latter two of them we shall criticise 
shortly. 

Laurence, The Booh of Enoch, an apocryphal production, now 
first translated from an Ethiopic MS. in the Bodleian Library, 
Oxford, 1 82 1. 

Hoffmann (A. G.), Das Buch Henoch in vollstdndiger Uber- 
setzung mit fortlaufendem Commentar, ausfuhrlicher Einleitung 
und erlduternden Excursen, 2 vols. Jena, 1833-38. 

Dillmann, Das Bitch Henoch ubersetzt und erkldrt, Leipzig, 
1853. Tms splendid edition at once displaced the two that 
preceded it, corrected their many ungrammatical renderings, 
and furnished an almost perfect translation of a text based on 
five MSS. So much however has been done in the criticism 
of Enoch since 1853 that the need of a new edition is im- 
perative alike in respect of the text, translation, interpretation, 
and criticism of the book. For a criticism of the Ethiopic 
text of Din. see pp. 3-4. As for the translation some of the 
renderings are grammatically impossible. See, for instance, 
Crit. Notes on xv. 11 ; lxi. 10; lxxxix. J ; xcix. 16; cvi. 13. 
Many other inaccuracies in the translation are silently corrected 
in his Lexicon. For some of these see Crit. Notes on viii, 1 ; 



General Introduction. 7 

xxxvii. 2, 5 ; xxxviii. 2 ; xli. 5 ; lxxxiii. 5 ; lxxxv. 2 ; xcix. 5. 
Further he has omitted to translate the opening words of 
xxxvii. 1 and a clause in xci. 6. As for the interpretation of 
the book, this has been pressed and strained in order to sup- 
port the critical views which Din. then held but which he has 
long since abandoned. His critical views indeed have undergone 
many changes, but these undoubtedly are in the right direction. 

In his edition of 1 853 Din. insisted that the book proceeded 
from one author with the exception of certain historical addi- 
tions, vi-xvi; xci. 12-17; xciii; cvi-vii, and of certain 
Noachic interpolations, liv. 7-lv. 2; lx; lxv-lxix. 25; and 
also cf. xx; lxx; lxxv. 5 ; lxxxii. 9-20; cviii. 

In i860 in Herzog's B.E., Ed. 1, vol. xii. 308-310, and in 
1 87 1 in Schenkel's (Bibel-Lex.) iii. 10-13, he recognised the 
separate authorship of xxxvii-lxxi and asserted with Ewald 
its priority to the rest of the book. 

In 1883 in Herzog's B. R, Ed. 2, vol. xii. 350-352 he 
abandons his original standpoint so far as to describe the book 
of Enoch as a mere ' combination of the Enoch and Noah 
writings/ and concedes that xxxvii-lxxi are later than the rest 
of the book. His final analysis is as follows. (1) i-xxxvi ; 
lxxii-cv, with the exception of certain interpolations, form the 
ground-work and were composed in the time of J. Hyrcanus. 
(2) xxxvii-lxxi together probably with xvii-xix were written 
at latest before 64 B. c. (3) The Noachic fragments vi. 3-8 ; 
viii. 1-3 ; ix. 7 ; x. 1, 1 1 ; xx ; xxxix. 1, 2 a ; liv. 7-lv. 2 ; lx ; 
lxv-lxix. 25 ; cvi-cvii. (4) cviii. 

Yet despite every defect, Dim's edition will always maintain 
a unique position in the Enoch literature. 

Schodde. The Book of Enoch translated with Introduction 
and Notes, Ando ver, 1882. The introduction is interesting and 
the account of the bibliography though incomplete is helpful, 
but the arrangement of the text and notes in this edition 
is most inconvenient. The translation is made from Dln/s 
Ethiopic text. But the work as a whole is unsatisfactory. 
All Dln/s slips and inaccuracies, with one or two exceptions, 



8 The Book of Enoch. 

are perpetuated, even those which have been corrected in his 
Lexicon, and to these Dr. Schodde has added a goodly 
number of his own. At times he translates directly from the 
German instead of the Ethiopic. As for instance in xxxvi. 
3 he translates ^O^ft wrongly ' every evening ' instead of 
'to the west/ The explanation of this strange mistake is 
found in Dln.'s rendering 'gegen Abend/ which may be 
translated either way. Again in lxii. 4 he gives the extra- 
ordinary rendering 'when the son enters the mouth of the 
mother/ instead of the obvious translation ' enters the mouth 
of the womb/ Here again Dln/s ' Wann sein Sohn in den 
Muttermund tritt/ explains Dr. Schodde's error. It is pos- 
sible that this error should be set down to an imperfect know- 
ledge of English, such as he displays in xxi. 3 where the 
words f tied together to it ' represent some stars as tied to a 
void ! whereas the literal translation is ' bound together in 
it'; or in xxv. 5 where he renders 'it will be planted 
towards the north ' instead of ' it will be transplanted to the 
north/ 

At other times Dr. Schodde confounds words that in the 
Ethiopic closely resemble each other, as in xxvii. 2 'here 
will be their judgment ' instead of ' here will be the place 
of their punishment'; in xxxii. 3 'of attractive beauty' 
instead of 'of goodly fragrance'; in lxxxix. 18 'abode' 
instead of 'assembly/ Again in lxxiii. 8 he comments 
rightly in the notes on the waxing moon, but his translation 
wrongly refers to the waning moon. On the other hand the 
notes on the astronomical Chs. are often misleading and 
unintelligible: cf. lxxii. 3, 35: lxxiv. 6; lxxv. 1. A more 
thorough study of Dln/s commentary would have saved him 
from such misconceptions. 

It will be sufficient to point to one or two more mistransla- 
tions in this book. 

xix. 1 * On the day when the great judgment . . . shall be 
consummated/ instead of ' on the day of the great judgment 
. . . till they are consummated/ 



General Introduction. 9 

lxxiv. 1 4 ' To the sum of these are added sixty-two days/ 
instead of ' an addition is made to the sixty-two days/ 

lxxvi. 10 'After these northerly winds from the seventh 
portal/ instead of f After these are the north winds : from the 
seventh portal/ &c. 

In the face of such a list as the above, and it is by no means 
exhaustive, it is hard to congratulate Dr. Schodde, and yet 
we are grateful to him for the good service he has rendered 
in introducing the knowledge of Enoch to the Western world. 

I should add that Dr. Schodde's analysis of Enoch is : — 

i. The groundwork i-xxxvi ; lxxii-cv, before the death of 
Judas Maccabee. 

ii. The Similitudes xxxvii-lxxi, between 37-4 b. c. 

iii. Noachic interpolations liv. 7-lv. 2 ; lx ; lxv-lxix. 25 ; 
cvi-cvii. 

He thinks it probable that xx ; lxx ; lxxv. 5 ; lxxxii. 9- 
20 ; xciii. 11-14 are also interpolations. 

§ 7. Critical Inquiries. 

I had intended to give a critical history of all the work 
done on Enoch since 1850, and had collected almost sufficient 
materials for that purpose, when I found that my space 
would not permit of such a large addition to the book. I shall 
therefore content myself with enumerating these inquiries and 
adding occasional notes. 

Lucke, Einleitung in die Offenharung des Johannes (2nd 
Ed. 1852), pp. 89-144 : 1071-1073. Lucke regards the 
book as consisting of two parts; the first embraces i-xxxv; 
lxxi-cv, written at the beginning of the Maccabaean revolt 
(p. 142), or according to his later view in the reign of J. 
Hyrcanus (p. 1072) ; the second consists of the Similitudes 
and was written in the early years of Herod the Great (p. 142). 
lix. 7-14 and lxiv-lxvii. 1 are interpolations of an uncertain 
date. In his first edition Lucke maintained the Christian 
authorship of the whole book. 

Hofmann (J. Chr. K.), 'Ueber die Entstehungszeit des 



io The Book of Enoch. 

Bucli Henoch {Zeitschr. D. 31. G. vi. 1852, pp. 87-91) ; Schrift- 
beweis (2nd Ed.), i. 420-23 ; Die heil. Schrift N.T/s zusam- 
menhdngend untersucht, vii. 2, p. 205 sqq. Hofmann regards 
Enoch as the work of a Christian writer of the second century 
a. d. His chief contribution to the understanding of Enoch is 
his correct interpretation of the seventy shepherds in lxxxix-xc. 

Dillmann. See above under editions ; also Zeitschr. 
D. 31. G. y 1 861, pp. 126-131. This is a criticism of Volkmar's 
theory. 

Jellinek, Zeitschr. D. M. G., 1853, p. 249. 

Gildemeister, Zeitschr. D. M. G. } 1855, pp. 621-624, gives 
the Greek fragment of Enoch from the Codex Vaticanus 
(Cod. Gr. 1809) and discusses the relative merits of the 
Greek and Ethiopic versions. 

Ewald, Abhandlung uber des athiopischen Bitches Henokh 
Enistehung, Sinn und Zusammensetzung ', 1855; History of 
Israel, v. 345-349 (transl. from the Germ.). It was the merit 
of Ewald first to discern that Enoch was composed of several 
originally independent books. It is, in fact, as he declares, 
f the precipitate of a literature once very active which revolved 
. . . round Enoch ' Hist. (v. 349). Though this view was at 
once assailed by Kostlin and nearly every other critic since, 
its truth can no longer be denied, and Holtzmann's declara- 
tion that ( the so-called groundwork (i. e. i-xxxvii ; lxxii-cv) 
is composed of a whole series of sections, some of Pharisaic 
and others of Essene origin' (Theol. Literaturzeitung, 1890, 
p. 497), is a notable sign of the return to Ewald's view. But 
though future criticism must confirm Ewald 's general judg- 
ment of the book, it will just as surely reject his detailed 
analysis of its parts. His scheme is — 

(1) Book I, xxxvii-lxxi (with the exception of certain in- 
terpolations), circ. 144 b. c. 

(2) Book II, i-xvi; lxxxi. 1-4 ; Ixxxiv; xci-cv, circ. 135 B.C. 

(3) Book III, xx-xxxvi; lxxii-xc ; cvi-cvii, circ. 128 b. c; 
cviii later. 



General Introduction. 1 1 

(4) Book IV, the Noah book. vi. 3-8 ; viii. 1-3 ; ix. 7 ; 
x. 1-3, 11, 22 b ; xvii-xix; liv. 7-lv. 2; lx. 1-10, 24, 25; 
lxiv-lxix. 16. Somewhat later than the former. 

(5) Finally the editing, compressing, and enlarging of the 
former books into one vol. 

Weisse, Die Evangelien-Frage, 1856, pp. 214-224. Weisse 
agrees with Hofmann and Philippi in maintaining a Christian 
authorship of the book, but his advocacy of this view springs 
from the dogmatic principle that the entire idea of Christianity 
was in its pure originality derived from the self-consciousness 
of Christ. 

Kostlin, ' Ueber die Entstehung des Buchs Henoch ' (Theol. 
Jahrb. s 1856, pp. 240-279; 370-386). Kostlin, as we have 
already remarked, contended against Ewald that the book of 
Enoch did not arise through the editing of independent works, 
but that by far the larger part of Enoch was the work of one 
author which through subsequent accretions became the 
present book. Though this view must be speedily abandoned, 
it must be confessed that the Articles in which it is advocated 
are masterly performances, and possess a permanent value for 
the student of Enoch. 

Hilgenfeld, Die judische Apokalyptik, 1857, pp. 91- 
1 84. This work like that of Kostlin is of lasting worth and 
indispensable in the study of Enoch. We cannot, however, 
say so much for the conclusions arrived at. Many of these 
are, in fact, demonstrably wrong. According to Hilgenfeld, 
the groundwork consists of i-xvi ; xx-xxxvi ; lxxii-cv written 
not later than 98 b. c. The later additions, i. e. xvii- 
xix ; xxxvii-lxxi ; cvi-cviii are the work of a Christian 
Gnostic about the time between Saturninus and Marcion. 
There are no Noachic interpolations. 

There is no occasion to enter on the, for the most part, 
barren polemic between Hilgenfeld and Volkmar on the inter- 
pretation and date of Enoch, to which we owe the following 
writings of Hilgenfeld : — f Die judische Apokalyptik und die 



1 2 The Book of Enoch. 

neuesten Forschungen ' (Zeitschr. f. wmenschaftl. TheoL, hi. 
i860, pp. 319-334 : ' Die Entstehungszeit des urspriinglichen 
Buchs Henoch' (Z. f. w. TheoL, iv. 1861, pp. 212-222): 
' Noch ein Wort iiber das Buch Henoch/ (Z.f. w. TheoL, v. 
1862, pp. 216-221). In Z.f. w. TheoL, xv. 1872, pp. 584-587, 
there is a rejoinder to Gebhardt (see below). 

Volkmar, 'Beitrage zur Erklarung des Buches Henoch/ 
(Zeitschr. D. M. G., xiv. i860, pp. 87-134, 296): 'Einige Bemer- 
kungen iiber Apokalyptik' (Zeitschr. f. w. TheoL, iv. 1861, 
pp. 111-136: f Ueber die katholischen Briefe und Henoch/ 
iv. 1 861, pp. 422-436; v. 1862, pp. 46-75. As Hilgenfeld 
reckoned the periods of the seventy shepherds at seven years 
each, starting from 588 B.C., and thus arrived at 98 B.C., 
Volkmar started from the same anterior limit and reckoned 
each period at ten years. He thus found the entire rule of 
the shepherds to last 700 years or, through certain refine- 
ments, peculiarly Volkmarian, 720 years, and so arrived at 
the year of Barcochab's rebellion 132 A. d. — a year which has 
exercised a strange fascination over him and has been fatal to 
his reputation as a critic. Thus Enoch was written 132 B. c. 
It was the work of a disciple of Akiba, and was designed to 
announce the final victory of Barcochab. Volkmar restated 
his theory in an essay : Eine Neutestamentliche Entdeckung, 
Zurich, 1862. His views have received more attention than 
they deserved through the rejoinders of Hilgenfeld, Dillmann, 
Langen, Sieffert, Gebhardt, Drummond, and Stanton. 

Geiger, Jildische Zeitschr. f. Wissensch. und Leben, 1864- 
&5> PP- 196-204. This article deals mainly with the calendar 
in Enoch. I have adopted one of his suggestions in x. 4. 

Langen, Das Judenthum in Paldstina, 1866, pp. 35-64. 
Langen regards Enoch as an early but highly composite work 
put together in its present form about 160 B.C. (pp. ^6, 64), 
and emanating from orthodox and patriotic Judaism as a 
protest against heathen religion and philosophy. 

Sieffert, De apocryphi libri Henochi origine et argumento, 



General Introdtiction. 13 

Regimonti, 1867. Sieffert (p. 3) takes the groundwork to be 
i-xvi ; xx-xxxvi ; lxxii-lxxxii ; xci-cv, written by a Chasid 
in the age of Simon the Maccabee (p. 11-13) : lxxxiii-xc is a 
later addition about the year 108 b. c., and xvii-xix ; xxxvii- 
lxxi; cvi-cviii are of Essene origin and composed before 64 
b. c. (pp. 27-29). 

Holtzmann, Geschichte des Volkes Israel, 1867, vol. ii, pp. 
201, 202. 

Hallevi, ' Recherches sur la langue de la redaction primitive 
du livre d'finoch' {Journal Asiatique, 1867, pp. 352-395). 
This most interesting essay proves beyond doubt that Enoch 
was originally written in Hebrew. Unhappily the writer has 
lost much time over passages which better MSS. show to be 
mere corruptions of the text. There are many errors in the 
Ethiopic part of this essay, but these are most likely due 
to the press. I have given the most probable of Hallevi^s 
suggestions in my Critical Notes, and have adopted several of 
them in my translation. 

Philippi, Das Buch Henoch, sein Zeitalter mid sein Ver- 
hdltniss zum Judasbriefe, Stuttg. 1868. This writer agrees 
with Hofmann, Weisse and Volkmar, in regarding the book 
as post-Christian. He thinks it was written in Greek by one 
author, a Christian, about 100 a. d. It is notable that all the 
four writers, who assign a post-Christian origin to the book, 
have done for dogmatic reasons. 

Wittichen, Die Idee des Menschen, 1868, pp. 63-71 ; Die 
Idee des Beiches Gottes, 1872, pp. 118-133, 145-150. 

These books I have not been able to see. 

Gebhardt, 'Die 70 Hirten des Buches Henoch und ihre 
Deutungen mit besonderer Riicksicht auf die Barkochba- 
Hypothese' (Merx' Archiv fiir wissenschafll. Erforschung des 
A. T. 1872, vol. ii. Heft ii. pp. 163-246). In this most trenchant 
criticism of the different explanations of chs. lxxxix-xc the 
writer carefully refrains from advancing any theory of his 
own. Nay more, he holds it impossible with our present 



14 The Book of Enoch. 

text to arrive at a true interpretation of the author's 
meaning. But this writer's despair of a true interpretation 
is overhasty and his condemnation of the text is unwar- 
rantable. 

Anger, Vorlesungen ilber die Geschichte der Messia?iischen 
Idee, 1873, pp. 83-84. 

Veenes, Histoire des ldees Messianiques, 1874, pp. 66-117 > 
264-271. These sections are composed mainly of a French 
translation of Dln/s German version. Vernes thinks that the 
earliest part of Enoch was written in Aramaic by a con- 
temporary of J. Hyrcanus ; and that the Similitudes spring 
from a Christian and Gnostic circle about the close of the 
first century a. d. (pp. 264 sqq.). 

Kuenen, Religion of Israel, 1 874-1 875, iii. 265, 266 (trans- 
lated from the Dutch Edition of 1869-70). 

Tideman, { De Apocalypse van Henoch et het Essenisme/ 
(T/ieol. Tijdschrift, 1875, pp. 261-296). Tideman regards the 
book as proceeding from different authors living at different 
periods. His analysis is as follows : — 

(1) The oldest book : i-xvi ; xx-xxxvi; lxxii-lxxxii ; xciii; 
xci. 12-19; xcii; xciv-cv from the hand of a Pharisee in the 
early times of the Maccabees 153-135 b. c. 

(2) The second book: lxxxiii-xci. 10 from an Essene writer 
who added it to the older book 134-106 B. c. 

(3) The Apocalypse of Noah : xvii-xix ; xli. 3-9 ; xliii. 1, 
2 ; xliv ; liv. 7-lv. 2 ; lix-lx ; lxv-lxix. 25 ; lxx ; cvi-cvii, 
from au author versed in Jewish Gnosticism 80 a. d. 

(4) The Similitudes (with the exception of the Noachic in- 
terpolations) written by a Christian in the days of Domitian 
or Trajan when the Christians were persecuted and the Romans 
were at war with the Parthians 90-100 A. D. 

(5) Ch. cviii by the final editor of the book, a Christian 
Gnostic of the type of Saturninus, 125 a. d. 

Christian interpolations are found in xc. 38 ; cv. 
Tideman thinks that we have in the Similitudes a combina- 



General Introduction. 15 

tion of the thought that the Messiah is to be a man in the 
clouds (Daniel), and of the doctrine that he was to proceed 
from the community. En. xc. $j, 38. 

Drummond, The Jewish Messiah, 1877, pp. 17-73. Drum- 
mond gives a concise and able review of the work of former 
critics on Enoch. He rightly approves and further enforces 
Hof mann's interpretation of the seventy shepherds as angels. 
He agrees with the limits assigned by Tideman to the oldest 
book in Enoch ; but concludes, against Hilgenfeld and Tide- 
man, that the Similitudes could not entirely be the work of a 
Christian ; for if they were such, there would undoubtedly 
have been some reference to the crucified and risen Christ such 
as we find in Test. xii. Patriarch. Levi, 4. The difficulties of 
the case are met, he believes, by supposing that a Christian 
Apocalypse has been worked into the tissue of an earlier 
Jewish production, and that all the Messiah passages are due 
to the former. His chief arguments are : (i) the title ' son of 
a woman 3 could not have been applied by a pre-Christian Jew 
to a supernatural Messiah ; (ii) a consistent text is possible by 
an omission of the Messiah passages, a text also which answers 
to the title placed at the beginning of each Similitude ; (iii) 
the closing ch. lxxi confirms this view where in the descrip- 
tion of a Theophany there is no mention of the Messiah and 
the title f Son of Man' is applied to Enoch; (iv) the Book 
of Jubilees though using Enoch extensively does not cite the 
Messiah passages. 

This theory is as untenable as that of Hilgenfeld and 
Tideman. As for (i) the title in question is not found in the 
oldest MS.; (ii) in itself will have no weight if we bear in 
mind the want of logical sequence and the frequent re- 
dundancy characteristic of Semitic writings generally and of 
Jewish apocalypses in particular. Moreover in no instance 
that I am aware of does any superscription in Enoch give 
an exact account of the Chs. it introduces, (iii) This argument 
not only fails to testify against the genuineness of the 
Messiah passages but also furnishes one of the strongest 



1 6 The Book of Enoch. 

proofs of their being original constituents of the text. It is 
first to be observed that lxxi must be regarded as an inter- 
polation on quite other grounds (see notes in loc.). In the next 
place what significance are we to attach to the appearance of 
the title ' The Son of Man ' in the interpolations and as 
applied there to Enoch, lx. 10 ; lxxi. 14 ? We can only under- 
stand this by studying the method of the interpolator. In 
the Noachic interpolations we find that the interpolator seeks 
to adapt his additions to their new contexts by incorporating 
technical terms from these contexts. Thus the following 
technical terms and phrases among others are taken over into 
his interpolations ; ' Lord of Spirits/ see xxxvii. 2 (note) ; 
f Head of Days/ xlvi. 1 (note) ; ' Angels of Punishment/ 
lvi. 1 (note); 'Those who dwell on the Earth/ xxxvii. 5 
(note); but either through ignorance or of set purpose the 
technical phrases are misused. At the same time the pre- 
sence of many such misused technical terms in the inter- 
polation over against the technical terms in their adjoining 
contexts is demonstrative evidence as to the genuineness of 
the latter. Every copy or caricature presupposes an original. 
And this is exactly what we find in connexion with the title, 
' The Son of Man.' It is found repeatedly throughout the 
Similitudes in the technical sense of a supernatural Messiah 
and Judge of the World, and accordingly it would be sur- 
prising in the extreme if it escaped the fate of the other 
technical designations. But the interpolator has not dis- 
appointed us ; the inevitable ' caricature ' appears in lx. 10 
and lxxi. 14, and therein we have the best evidence we could 
desire for the genuineness of the technical designation in the 
Similitudes. 

The Similitudes, therefore, are neither of Christian author- 
ship as Hilgenfeld supposes nor of Jewish authorship worked 
over by a Christian. All evidence internal and external will, 
as we shall see presently, prove not only that they are Jewish 
but also pre-Christian, (iv) It would be most unreasonable 
to expect the Book of Jubilees to quote or refer to the Messiah 



General Introduction. 1 7 

passages, seeing that throughout it there is not even the 
faintest allusion to a Messiah. 

Hauseath, Neutestamentliche Zeitgeschichte, Erster Theil, 
3rd ed., 1879, pp. 185-189; 191-193. The oldest book, 
i-xxxvi; lxxii-cv, is referred to the time of J. Hyrcanus. 
The Similitudes, with the exception of the Noachie inter- 
polations, were probably composed in the reign of Herod the 
Great. Hausrath thinks that the Messiah-passages may have 
won somewhat of a Christian colouring in the process of 
translation from Hebrew to Greek and Greek to Ethiopic 
by Christian hands. 

Lipsius, art. ( Enoch ' in Smith and Wace's Dictionary of 
Christian Biography, vol. ii. 1880, pp. 124-128. (i) The oldest 
book dealt with celestial physics, xvii-xix ; xxi-xxxvi ; lxxii- 
lxxix; lxxxii, in which Enoch appears as a teacher of such 
higher wisdom. This however is an unhappy synthesis; for the 
demonic doctrine of xvii-xix connects it peculiarly with the 
Noachie interpolations, while its Greek colouring as strongly 
disconnects it with the ultra- Jewish lxxii-lxxix; lxxxii. (2) 
In the second book i-xvi; lxxx-lxxxi; lxxxiii-cv which 
never existed independently but only as an expansion of the 
former, Enoch is represented as a preacher of righteousness. 
This book belongs to the reign of J. Hyrcanus. (3) The 
Similitudes written under the later Maccabeans or the Herods. 
(4) Noachie interpolations liv. 7-lv. 2 ; lx. 7-25 ; lxv-lxviii. 
I and probably x. 1-3; 22 b ; xli. 2-9; xliii-xliv; lix; lxix. 
2, 3 ; cvi-cvii. Other interpolations and additions xx ; cviii. 

This article forms a valuable contribution to the criticism 
of Enoch, and I welcome it all the more gladly as I arrived 
at many of its results before I was acquainted with it. 

Westcott, Introduction to the Study of the Gospels, 1881, 
6th ed., pp. 99-109; Gospel of St. John, 1882, p. 34. In 
the former work this writer recognises the probability of the 
different sections of the book as proceeding from different 
authors, yet he essays the impossible task of moulding their 

c 



1 8 The Book of Enoch. 

conflicting features into one consistent whole. In the latter 
work Dr. Westcott asserts that the title in Enoch is i A Son 
of Man'; but wrongly; for it is as definitely ' The Son of 
Man ' as the language and sense can make it. The being so 
named, further, is superhuman, and not merely human as 
Dr. Westcott states. 

Schodde. See above (pp. y-S). 

Wieselee, 'Ueber die Form des judischen Jahres urn die 
Zeit Jesu ' (Beitrdge zur richtigen Wurdigimg der Evangelien, 
1 869). We have here an interesting and valuable discussion 
of the Calendar in Enoch. 

'Zur Abfassungszeit des Buchs Henoch' (Zeitschr. D.M.G., 
1882, pp. 185-193). Wieseler assigns the Similitudes no less 
than the rest of the book to the reign of J. Hyrcanus. 

Schurer, A History of the Jewish People in the Time of 
Jesus Christ (translated from the second and Revised Ed. of 
the German), vol. iii. div. ii. pp. 54~73> l886 - Tnis is a 
most judicious statement of the results already attained by 
criticism. In accordance with these Schiirer divides the 
book into three parts: (1) 'the original writing' i-xxxvi; 
lxxii-cv, written in the reign of J. Hyrcanus ; (2) the Simi- 
litudes written in the time of Herod the Great ; (3) the 
Noachian Fragments, liv. 7-lv. 2; lx; lxv-lxix. 25, and 
probably cvi-cvii. cviii is a later addition. He is careful, 
however, to remind us that the ' original writing is composed 
of very heterogeneous elements/ While he rightly dismisses 
as idle all attempts to introduce chronological exactness into 
the interpretation of the seventy Shepherds, he thinks there 
can be no doubt as to where the different periods are intended 
to begin and end. It was Schiirer who was the first to 
recognise the validity of Hoffmann's interpretation of the 
Shepherds and to give it currency. This article concludes 
with a very full list of patristic passages referring to Enoch 
and with an excellent bibliography of the literature. 

Stanton, The Jewish and the Christian Messiah, 1886, pp. 



General Introduction. 19 

44-64, 139-140, 142, i53> 170-175, ^86, 305, 311-315, 332, 
335, 347- 

The analysis of the book given in Schiirer is adopted also 
here. Dr. Stanton agrees likewise with the generality of 
critics in assigning the first part, i.e. i-xxxvi; lxxii-cv, to 
the reign of J. Hyrcanus. The Similitudes must, he thinks, 
be ascribed to a Jewish Christian or to a Jew influenced by 
Christian ideas. The fragments of a lost Apocalypse of Noah 
are probably xxxix. 1, 2 a ; liv. 7-lv. 2; lx ; lxv-lxix. 25. It 
is to be hoped that the author of this admirable book will 
add to our indebtedness, and give to the book of Enoch the 
fuller and profounder treatment it deserves. 

Reuss, Gesch. der heil. Schrtften A. T.'s §§ 498-500. 

Holtzmann, Einleitung in das N. 1\, 1886, 109, no. 

Pfleiderer, Has Urchristenthum, 1887, pp. 310-318. This 
writer accepts the traditional view with regard to the ground- 
work, and approves of Drummond's theory as to the origin of 
the Messiah-passages in the Similitudes. This theory he 
seeks further to substantiate, but without success. 

Baldensperger, Das Selbstbewusstsein Jesu, 1888, pp. 7-16. 
This writer assents to the traditional view and date of the 
ground-work. The Similitudes he assigns to the years im- 
mediately following on the death of Herod the Great. He 
believes there are many references to the Romans in the 
Similitudes, and that Augustus and Herod are designed 
under the phrase c the kings and the mighty.' 

Salmon, Introduction to the N. T., 4th ed., 1889, pp. 527, 
528. 

Peter, Le Livre d? Henoch. Ses Idees Messianiques et son 
Eschatologie, Geneve, 1890. This is an interesting little 
treatise, but by no means free from blemishes. The Simili- 
tudes are pre-Christian, and the traditional view and date of 
the ground-work are here reproduced. 

Deane, The Pseudepigrajoha, 1891, pp. 49-94. This is a 

c 2 



20 The Book of Enoch. 

p raise worthy attempt to popularise a knowledge of these 
works. The writer assigns the traditional ground-work to 
the years 153-130 B.C., and regards the Similitudes as written 
a few years later. Many of this writer's statements on the 
theology and influence of Enoch are to be taken with extreme 
caution. 

Thomson, Books that 'influenced our Lord and His Apostles, 
1 891, pp. 95, 103, 108, 225-248, 389-411. Mr. Thomson's 
analysis is as follows : — 

(1) Book of the Similitudes and the Book of the Weeks, 
xxxvii-lxxi; xci. 12-xcix, written about the year 210 B.C. 

(2) Noachic Fragments, lx; lxv-lxix. 24. 

(3) Book of the Fall of the Angels and of the Luminaries, 
i-xxxvi; lxxii-xci. 11 ; c-cvii, written not later than 160 B.C. 

(4) cviii. Mr. Thomson's chief ground for regarding 
xxxvii-lxxi as the oldest section is derived from the presence 
of the Noachic interpolations. As he believes that these 
interpolations are confined to this section, he infers that 
xxxvii-lxxi is therefore the oldest and that i-xxxvi ; lxxii-xci 
were not yet in existence. Even if Mr. Thomson were right 
in his facts, quite another conclusion would be possible. But 
this writer's premises are without foundation. Interpolations 
are found in every section in Enoch and numerously in the 
sections which Mr. Thomson regards as free from them. It 
cannot be said that this book contributes much to the better 
interpretation of Enoch, and this is all the more to be deplored 
as its author obviously possesses abundant ability for the task. 

Cheyne, Origin of the Psalter, 1891, pp. 22, 375, 412- 
414, 423-424, 448-449, and about fifty references besides. 
' Possible Zoroastrian Influences on the Religion of Israel/ 
Expository Times, 1891, p. 207. Dr. Cheyne accepts pro- 
visionally the traditional division of Enoch into the ground- 
work, Similitudes and Noachic fragments, and regards the 
Similitudes as pre-Christian. He deals mainly with the 
dogmatic teaching of the book and its place in the develop- 



General Introduction. 21 

merit of Jewish religious thought, and points to the Essene 
and Zoroastrian elements which have found a place in it. 

De Faye, Les apocalypses juives, Paris, 1892, pp. 28-33, 
305-216. 

§ 8. From a Hebrew Original through the Medium 
of a Greek Translation. 

Laurence and Hoffmann believed on various grounds that 
the original was written in Hebrew. Jellinek (Zeitschr. 
D.M.G., 1853, p. 249) argues for the same conclusion from 
Hebrew fragments of Enoch which are preserved in various 
Jewish writings. Din. (Buck Henoch, Einleit. li-liii) holds the 
same view and urges in support of it the accurate knowledge 
shown by the book of the localities round Jerusalem, the 
intimate acquaintance of its writers with the Old Testament, 
and that not through the medium of the LXX but directly 
with the Hebrew, the frequent etymologies resting only on a 
Hebrew basis and the Hebraistic style, which is so all per- 
vading that there is not a single expression in the book which 
does not readily admit of retranslation into Hebrew. 

The evidence furnished by Din. is quite sufficient to esta- 
blish a Hebrew original. And his conclusion has been further 
and finally confirmed by Hallevi. This scholar. has retrans- 
lated the entire book into Hebrew, and in the Journal Asiatique, 
Avril-Mai, 1867, pp. 352-395, has proved his thesis to demon- 
stration. There is much that is far-fetched and more 
ingenious than true in this able article, yet none the less 
its author has established his contention. As proofs of a 
Hebrew original he adduces (1) frequent paronomastic expres- 
sions possible only in Hebrew (see Crit. Note on vi. 6) ; (2) 
Hebrew etymologies of proper names; (3) unintelligible 
expressions rendered clear by reproduction in Hebrew. 

This Hebrew original was first translated into Greek. 
Portions of this translation still exist (see pp. 62-75, 83-85). 
It was from this Greek translation that the Ethiopic version 



22 The Book of Enoch. 

was made. Ethiopia did not exist as a literary language before 
350 (see Noldeke ' Semitic Languages/ Encyc. Brit., 9th ed., 
vol. xxi. 654). The translation of the Bible into Ethiopic 
was made between 350 and 600, and it is probable that the 
book of Enoch was not made much earlier than the later 
date. 

The Place of Composition. — There is no room for doubt 
as to the Palestinian origin of the book. The various authors 
are at home in Palestine and accurately acquainted with the 
various localities close to Jerusalem, the valleys, brooks, and 
other natural features in its immediate neighbourhood. To 
them further Jerusalem is the city of the elect, the centre of 
the coming Messianic kingdom, and Gehenna is the destined 
habitation of the apostate. Greek elements have no doubt 
found an entrance in certain fragments of the book, but as a 
rule there is a deliberate and sustained opposition rendered 
to all Hellenistic ideas and influences. The whole tone and 
exegesis of the book are Palestinian in character. 



§ 9. The Object of Apocalyptic Literature. 

The object of Apocalyptic literature in general was to solve 
the difficulties connected with the righteousness of God and 
the suffering condition of his righteous servants on earth. 
The righteousness of God postulated according to the Law 
the temporal prosperity of the righteous, and postulated this 
temporal prosperity of necessity; for as yet there was no 
promise of life or recompense beyond the grave. But in the 
experience of God's servants this connexion of righteousness 
and temporal reward was so often found to fail that the 
Psalmists at times go so far as to complain that the best 
things of this life are bestowed on the wicked. The difficul- 
ties thus arising from this conflict between promise and 
experience might be shortly resolved into two, which deal 
respectively with the position of the righteous as a com- 
munity, and the position of the righteous man as an in- 



General Introduction. 23 

dividual. The Old Testament prophets had concerned them- 
selves chiefly with the former and pointed in the main to the 
restoration of Israel as a nation and to Israel's ultimate 
possession of the earth as a reward of their righteousness. 
But later with the growing claims of the individual, and the 
acknowledgment of these in the religious and intellectual life, 
the latter problem pressed itself irresistibly on the notice of 
religious thinkers, and made it impossible for any conception 
of the divine rule and righteousness to gain acceptance, which 
did not render adequate satisfaction to the claims of the 
righteous individual. It was to this difficulty in particular 
that Apocalyptic addressed itself, though it did not ignore 
the former. It strove to show that alike in respect of the 
nation and of the individual the righteousness of God would 
be fully vindicated. In order to justify their contention 
Apocalyptic writers sketched in outline the history of the 
world and of mankind, the origin of evil and its course, and 
the final consummation of all things, and thus in fact 
presented a Semitic philosophy of religion. The righteous 
as a nation should yet possess the earth : even in this world 
the faithful community should attain to all its rights either 
in an eternal or in a temporary Messianic kingdom. So Apoca- 
lyptic taught universally and thus enforced the teaching of 
prophecy. As for the destiny of the individual, and here lay 
the chief interest and service of Apocalyptic, this was finally 
to be determined according to his works. For though the 
righteous individual might perish amid the disorders of the 
world, his death could not fall out without God's knowledge, 
and though cut off here apparently as a sinner, he would not 
fail to attain through the resurrection the recompense that 
was his due in the Messianic kingdom or in heaven itself. 
The conceptions as to this risen life, its duration and character, 
vary with each writer. 

With this short introduction we will now proceed to con- 
sider the different writings in this book, their respective 
characteristics and dates, and the various accounts they offer 



24 The Book of Enoch. 

of the future lot of the righteous community and of the 
righteous individual. 



§ 10. The different Elements in the Book of Enoch, 

WITH THEIR RESPECTIVE CHARACTERISTICS AND DATES. 

The book of Enoch is a fragmentary survival of an entire 
literature that once circulated under his name. To this fact 
the plurality of books assigned to Enoch from the first may 
in some degree point : as for instance the expression ' books ' 
in civ. 12 : Book of Jubilees iv; vii; Test. XII. Patriarch. Jud. 
18; Origen c. Celsum v. 54; in Num. Homil. xxviii. 2 (Ed. 
Lommatsch); Aug. Be Civ. Dei xv. 23; and G. Syncellus, 
p. 20 (Ed. Dindorf.) 'the first book/ 

This presumption becomes a matter of demonstration on 
the following grounds. The references to Enoch's writings in 
the Book of Jubilees and in the Test. XII. Patriarch, cannot 
in many instances be traced to the existing book of Enoch. 
The last passage attributed by Syncellus to Enoch has no 
corresponding part in the Ethiopic. Portions of the Ethiopic 
version are manifestly lost, as, for instance, the close of the 
first Similitude. And finally two Slavonic MSS. have been 
recently published in Russia which belong to this literature 
and yet differ from the Ethiopic Enoch throughout in diction 
and matter. 

This preliminary conclusion is finally confirmed on internal 
grounds. All critics are agreed in ascribing the Similitudes 
xxxvii-lxxi to a different authorship from the rest. For the 
main grounds for this conclusion see pp. 106-107. Criticism 
is further agreed as to the presence of a large body of inter- 
polations. But the interpolations are far more numerous than 
has hitherto been observed, and the discrimination and due 
appreciation of these are indispensable to the understanding 
of the book. They are found throughout the book, and are 
as follows : — 



General Introduction. 25 

vi. 3-8; viii. 1-3; ix. 7; x. 1-3, 11; xvii-xx. See notes 

in loc. 
xxxix. i, 2 a ; xli. 3-8; xliii-xliv; liv. 7-lv. 2 ; lvi. 5— lvii. 3 a ; 

lix-lx; lxv-lxix. 25. See notes on liv. 7. 
1. See notes in loc. 
lxxi. See notes in loc. 
lxxx-lxxxi. See notes in loc. 
xc. 15; xci. II j xciii. 11-14; xcvi. 2; cv-cvii. See notes 

in loc. 

The bulk of these belong to a lost Apocalypse of Noah 
(mentioned in the Book of Jubilees x ; xxi), i. e. vi. 3-8 ; viii. 
1-3; ix. 7; x. 1-3, 11 ; xvii-xx; xxxix. I, 2 a ; xli. 3-8; 
xliii-xliv; liv. 7-lv. 2; lix-lx; lxv-lxix. 25; evi-cvii. We 
might refer L, lvi. 5— lvii. 3 a ; lxxi; lxxx-lxxxi; xciii. 11-14 
to the same source, but only indirectly in their present form, 
as they appear to be of the nature of a mosaic. We can 
hardly be wrong in ascribing them largely to the authorship 
of the editor who brought all the writings into one whole, 
cv may be due to the same editor, cviii is undoubtedly a 
later addition. 

Disregarding the closing chapter we find that there are 
thus three distinct elements in the book : — 

(a) The so-called ground- work i-xxxvi ; lxxii-civ. 

(/3) The Similitudes xxxvii — lxx. 

(y) The Noachian and other interpolations, as given above. 

The question now arises : are we justified in regarding 
i-xxxvi, lxxii-civ as proceeding from the same author? This 
question is discussed at length in the Special Introductions 
to sections i-xxxvi ; lxxii-lxxxii ; lxxxiii-xc ; and xci-civ, 
and it is there shown that these four sections are distinct 
writings as to authorship, system of thought, and date. We 
will not resume here the grounds for this conclusion, but will 
sketch briefly the various independent writings contained in 
the book of Enoch, with their respective characteristics and 
dates. 

Part I, consisting of chs. i-xxxvi, written at latest before 



26 The Book of Enoch. 

170 B.C. and mainly from the prophetic standpoint of such 
chs. as Is. lxv-lxvi. This is, undoubtedly, the oldest part of 
the book, being anterior to lxxii-lxxxii; lxxxiii-xc; and xci-civ 
(see Special Introductions). It is laid under contribution by 
the authors of these sections. As lxxxiii-xc was written not 
later than 161 B.C. i-xxxvi must be some years earlier, and 
further, as there is not the faintest allusion to the persecutions 
and massacres of Antiochus Epiphanes, we are probably safe 
in fixing on 170 b. c. as the latest limit possible for its com- 
position. This book i.e. i-xxxvi is noteworthy as being most 
probably the first to mention the resurrection of the righteous 
and the wicked : to describe Sheol according to the concep- 
tion accepted later in the New Testament as opposed to that 
of the Old Testament : and to represent Gehenna as a final 
place of punishment. In other respects the writer of i-xxxvi 
has not advanced much beyond the Old Testament prophetic 
view of the Messianic kingdom. This kingdom, he holds, is 
to be ushered in by the resurrection of the righteous and the 
wicked (with the exception of one class of the latter) followed 
immediately by the final judgment. The wicked angels, 
demons, and men were to be punished according to their 
deserts, and the righteous to become members of the eternal 
Messianic kingdom. The scene of the kingdom was to be 
the earth purged from all violence and sin. Peace, and hap- 
piness, and prosperity were to prevail everywhere. Sin should 
never again appear on the earth, and after a life crowned with 
all good things, and blessed with patriarchal years and num- 
berless offspring, the righteous were at length to die in peace, 
as in Is. lxv-lxvi. 

It is manifest here that the writer apprehended neither the 
thought of the immortality of the soul, which was pressing 
itself on the notice of Judaism from the side of the Greek, 
nor the doctrine of the resurrection of the righteous to an 
eternal blessedness which was seeking recognition from the 
side of Zoroastrianism. 

Part II, consisting of lxxxiii-xc, written between 166-16 1 



General Introduction. 27 

b C, and mainly from the same standpoint as Daniel. The 
grounds for discriminating this section from the rest are given 
at length in the Special Introductions to those sections. 
We find there that the writer of lxxxiii-xc has made 
use of i-xxxvi. He is moreover of an ascetic turn of 
mind. These visions came to him before he was married, 
the implication being that he has no such supernatural ex- 
periences after marriage. But as visions are inferior to actual 
waking intercourse with the angels, such as Enoch enjoyed 
in i-xxxvi, it is clear even on this single ground that these 
two parts are from different authors. 

The writer of lxxxiii-xc has advanced considerably beyond 
the naive and sensuous views of the kingdom presented in 
i-xxxvi. His conceptions are more spiritual. He writes a few 
years later than the last chapters of Daniel, and like the latter 
has risen to the conception of an everlasting blessedness. He 
may be indebted to this writer for the fourfold division of 
the seventy angel reigns among the four great world powers 
to which, in succession, Israel was subject, and the phrase 
'glorious land - ' (lxxxix. 40, cf. Dan. xi. 16, 41) may be 
drawn from the same source. His eschatological views are 
developed at greater length than those of Daniel, but he 
follows in some respects prophetic rather than apocalyptic 
ideas. In Daniel the final crisis is sudden and unmediated, 
but in lxxxiii-xc it is ushered in through the warlike efforts 
of the Chasids led by Judas Maccabaeus. In this strife the 
heathen enemies of Israel are destroyed. Then ensue the 
judgment and condemnation of the fallen watchers, the faith- 
less angel shepherds, and the apostate Jews. 

The judgment appears to be followed by the resurrection of 
righteous Israelites only : if this is so, then this book diverges 
from the teaching of Daniel xii. 1, 2 and the earlier book of 
Enoch i-xxxvi. The righteous Jews are all assembled in the 
New Jerusalem established by God Himself, and their ranks 
are swelled by those Gentiles who had hitherto been neutral, 
but are now converted to the worship of Israel's God. At 



28 The Book of Enoch. 

the close of all appears the Messiah. This is the earliest 
reference to the Messiah in non-canonical literature. But he 
has no role to play : he has not as yet vindicated for himself 
a real place in the Apocalyptic doctrine of the last things. 

This Messianic kingdom lasts on earth for ever, and its 
members enjoy everlasting blessedness. 

Part III, consisting of xci-civ, and written between 134- 
94 b. c, or possibly 104-94 b. c. For a detailed criticism of this 
writing and its relations see Special Introduction to this part. 

As we pass from lxxxiii-xc to xci-civ we feel we are 
entering into a world of new conceptions. In all previous 
Apocalyptic writings, the resurrection and the final judgment 
have been the prelude to an everlasting Messianic kingdom j 
but here we encounter quite a new schema of the last things. 
These great events are relegated to the close of the Messianic 
kingdom, and not till then in fact do the righteous enter 
on their reward. In this writer we have a fusion of pro- 
phetic and apocalyptic ideas, but a fusion which, without 
doing actual violence to either, gives expression to both in a 
profounder and more comprehensive system. As we see in 
such Apocalyptic writings as the Apocalypse of Baruch, 
iv Ezra and Revelation, that an adequate fulfilment is given 
to the promise that the righteous should inherit the earth 
through the establishment of a temporary Messianic kingdom: 
so in xci-civ the Messianic kingdom, in which the righteous 
possess the earth in peace, lasts from the eighth to the close 
of the tenth week. In this kingdom no place is found for a 
personal Messiah : the righteous, with God's help, vindicate 
their just cause and destroy their oppressors. On the close 
of this kingdom follow the final judgment and the risen 
spiritual life of blessedness in a new heaven. From such a 
view of the future it is obvious that for the writer the centre 
of interest has passed from the material world to the spiritual, 
and the Messianic kingdom is no longer the goal of the hopes 
of the righteous. Their faith finds its satisfaction only in a 
blessed immortality in heaven itself. The righteous, it is 



General Introduction. 29 

true,, who are living on the advent of the Messianic kingdom 
will indeed be recompensed with all good things, but the 
departed righteous will not rise thereto, but will find their 
reward in the everlasting spiritual bliss that is the inheritance 
of all the faithful after the final judgment. In the meantime 
they are at rest, guarded as the apple of an eye by the angels 
of God, and will in due time, on the close of the Messianic 
kingdom, attain to the resurrection. This resurrection of the 
righteous appears not to be of the body but of the soul only, 
as we find in a later book, the Psalms of Solomon, or in the 
still later Book of Jubilees. As for the wicked they will 
descend into the pain of Sheol and abide there everlastingly. 
Here Sheol appears as Hell for possibly the first time. 

The writer of this section lived towards the close of the 
second century b. c. He was a Pharisee strongly opposed 
to all hellenizing tendencies, but apparently influenced by 
kindred Zoroastrian ideas. His chief denunciations are 
directed against the Sadducees. These oppress the righteous, 
and the rulers who are in league with them connive at their 
oppression. The persecution which the righteous undergo is 
severe, but far removed from the murderous oppression of 
which they were the victims from 95 b. c. onwards. We 
may therefore regard this book as written before that date, 
and after the breach between J. Hyrcanus and the Pharisees, 
i. e. between 134 and 95 b. c. ; or if we may take c. 2 to be 
an allusion to Aristobulus' murder of his brother, between 
104-95 b. c. 

Part IV. — The Similitudes, consisting of xxxvii-lxx and 
written between 94-79 B. c. or 70-64 b. c. For full account 
see pp. 306-109. 

The Similitudes introduce us to the events and aspirations 
of a time not far removed in years from the period we have 
just been considering but very remote in character. The 
sufferings of the righteous mourned over in xci-civ are of 
slight consequence compared with their afflictions of this 
later date. Their plaint is no longer now of the greed and 



30 The Book of Enoch. 

avarice of the rich ; of their superstitions and idolatries, their 
hellenistic tendencies and apostasies. For their grief they 
have now graver and more abundant reason. Their blood is 
now crying to heaven for vengeance. Their foes, moreover, 
are not as in xci-civ the Sadducees secretly backed by the 
rulers of the nation, but the rulers themselves are now their 
foremost and declared oppressors, and take the chief part in 
their destruction. These rulers are the Maccabean princes, 
and not the Herods ; for as yet there is no reference to Rome, 
though we know that Rome interposed authoritatively in the 
affairs of Palestine about 64 b. c. The widespread influence 
of the book on the writers of the New Testament (see pp. 
41-53) witnesses in the same direction, and is inexplicable on 
any date subsequent to the time of the Maccabees. The date 
of the Similitudes therefore must be later than 95 and before 
64 b. c, or more precisely between 95-80 b. c. or 70-64 b. c. 
For the fuller treatment of this subject see pp. 107-108, and 
the notes referred to there. 

The varying relations in which the Maccabees stand to the 
Chasid or Pharisaic party are faithfully reflected in the books 
of Enoch. In lxxxiii-xc the Maccabees are the leaders of the 
righteous, and their efforts form the prelude to the Messianic 
kingdom. In xci-civ they are no longer regarded as the 
chiefs and friends of the Chasids, and yet they have not 
become their open foes. They are, however, the secret 
abettors of their Sadducean oppressors. But when we turn 
to the Similitudes the scene is wholly changed. The Mac- 
cabeans are now the open and declared enemies of the 
Pharisees and add to their other guilt the slaying of the 
righteous. 

It is still more instructive to observe the conceptions 
regarding the Messiah to which the writers of these books 
were led by the events of their times. In lxxxiii-xc we have 
the Messiah coming forth from the bosom of the community. 
He is a man only, but yet a glorified man and superior to the 
community from which he springs. So far as he is a man 



General Introduction. 31 

only, he may be regarded as the prophetic Messiah as opposed 
to the Apocalyptic Messiah of the Similitudes: and yet he is not 
truly the prophetic Messiah ; for he has absolutely no function 
to perform, and he does not appear till the world's history is 
finally closed. Accordingly his presence here must be ac- 
counted for purely through literary reminiscence, and the hope 
of the Messiah must be regarded as practically dead at this 
period. The writer felt no need of such a personality so 
long as the nation had such a chief as Judas Maccabaeus. 
It was very different fifty years or more later, when the 
fondest enthusiasts could no longer look to the Asmonaeans 
for any help or stay in the time of their distress. Accord- 
ingly the writer of xci-civ refers only once to the recreant 
chiefs of the nation as secret upholders of the enemies of the 
righteous, and directs the thoughts of his readers no longer 
to a religious monarchy but to a religious commonwealth or 
restored theocracy established by the righteous themselves, 
and owning no head but God alone. This Messianic kingdom, 
further, which was without a Messiah, was to have only a 
temporary continuance, and heaven was to be the true and 
final abode of the righteous. Once more, as we turn to a 
somewhat later book, we find in the Similitudes that the 
irremediable degradation and open hostility of the Maccabees 
have caused the hopes and aspirations of religious thinkers to 
take various directions. Of these some returned to a fresh 
study of the Old Testament, and revived, as in the Psalms of 
Solomon, the expectation of a prophetic Messiah, sprung from 
the house and lineage of David. Others followed the bold 
and original thinker of this period, who, starting from a 
suggestive phrase in Daniel, conceived the Messiah as the 
supernatural Son of Man, who, possessing divine preroga- 
tives, should destroy the wicked, and justify the righteous, 
and vindicate a transformed heaven and earth as their habita- 
tion for everlasting. For a full account of the Messiah of the 
Similitudes we must refer the reader to the notes on xlvi. 3, 
and xxxviii. 2. 



3 2 The Book of Enoch. 

The teaching of the Similitudes stands throughout in clear 
contrast to that of xci-civ. Whilst in the latter there is no 
Messiah, in the former the conception of the Messiah plays a 
more important role than had ever yet been assigned to him. 
In the former, again, there seems to be only a resurrection of 
the righteous ; in the latter a resurrection of all Israelites. 
In the former the Messianic kingdom was only temporary j 
in the latter it was of everlasting continuance. In the former 
the final judgment was held at the close of the Messianic 
kingdom; in the latter at its beginning. In the former 
there was a resurrection of the spirit only, in the latter of the 
body also. 

Part V. — The Book of Celestial Physics consisting of 
lxxii-lxxviii ; lxxxii ; lxxix. There are no materials at hand 
for fixing the date of this section. In the Special Intro- 
duction to this part we have shown at some length that it is 
an independent writing, and distinct originally from all the 
other constituents of the book. A close examination of this 
section leads manifestly to the excision of lxxx-lxxxi, and to 
the restoration of lxxxii to its original position before lxxix. 
The object of the writer is a quasi-scientific one. His aim is 
to justify the Hebrew calendar against the heathen calendars, 
and particularly the Greek, and to insist on the value of the 
moon as an infallible divider of time till the new Creation. 
The only blessing pronounced by him is for those who sin not 
as the sinners in the reckoning of their days (lxxxii. 4). The 
interpolator of lxxx-lxxxi was a man of quite a different 
type. His sympathies were wholly moral and religious. 
There is an order of nature, it is true, but this order is con- 
tinually thrown into disorder by the sin of men, and the 
moon thus becomes a misleader of men (lxxx. 4). Accord- 
ingly we are not surprised to find that the blessing pronounced 
by this writer is on the man against whom there is no 
record of unrighteousness (lxxxi. 4). 

Part. VI. — The Noachian and other interpolations. These 
have been enumerated above (p. 25). So far as we may 



General Introduction. 33 

trust to internal evidence, it would appear that nearly all 
these interpolations were added by the editor who put the 
different books together, and sought by means of his additions 
from an existing Apocalypse of Noah, and possibly from 
elsewhere, to give a complete account* of the different great 
world judgments. When this editing took place we cannot 
determine definitely, but we may with safety conclude that 
it was before the beginning of the Christian era. The con- 
tents of these interpolations — which deal with a vast variety 
of subjects, such as the books of Noah, the deluge, the evil 
wrought by the Satans and the fallen angels, the secrets of 
celestial phenomena, and other cabbalistic lore — do not admit 
of being shortly summarised. 



§ XI. The Influence of Enoch on Jewish and Patristic 
Literature and on the New Testament in Phraseo- 
logy, Ideas, and Doctrine. 

The book of Enoch exercised a very important influence on 
the Christian and Jewish literature of the first three centuries 
a. d. The first notice of a book of Enoch appears to be due 
to a Jewish or Samaritan Hellenist (so Schurer). This notice, 
which has come down to us successively through Alexander 
Polyhistor and Eusebius, asserts that Enoch was the founder of 
Astrology : cf . Euseb. Praep. Evang. ix. 17.8 (Gaisford) tovtov 
€Vpi]K^vai Trp&Tov tt]v ao-Tpokoyiav. 

The Influence of Enoch on Jewish Literature. 

Excluding for the present the consideration of the New 
Testament and of Christian testimonies generally, the book 
of Enoch was probably used by the author of the Assumption 
of Moses written about the Christian Era. Cp. iv. 8 — Tristes 
et gementes quia non poterint referre immolationes Domino 
patrum suorum with En. lxxxix. 73 : and x. 3, 4^Exiet de 
habitatione sancta sua with Enoch i. 4, ' will come forth from 

D 



34 The Book of Enoch. 

His dwelling ' : and x. 4 — Tremebit terra, usque ad fines suas 
concutietur, et alti montes humiliabuntur et concutientur with 
En. i. 5, 6, ' unto the ends of the earth — the high mountains 
will be shaken and — made low/ 

In the Book of Jubilees, written before 70 A. D v Enoch is 
largely drawn upon : cp. Book of Jubilees — 

ch. 1. ' I have forsaken them because of all the evil they have 
wrought — in forsaking the covenant ' with En. lxxxix. 

5i, 54. 

' Until I descend and dwell with them ' with En. xxv. 3 ; 

lxxvii. 1. 
1 From the day of the new creation/ &c< with En. lxxii. 1. 
11. In this chapter the ideas of En. lx. 16-21 are further 

developed and a presiding spirit is assigned to every 

natural phenomenon, 
in. In this chapter there is the first mention of the * heavenly 

tables ' — a phrase borrowed from Enoch. See for full 

treatment of this phrase xlvii. 3 (note), 
iv. ' Jared : for in his days the angels of the Lord descended 

on the earth.' Cf. En. vi. 6 ; cvi. 13. 
' He took himself a wife and her name was Edna/ Cf. 

En. lxxxv. 3. 
' He was with the angels of God six years of this jubilee.' 

Cf. En. xii. 1. This refers to Enoch's temporary 

sojourning with the angels. 
' They (i. e. the angels) showed him (i. e. Enoch) every- 
thing in earth and heaven — and he wrote it all down.' 

Cf. En. xxi-xxxvi ; lxxii-lxxxii. 
1 He testified to the watchers/ &c, En. xii-xiv. 7. 
1 We conducted him (i. e. Enoch) into the Garden of 

Eden.' This refers to Enoch's final translation. Cf. 

En. lxx. 
* There he writes down/ En. xii. 4. ' The Scribe.' Cf. 

xv. 1 ; xcii. 1. 
v. ■ He (i. e. God) bade us bind them (i. e. the fallen 

watchers) in the depths of the earth.' Cf. En. 

x. 4-12. 
The account as to the destruction of the children of the 

watchers depends directly on En. x. 12 ; xii. 6. 



General Introduction. 35 

The account of the heavenly ' seven water torrents ' and 
'the fountains of the great deep* are derived from 
En. lxxxix. 2-7. 
vi. Compare the account of the year of 364 days with its 
implicit polemic against En. lxxiv. 10, 12; lxxv. 2; 
lxxxii. 4, 6, 11. 
vii. Compare the three classes of grants here described with 
En. vii ; lxxxix. 6 : the constant prohibitions against 
the eating of blood (cf. also xxi) with En. vii. 5 ; 
xcviii. 11: ' Enoch, the seventh in his generation ' 
with En. xciii. 3. 
viii. ■ Mount Zion, the centre of the navel of the earth ' with 
En. xxvi. 1, 2. 
x. Compare the doctrine of this chapter and of xxi regarding 
the demons, the children of the watchers with En. xv. 
12-xvi (notes). 
These demons are subject to Satan. Cf. En. liv. 6. 
xi. The worship of idols and of demons (also in i and xxii). 
Cf. En. xix. 1 ; xcix. 7. 
xvi. ■ Plant of righteousness ' (also in xxi), a phrase used of 

Israel. Cf. En. x. 16 (note). 
xxi. Compare the list of evergreen trees given here with En. iii. 
xxiii. The life of the righteous though it extend to a thousand 
years is still finite. Cf. En. v. 7 (note). There is no 
resurrection of the body — apparently the teaching of 
En. xci-civ. 

The Apocalypse of Baruc7i, written not long after 70 a. d., 
has many affinities with Enoch both in diction and in thought, 
and is manifestly dependent on it. 

Apoc. Bar.xui. 8, 'Judicium enim En. lxiii. 8, 'His judgments have 
est excelsi qui non respicit no respect of persons/ 

personas/ 

xxiv. 1, 'Aperientur libri in En. xc. 20, 'He took the sealed 
quibus scripta sunt peccata books and opened them.' 

omnium qui peccaverunt/ 

xxix. 4, A later form of the En. lx. 7-9. 
myth of Behemoth and Le- 
viathan which is found 
first in En. lx. 7-9. 

D 2 



The Book of Enoch. 



xxix. 5, ' Terra dabit fructus 

suos unum in decern millia/ 
xxxv. 2, 'O oculi mei estote 

scatebrae et palpebrae ocu- 

lorum meorum fons lacri- 

marum/ 
& 3, ' Q U1 plantaverunt in 

corde suo radicem sapien- 

tiae' (cf. lix. 7). 
li . 10,/ Assimilabuntur angelis 

et aequabuntur stellis/ 

liv. 2, ' Cui nihil difficile est.' 

lvi. 6, 'Cum (Adam) trans- 
gressus esset, mors, quae 
non erat tempore ejus, fuit/ 

lvi. 10-3, 'Etiam angelis fuit 
periculum. Adhuc enim 
illo tempore, quo creatus 
fuit, erat eis libertas; et 
descenderunt ex iis et 
commisti sunt cum muli- 
eribus. Et tunc illi qui 
sic operati sunt, in vinculis 
cruciati sunt.' 

lix. 2, 'Lexaeterna/ 



En. x. 19, 'Each measure will 
bear ten thousand/ 

En. xcv. 1 , ' Oh that mine eyes 
were a cloud of water that I 
might weep over you and shed 
my tears as a water cloud/ 

En. x. 16, 'The plant of 
righteousness/ 

En. civ. 6, 4, * Have great joy as 
the angels — shine as the stars/ 
Cf. lxix. ii. 

En. lxxxiv. 3, 'Nothing is too 
hard for thee/ 

En. lxix. 11,' Man was created 
exactly like the angels — and 
death could not have taken 
hold of him.' 

En. vi-x. 



En. xcix. 2, ' The eternal law/ 



The dependence of this book on Enoch is still more evident 
if we may regard it as proceeding from one author ; for it re- 
produces in the main the conceptions of En. xci-civ save that 
it expects a Messiah. Thus in this Apocalypse of Baruch the 
Messianic Kingdom is only of temporary duration. The 
Messiah reigns till sin is at an end lxxiv. 2, 3. During his 
reign the earth yields 10,000 fold, and there are no pre- 
mature deaths. At the close of this period the Messiah 
returns to heaven and the resurrection ensues 1 — li- 6. The 
righteous are then transformed and made like the angels 
li. 5, 10. 



General Introduction. 



37 



The author of IV. Ezra, writing between 81-96 a. v., has 
made a not infrequent use of Enoch, and this mainly of the 
Similitudes. 



4 Ezra vi. 49-52 takes up and 
develops further the myth 
found in En. lx. 7-9. 
vii. 32, 33, 'Et terra reddet 
qui in ea dormiunt, et 
pulvis qui in eo silentio 
habitant, et promptuaria 
reddent quae eis commen- 
datae sunt animae. Et re- 
velabitur Altissimus super 
sedem judicii/ 

4 Ezra [vi. 2] 'Et dicet tunc 
Altissimus contra illos 
populos resuscitatos : re- 
spicite et videte quern ab- 
negastis, aut quern non 
coluistis aut cujus* prae- 
cepta rejecistis/ 



[vi. 1] ' Revelabitur furnus 
gehennae, et ex adverso 
ejus iterum paradisus ju- 
cunditatuni/ 

[vi. 49] ' Ut renoves crea- 
turam tuam/ 

[vi. 60, 68] A development of 

vii. 55 ' Super stellas fulge- 
bunt facies eorum/ 

' . . . nostrae autem facies 
super tenebras nigrae/ 



En. lx. 7-9. 



En. li. 1, 3, 'And the earth will 
give back those that are 
treasured up within it, and 
Sheol also will give back that 
which it has received, and 
hell will give back that which 
it owes . . . And the Elect 
One will sit on My throne.' 

En. lxii. 1, ' Thus the Lord com- 
manded . . . those who dwelt 
on the earth and said : " Open 
your eyes and lift up your 
horns if ye are able to recog- 
nise the Elect One." ' 

En. lx. 6, ' Who have not served 
the righteous law and who 
deny the righteous judgment 
and who . take His name in 
vain/ 

En. xlviii. 9, 10; xxvii. 3. 



En. lxxii. 1. 

En. c. 5. 

En. civ. 2, ' Ye will shine as the 

stars of heaven/ 
En. lxii. 10, 'Darkness will be 

piled upon their faces.' 



In the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs there are nine 
direct references to Enoch. Of these Lev. 10, 14 are prob- 
ably references to En. lxxxix. 50 ; xci. 6, J ; Dan. 5 to En. 



38 7*ke Book of Enoch. 

lxxi. 15 whereas Sim. 5 ; Lev. 16 j Jud. 18; Zeb. 3; Napht. 
4; Benj. 9 cannot be traced directly to any passage in the 
Ethiopic Enoch. Reub. v and Napht. 3, though Enoch is 
not directly mentioned, may be referred to En. vi-ix. 2. 

From the second century onwards all knowledge of the 
book of Enoch vanishes from Jewish literature with the 
exception of a few references that are given by Jellinek in 
the Zeitsckr. D. M. G., 1853, p. 249. 

The Influence op Enoch on Patristic Literature. 

Still adjourning the consideration of the New Testament 
we find a large body of Christian testimonies. The Epistle 
of Barnabas, written not many years after 70 a. d., cites Enoch 
three times and twice as Scripture : iv. 3— rd riXewv orKavbaXov 
tfyyiKev irepl ov ykypanrai, o>s 'Ez>g>x Aeyei : xvi. 4 — Aeyet yap 
f] ypa<f>r\' kcll eorai €7r' koyarodv t&v rjp,€pS>v kol irapabcocrei Kvpios 
tcl TTpofiara n}? vopt,rjs kol ttjv [xavbpav kol tov irvpyov avr&v els 
KaTCL<p0opdv. Cf. En. lxxxix. 56, 66. Ep. Barn. xvi. 6. Cf. 
En. xci. 13. 

In the second century Justin Martyr, Apol. ii. 5 (quoted in 
note on ix. 8, 9) : cp. also i. 5. Enoch is not mentioned in 
these passages but is used. 

Irenaens, iv. 16. 2 (quoted in note on xiv. 7). 

Athenagoras (about 170 A. d.) in his itpeo-fieia x regards 
Enoch, though he does not name him, as a true prophet : tore 
8e fxrjbev rjpias apLaprvpov Xeyeiv, a be rot? irpocfrrjTCUs eKire<f)(t>VY)TaL, 
y,i]vveiv. eKeivoi \kiv, eh eTnOvpiLav irecrovTes, napBevoov . . . ck fiev 
ovv t&v irepl tcls irapOevovs eyjovrmv ol Ka\ovp,evoi eyevvr\6r\(rav 
yiyavres k.t.X. 

Tertuttian, writing between 197 and 223, regards Enoch as 
Scripture, Apol. xxii (quoted in note on xv. 8, 9); Be Cultu 
Feminarum, i. 2 (quoted on viii. 1). 

I. 3 : Scio scripturam Enoch, quae hunc ordinem angelis 
dedit, non recipi a quibusdam, quia nee in armarium Judaicum 
admittitur. Opinor, non putaverunt illam ante cataclysmum 
editam post eum casum orbis omnium rerum abolitorem salvam 



General Introduction. 39 

esse potuisse. But Tertullian proceeds to show that this was 
possible : cum Enoch filio suo Matusalae nihil aliud mandaverit 
quam ut notitiam eorum posteris suis traderet. He then 
pronounces the singular critical canon : Cum Enoch eadem 
scriptura etiam de domino praedicarit, a nobis quidem nihil 
omnino rejiciendum est, quod pertineat ad nos ... A Judaeis 
potest jam videri propterea rejecta, sicut et cetera fere quae 
Christum sonant . . . Eo accedit quod Enoch apud Judam 
apostolum testimonium possidet. II. 10 (quoted on viii. 1). 
Be Idol, iv (quoted on xix. 1). Cf. also Be Idol, ix ; Be 
Virg. Veland. vii : Si enim propter angelos, scilicet quos 
legimus a deo et caelo excidisse ob concupiscentiam f eminarum, 
&c. ' Be Idol, xv : Haec igitur ab initio praevidens spiritus 
sanctus etiam ostia in superstitionem ventura praececinit per 
antiquissimum propheten Enoch. 

Clemens Alex. Eclogae Prophet. Ed. Dindorf, iii. 456 (quoted 
on xix. 3) ; iii. 474 (quoted on viii. 2. 3) ; Strom, iii. 9 (quoted 
on xvi. 3). 

Origen (185-254) does not regard Enoch as inspired, and 
yet he does not wholly reject it. Cf. Contra Celsum, v. 52. 
Celsus argues that other ayyzXoi descended to the earth before 
Christ: kXOeiv yap kcu aXkovs Kiyovai irokXaias kclL o^iov ye 
k£r)K0VTa 7/ £(3bojjLriKOVTa' ovs hrj yeveo-Qat kcikovs kol KokdCeaOat 
beo-pols virol3\r]6€VTa$ Iv yfj' o0€V ml tcis depths irr)yas ehau 
ra €K€LV(ov b&Kpva. In a lengthy rejoinder Origen remarks, v. 
54 : kv rais eKKX-qa-iais ov iravv cfyiperai o>? 0da ra k-niyeypa^iva 
tov 'Ei^x fiifiXia. That Origen was undecided as to the 
value to be attached to Enoch is clearer from the following 
passages. In Joannem y vi. 25 (Lommatsch. i. 241) : g>? ei> rw 
'Ei>a>x yeypanrai, el ra> <pi\ov irapabix^^ 1 <*> s ayiov to (3l/3\iov. 
In Num.Eomil. xxviii. 2 (Lommatsch. x. 366) : De quibus quidem 
nominibus plurima in libellis, qui appellantur Enoch, secreta 
continentur, et arcana : sed quialibelli ipsi non videntur apud 
Hebraeos in auctoritate haberi, interim nunc ea, quae ibi 
nominantur ad exemplum vocare differamus. Be Princijo. i. 
3. 3 (Lommatsch. xxi. 73) : Sed et in Enoch libro his similia 



40 The Book of Enoch. 

describuntur ; iv. 35 (Lommatsch. xxi. 476) (quoted on 
xix. 3). 

Anatolius appointed Bishop of Laodicea in 269. Quoted 
in Euseb. Hist. Feci. vii. 32. 19 : rod be top irp&rov -nap 
'Efipaiois nrjva TiepX Icr^pLepiav elvai, irapacrraTiKa koX tol ev 
r<3 y Ev&x fJLaOrjfjLara. 

Thenceforward the book fails to secure a single favourable 
notice. Hilary, who died 368 a. d., writes in his Comment, in 
Ps. exxxii. 3 : Fertur id de quo. etiam nescio cuius liber extat, 
quod angeli concupiscentes filias hominum, cum de caelo 
descenderent, in hunc montem Hermon maxime convenerant 
excelsum. Chrysostom (346-407) does not indeed mention 
Enoch, but declares that the story of the angels and the 
daughters of men rests on a false exegesis, Homil. in Gen. 
vi. 1 and is a blasphemous fable. 

Jerome (346-420) regards Enoch as apocryphal. Be Viris 
lllustr. iv : Judas frater Jacobi parvam, quae de septem 
catholicis est, epistolam reliquit. Et quia de libro Enoch, qui 
apocryphus est, in ea assumit testimonia a plerisque rejicitur : 
tamen auctoritatem vetustate jam et usu meruit et inter sanctas 
computatur. Comment, on Ps. exxxii. 3 : Legimus in quodam 
libro apocrypho, eo tempore, quo descendebant filii dei ad 
filias hominum, descendisse illos in montem Hermon, et ibi 
iniisse pactum quomodo venirent ad filias hominum et sibi eas 
sociarent. Manifestissimus liber est et inter apocryphos com- 
putatur. Comment, on Epist. ad Titum, i. 1 2 : Qui autem 
putant totum librum debere sequi eum, qui libri parte usus 
sit, videntur mihi et apocryphum Enochi, de quo Apostolus 
Judas in Epistola sua testimonium posuit, inter ecclesiae 
scripturas recipere. 

Augustine (354-429) pronounces strongly against Enoch. 
De Civ. Dei, xv. 23. 4: Scripsisse quidem nonnulla divina 
Enoch ilium septimum ab Adam, negare non possumus, cum 
hoc in Epistola canonica Judas Apostolus dicat. Sed non 
frustra non sunt in eo canone Scripturarum . . . Unde ilia 
quae sub ejus nomine proferuntur et continent istas de 



General Introduction. 4r 

gigantibus fabulas, quod non habuerint homines patres, recte 
a prudentibus judicantur non ipsius esse credenda. Cp. also 
De Civ. Dei, xviii. 38. 

Enoch is finally condemned in explicit terms in Constit. 
ApostoL vi. 16 : kcu Iv rots 7raAatots bk tlvcs o-vvtypaxj/av /3t/3Ata 
aTTOKpv(f)a Mcoo-eW Kat 'Ev^x Ka i 'AbopL, 'Ho-a'tov re /cat Aafilb 
Kal 'HAta Kal t&v rpi&v imTpiapy&v, (pdopoitoia koX rijs 
akr\6das c^Opa' toiclvtcl Kal vvv i-irevorjo-av ol bvcrcovv[xoi, 
biafiaWovrts brjfAiovpyCav, yap.ov, npovoiav, reKvoyoviav, vofxov, 

17pO(f)7}Tas. 

Under the ban of such authorities the book of Enoch 
gradually passed out of circulation and knowledge in the 
Western Church, and with the exception of vi-ix. 4 ; yiii. 4- 
x. 14 ; xv. 8-xvi. 1 and another fragment which are preserved 
by Syncellus in his Chroriography >, pp. 20-23; 42-47 (Ed. 
Dind. 1829) it was lost to western Christendom till the pre- 
sent century. Syncellus adds that the book of Enoch runs 
counter in some respects to the tradition of the Church, and is 
untrustworthy through the interpolations of Jews and heretics : 
Kat ravra fi€i> eK tov TTpcarov /3t/3Atoi> 'Ev&x irepl t&v eyp-qyopcuv, 
et Kat fir] reAetWxP*) vpo&4\€Uf aitOKpvfyois /otaAtara tovs ankovo-- 
repovs, bid re to TiepiTTa riva Kat arpifirj ttjs €KK\r)(ria(TTiKijs 
7iapab6(T€(t)s €X €LV Ka ' && T ° vevodevadai avra vud 'lovbauav Kat 
alperiK&v. (Ed. Dindorf, pp. 47, 48.) 

The Influence of Enoch on the New Testament. 

The influence of Enoch on the New Testament has been 
greater than that of all the other apocryphal and pseud- 
epigraphal books taken together. The evidence for this 
conclusion may for the sake of convenience be arranged under 
two heads. (A) A series of passages of the New Testament 
which either in phraseology or idea directly depend on or are 
illustrative of passages in Enoch. (B) Doctrines in Enoch 
which had an undoubted share in moulding the corresponding 
New Testament doctrines. 



42 



The Book of Enoch. 



(A) We will begin with the General Epistles. I quote from the 
Revised Version when a more accurate rendering is desirable. 



(a) S. Jude 4. Denying our only 
Master and Lord. 

6. 'The angels which kept 
not,' &c. 

13. ' Wandering stars.' 

14. 'The seventh from Adam.' 



14, 15. A direct quotation 
from 

1 S. Peter iii. 19, 20. 

iv. 1 7. ' Judgment to begin at 
the house of God.' 

2 S. Peter ii. 4. (Observe how 

appropriately raprapaxras is 
used in connection with the 
fallen angels : Tartarus was 
originally the place of 
punishment of the Titans, 
iii. 13. 'A new heaven and a 
new earth.' 
1 S. John ii. 1. 'Jesus Christ the 
righteous.' 
ii. 8. ' The darkness is past 
and the true light,' &c. 

i. 7. 'Walk in the light.' 



En. xlviii. 10. ' Denied the Lord 
of spirits and His anointed.' 
Cf. xxxviii. 2 ; xli. 2 ; lvii. 8. 

En. x. 5, 6, 12, 13. 

En. xviii. 15. 

En. lx. 8. 'The seventh from 

Adam.' 
En. i. 9 ; v. 4 ; xxvii. 2. 



En. x. 4, 5, 12, 13. 
En. i. 7. 'Judgment 

the righteous.' 
En. x. 4-6, 12, 13. 



over all 



En. xlv. 4, 5 ; lxxii. 1 ; xci. 16. 

En. xxxviii. 2. c The Righteous 

One.' 
En. lviii. 5. ' It has become bright 

as the sun upon earth, and the 

darkness is past.' 
En. xcii. 4. ' The righteous . . . 

will walk in eternal light.' 



[The contrast between light and darkness in S. John's Epistles repeatedly 
enforced in Enoch. See xxxviii. 4 (note).] 

iii. 2. ' We shall be like Him.' En. xc. 37, 38. 
S.James i. 8. 'Double-minded En. xci. 4. 'A double heart.' See 
man.' note, 

v. 1-6. Woes against the rich. En. xciv. 8-1 1 with parallel 

passages. 

(b) Book of Revelation. — The writer or writers of this book 
are steeped in Jewish apocalyptic literature. 



General Introduction. 



43 



3v. i. 4. ' Seven spirits which 
are before His throne.' Cf. 
IT. 5; viii. 2. 

ii. 7. ' To him that overcometh 
will I give to eat of the 
tree of life ' : also xxii. 2, 
14, 19' the right to the tree 
of life/ 

iii. 5. ' Clothed in white rai- 
ment/ 

10. 'Them that dwell upon 
the earth/ 



En. xc. 21. 'Seven first white 
ones/ Cf. Tobit xii. 15. 

En. xxv. 4, 5. Only the elect in 
the Messianic kingdom are 
allowed to eat of the tree of 
life. 

En. xc. 31. 'Clothed in white/ 

En. xxxvii. 5. ' Those that dwell 
on the earth/ 



[This phrase has always a bad sense in Eevelation with the exception of 
xiv. 6. Cf. vi. 10 ; viii. 13 ; xi. 10 ; xiii. 8, 14 ; xvii. 8, and that in this 
respect Revelation follows the use of this phrase in the Noachic inter- 
polations, see En. xxxvii. 5 (note).] 



iii. 12. 'The New Jerusalem/ 

20. 'I will come unto him and 
sup with him/ 

21. 'Sit with Me on My 
throne/ Cf. xx. 4. 

iv. 6. ' Round about the 
throne were four living 
creatures/ 

v. 11. 

vi. 10. ' How long, Master, 
the holy and true, dost 
thou not judge and avenge 
our blood on them that 
dwell on the earth % ' 



vi. 15, 16. Compare the fear 
of ' the kinsrs of the earth, 



En. xc. 29. 

En. lxii. 14,' (The righteous) will 
eat, and lie down, and rise up 
with that Son of man/ 

En. cviii. 12. 'I will seat each 
on the throne of his honour/ 

En. xl. 2. ' On the four sides of 
the Lord of Spirits I saw four 
presences/ 

En. xiv. 22 ; xl. 1 ; lxxi. 8. 

En. xlvii. 2. ' The prayer of the 
righteous that it (i.e. the 
shedding of their blood) may 
not be in vain before the 
Lord of Spirits, that judgment 
may be done unto them, and 
that they may not have to 
suffer for ever/ Cf. xcvii. 
3-5; xcix. 3, 16; civ. 3: 
also xxii. 5-7 where the souls 
of the righteous in Hades pray 
for vengeance. 

En. lxii. 3, 5. 'The kings, and 
the mighty, and the exalted 



44 



The Book of Enoch. 



and the princes, and the 
chief captains, and the rich, 
and the strong ' when they 
see 'the face of him that 
sitteth on the throne/ 
Rev. vii. i. The four angels of 
the winds. 

15. 'He that sitteth on the 
throne shall dwell among 
them.' 

17. 'Shall guide them unto 
fountains of waters of life/ 

viii. 3, 4. Angel with golden 
censer of incense offers it 
with the prayers of the 
saints before God. In v. 8 
the elders do so also. 

ix. 1. 'I saw a star from 
heaven fallen unto the 
earth/ 

20.' Repented not of the works 
of their hands that they 
should not worship demons, 
and the idols of gold, and 
of silver, and of brass, and 
of stone, and of wood/ 

xii. 10. 'The accuser of our 
brethren is cast down/ 

xiii. 14. ' Deceiveth them that 
dwell on the earth/ 

xiv. 9, 10. The worshippers 
of the beast are to be ' tor- 
mented with fire and brim- 
stone in the presence of the 
holy angels, and in the 
presence of the lamb/ 

10. 'Holy angels/ 

20. ' Blood came out of the 
winepress even unto the 
horses' bridles/ 



. . . will be terrified . . . and 
pain will seize them when 
they see that Son of Man 
sitting on the throne of His 
glory/ 

En. lxix. 22. ' The spirits of the 
winds/ 

En. xlv. 4. 'I will cause Thine 
Elect to dwell among them/ 

En. xlviii. 1. 

This intercession of the angels 
is found frequently in Enoch, 
ix. 1-3, 10, 11 ; xv. 2; xl. 7; 
xlvii. 2 ; xcix. 3. 

En. lxxxvi. 1. 'And I saw . . . 
and behold a star fell from 
heaven/ 

En. xcix. 7. ' Others will make 
graven images of gold, and 
silver, and wood, and clay, 
and others will worship im- 
pure spirits and demons.' 

En. xl. 7. 

En. liv. 6. ' Leading astray those 

that dwell on the earth/ Cf. 

lxvii. 7. 
En. xlviii. 8, 9. The unrighteous 

burn ' in the presence of the 

righteous.' 



En. passim. 

En. c. 3. ' The horses will walk 

up to the breast in the blood 

of sinners/ 



General Introduction. 



45 



llev. xvi. 5. 'Angel of the En. lx. 16. ' Spirit of the sea.' 



waters/ 

xx. 12. 'And the books were 
opened ' and ' another book 
was opened which is the 
book of life.'. 

13. ' The sea gave up the dead 
which were in it, and death 
and Hades gave up the dead 
which were in them.' 



En. xc. 20. ' The books were 
opened.' 

En. xlvii. 3. ' The books of the 
living/ 

En. li. 1. 'The earth also will 
give back those that are 
treasured up within it, and 
Sheol also will give back that 
which it has received, and 
hell will give back that which 
it owes/ Cf. Ixi. 5. 



xx. 11-15. The last judgment is held after the temporary Messianic 
kingdom (xx. 4, 5), just as in En. xci-civ. There is however no resur- 
rection in the temporary Messianic kingdom of Enoch as there is in 
Kevelation. 



15. 
fire/ 



Cast into the lake of 



En. xc. 26. ' Cast into that fiery 
abyss/ 



xxi. 1, 2. We have here a new heaven and a new earth, and a new Jeru- 
salem coming down from heaven : yet in xxii. 14, 15 all classes of 
sinners are said to be without the gates of the city. But if there were 
a new earth, this would be impossible. This contradiction may have 
arisen from combining the divergent Messianic conceptions which 
appear in Enoch. Cf. xlv. 4, 5 ; xc. 29. 

(c) We shall next deal with the Epistles of S. Paul. This 
Apostle, as we know, borrowed both phraseology and ideas 
from many quarters : from the Greek poets ; from the 
apocryphal writings, as the Book of Wisdom ; from the lost 
Revelation of Elias — 1 Cor. ii. 9 according to Origen, and 
Eph. v. 14 according to Epiphanius. We shall find that he 
was well acquainted with and used the Book of Enoch. 

Horn. viii. 38. 'Neither angels, En. Ixi. 10. 'Angels of power 
nor principalities, nor and angels of principalities/ 

powers/ 

ix. 5. 'God blessed for ever/ En.lxxvii. 1. 'He that is blessed 

for ever/ 

1 Cor. vi. 11. 'Justified in the En. xlviii. 7. 'Saved in his (i.e. 
name of the Lord Jesus/ the Messiah's) name.' 



4 6 



The Book of Enoch. 



xi. io. Tertullian, C. Marc. v. 8 ; de Virg. Veland. 7, explains this verse 
through a reference to the bad angels spoken of in Enoch who would be 
incited to wantonness by unveiled women. 



2 Cor. iv. 6. ' To give the light 
of the knowledge of the 
glory of God in the face of 
Jesus Christ/ 
xi. 31. * He who is blessed for 
ever.' 

Gal. i. 4. 'This present evil 
world.' 

E-ph. i. 21. ' Above all princi- 
pality and power/ 

9. 'According to His good 

pleasure/ 
v. 8. ' Children of light/ 

Phil. ii. 10. 'At the name of Jesus 
every knee should bow/ 

Col. i. 16. 'Principalities and 
powers/ 

ii. 3. 'In whom are hid all the 
treasures of wisdom and 
knowledge/ 
1 Thess. v. 3. ' Then sudden 
destruction cometh upon 
them as upon a woman 
with child/ 



En. xxxviii. 4. ' The light of the 
Lord of Spirits is seen on the 
face of the holy/ 

En. lxxvii. 1. ' He who is blessed 
for ever/ 

En. xlviii. 7. ' This world of un- 
righteousness/ 

En. lxi. 10. 'The angels of power 
and the angels of principali- 
ties/ 

En. xlix. 4. 'According to His 
good pleasure/ 

En. cviii. 11.' The generation of 
light/ 

En. xlviii. 5. 'Will fall down and 
bow the knee before Him' (i.e. 
the Messiah). 

En. lxi. 10. 'The angels of power 
and the angels of principali- 
ties/ 

En. xlvi. 3. 'The Son of man . . . 
who reveals all the treasures 
of that which is hidden/ 

En. lxii. 4. 'Then shall pain come 
upon them as on a woman in 
travail/ 



Both these passages refer to the sudden appearing of the Messiah. 

v. 5. ' Sons of light/ En. cviii. 11.' The generation of 

light/ 

2 Thess. i. 7. ' The angels of His En. lxi. 10. 'The angels of 

power/ power/ 

1 Tim. i. 9. ' Law is not made En. xciii. 4. ' He will make a 
for a righteous man but for law for sinners/ 

the lawless/ &c. 



General Introduction. 



47 



i Tim. i. 15. 'Worthy of all ac- 
ceptation ' (cf. iv. 9). 
v. 21. 'The elect angels/ 

vi. 15. 'King of Kings and 

Lord of Lords/ 
16. Dwelling in, the light 

which no man can approach 

unto, whom no man hath 

seen/ 



En. xciv. 1. ' Worthy of accepta- 
tion/ 

En. xxxix. 1. 'Elect and holy 
children of the high heaven/ 

En. ix. 4. ' Lord of Lords . . . 
King of Kings/ 

En. xiv. 21. 'None of the angels 
could enter (there) and no 
man could behold the form of 
the face of the Honoured and 
Glorious One/ 



(d) Epistle to the Hebrews, This Epistle was probably written 
by Barnabas. As we have seen above (p. 38) this writer cites 
Enoch as Scripture in the Epistle which goes by his name. 



Hebrews iv. 13. 'There is no 
creature that is not mani- 
fest in His sight : but all 
things are naked and laid 
open before the eyes of Him 
with whom we have to do/ 
xi. 5. ' Enoch was translated 
. . . for before his transla- 
tion he had this testimony 
that he pleased God.' 



xi. 10. ' The city which hath 
foundations whose builder 
and maker is God ' (cf. xiii. 

•4). 

xii. 9. ' Father of spirits/ 
22.' The heavenly Jerusalem/ 



En. ix. 5. ' All things are naked 
and open in Thy sight, and 
Thou seest all things and 
nothing can hide itself from 
Thee/ 

The parallel passage must, it 
seems, depend on the Enoch 
book where Enoch is always 
accounted an example of 
righteousness and therefore 
translated. Cf. xv. 1 ; lxxi. 
14, &c. In Ecclus. xliv. 16 
Enoch is translated indeed, 
but is cited as an example of 
repentance. Philo, De Abra- 
Jiamo, speaks of the former 
evil life of Enoch. 

En. xc. 29. 'Where God Himself 
builds the New Jerusalem.' 



' Lord of spirits, 

Similitudes. 
En. xc. 29. 



passim in 



4« 



The Book of Enoch. 



(e) Acts of the Apostles. 

iii. 14. 'The Righteous One,' 

i.e. Christ. Cf. alsovii. 52; 

xxii. 14. 
iv. 12. 'There is none other 

name under heaven . . . 

whereby we must be saved.' 
x. 4. ' Thy prayers . . . are 

gone up for a memorial 

before God.' 
xvii. 31. 'He will judge the 

world in righteousness by 

the man whom He hath 

ordained/ 



En. xxxviii. 2. 'The Righteous 
One ' (i. e. the Messiah). 

En, xlviii. 7. 'Saved in His (i. e. 
the Messiah's) name.' 

En. xcix. 3. ' Raise your prayers 
as a memorial . . . before the 
Most High/ 

En. xli. 9. ' He will appoint a 
judge for them all, and He 
will judge them all before 
Him/ 



(/) The Gospels. 

John ii. 16. The temple is 
called ' God's house/ but 
owing to sin of Israel ' your 
house,' i. e. merely house of 
Israel. Cf. S. Luke xiii. 35 
and parallels. 

v. 2 2 . ' He hath committed all 
judgment unto the Son.' 

27. 'He gave him authority to 
execute judgment because 
he is the Son of Man/ 

xii. 36. 



Sons of light.' 



xiv. 2. ' Many mansions.' 



S. Luke i. 52. ' He hath put down 
princes from their thrones.' 

ix. 35. 'This is My Son, the 
Elect One/ So Greek 6 
eickfkeyfxevos. 

xiii. 35. See on S. John ii. 16. 

xvi. 8. ' Sons of the light.' 



En. lxxxix. 54. Temple = house 
of the Lord of the sheep. 

En. lxxxix. 56. But owing to 
sin of Israel it is said 'He 
forsook that their house/ 

En. lxix. 27. 'The sum of 
judgment was committed 
unto Him, the Son of Man/ 



En. cviii. 11. 'The generation of 

light/ 
En. xxxix. 4. ' Mansions of the 

righteous/ Cf. xxxix. 7 ; 

xlviii. 1, &c. 
En. xlvi. 5. ' He will put down 

the kings from their thrones/ 
En. xl. 5. ' The Elect One,' i. e. 

the Messiah. Cf. xlv. 3-5 ; 

xlix. 2, 4, &c. 

En. cviii. 11.' The generation of 
light/ 



General Introduction. 



49 



S. Luke xvi. 9. ' Mammon of 
unrighteousness. ' 
xviii. 7. ' Shall not God 
avenge His Elect which cry 
to Him day and night, and 
He is long-suffering over 
them/ Cf. 2 Pet. iii. 9; 
Ecclus. xxxii. 18. 



xxi. 28. 'Your redemption 

draweth nigh.' 
xxiii.35. ' The Christ of God, 

the Elect One,' 6 c'k\€kt6s. 
S. Matthew v. 22, 29, 30; x. 28 

where Gehenna is the place 

of final punishment. 
xix. 28. 'When the Son of 

Man shall sit on the throne 

of His glory.' 
* Ye also shall sit on twelve 

thrones/ 
xix. 29. 'Inherit eternal life/ 
xxi. 13; xxiii. 38. See S. John 

ii. 16. 
xxv. 41. 'Prepared for the 

devil and his angels/ 
xxvi. 24. 'It had been good 

for that man if he had not 

been born/ 
xxviii. 18. 'All authority hath 

been given to Me in heaven 

and on earth/ 
8. Mark xi. 17. See S. John ii. 6. 



En. lxiii. 10. 'Mammon of un- 
righteousness/ 

En. xlvii. 1, 2. See Translation. 
This verse of S. Luke suggests 
another rendering of Enoch. 
1 The prayer of the righteous 
. . . that judgment may be 
executed on them and that 
He may be no more long- 
suffering over them/ 

En. Ii. 2. 'The day of their 
redemption has drawn nigh/ 

En. xl. 5. ' The Elect One/ 

En. xxvii. 2 ; xc. 26, 27 where 

Gehenna first definitely ap- 

pearss as hell. 
En. lxii. 5. 'When they see that 

Son of Man sitting on the 

throne of His glory/ 
En. cviii. 12. 'I will seat each 

on the throne of his honour/ 
En. xl. 9. 
En. lxxxix. 56. 
En. lxxxix. 54. 
En. liv. 5. ' Chains . . . prepared 

for the hosts of Azazel/ 
En. xxxviii. 2. 'It had been good 

for them if they had not been 

born/ 
En. lxii. 6. ' (The Son of man) 

who rules over all/ 

En. lxxxix. 54. 



5<d The Book of Enoch. 

(B) Doctrines in Enoch which had an undoubted share in 
moulding the corresponding New Testament doctrines, or are 
at all events necessary to the comprehension of the latter. 

(a) The nature of the Messianic kingdom and of the future 
life. 

(6) The Messiah. 

(c) Sheol and the Resurrection. 

(d) Demonology. 

(a) The Kingdom. We shall only deal with one incident 
coming under this head ; it is found in the three Synoptists : 
S. Matt. xxii. 23-33 ; S. Mark xii. 18-27 ; S. Luke xx. 27-36. 
This incident can only be rightly understood from Enoch. 
When the Saddueees said, ' Whose wife shall she be of them ? 
for the seven had her to wife/ they are arguing from the sen- 
suous conception of the Messianic kingdom — and this was no 
doubt the popular one— given in En. i-xxxvi, according to 
which its members, including the risen righteous, were to enjoy 
every good thing of earth and have each a thousand children. 
The Saddueees thought thereby to place this young prophet 
on the horns of a dilemma, and oblige Him to confess either 
that there was no resurrection of the dead, or else that 
polygamy or polyandry would be practised in the coming 
kingdom. But the dilemma proves invalid: and the con- 
ception of the future life portrayed in our Lord's reply tallies 
almost exactly in thought, and partially in word, with that 
described in En. xci-civ, according to which there is to be a 
resurrection indeed, but a resurrection of the spirit, and the 
risen righteous are to rejoice 'as the angels of heaven ' 
(En. civ. 4; S. Matt. xxii. 30; S. Mark xii. 25), 'being 
companions of the heavenly hosts ' (En. civ. 6). 

(b) The Messiah. The Messiah is referred to in xc. 37, 38. 
He is represented as the head of the Messianic community 
out of which He proceeds, but He has no special role to fulfil 
and His presence in that description seems due merely to 
literary reminiscence. This Messiah-reference exercised no 
influence on New Testament conceptions. But with regard 



General Introdticlion. 51 

to the Messiah described in the Similitudes the case is very 
different. Four titles applied for the first time in literature 
to the personal Messiah in the Similitudes are afterwards 
reproduced in the New Testament. These are ' Christ ' or 
' the Anointed One/ ' the Righteous One,' ' the Elect One,' and 
' the Son of Man.' 

' Christ ' or ' the Anointed One. 3 This title, found repeatedly 
in earlier writings but always in reference to actual con- 
temporary kings or priests, is now for the first time — see 
xlviii. 10; lii. 4 — applied to the ideal Messianic king that is 
to come. It is associated here with supernatural attributes. 
A few years later in another writing, the Psalms of Solomon 
(xvii. 36; xviii. 6, 8), it possesses quite a different connota- 
tion. In those Psalms the Messiah, though endowed with 
divine gifts, is a man and nothing more, and springs from 
the house of David. 

1 The Righteous One.'' This title, which occurs in Acts iii. 
14; vii. 52; xxii. 14 (cp. 1 S. John ii. 1), first appears in 
Enoch as a Messianic designation ; see En. xxxviii. 2 ; liii. 6. 
Righteousness is one of the leading characteristics of the 
Messiah, xlvi. 3. 

* The Elect One.'' This title likewise appearing first in 
Enoch, xl. 5 ; xlv. 3-4 ; xlix. 2, 4 ; li. 3, 5, &c, passes over 
into the New Testament, S. Luke ix. 35 ; xxiii. 35, ' The 
Christ, the Elect One.' In the Old Testament we find 'Mine 
Elect/ Is. xlii. 1, but not 'the Elect One/ 

' The Son of Man.' This definite title (see notes on xlvi. 
2, 3) is found in the Book of Enoch for the first time in 
Jewish literature, and is, historically, the source of the New 
Testament designation, and contributes to it some of its most 
characteristic contents. For an account of the relations 
between the Enochic and New Testament uses of this title, 
we must refer to the Appendix on ' The Son of Man ' at the 
close of the book. 

(c) Sheol. If we except the Psalms we have in Enoch the 
first instances in which this word is found in its New Testa- 

e 2 



52 The Book of Enoch. 

ment signification. For the history of this word and its 
meanings, see note on lxii. 10. 

It is further interesting' to note that the writer of xci-civ 
delivers himself of a sustained polemic in cii. 4-civ. 9 against 
the Old Testament doctrine of Sheol, and the fact that this 
writer in xci. 4 borrows Ecclus. i. 25 makes it probable that 
the immediate book he had in view is Ecclesiasticus, which 
enforces dogmatically and repeatedly the Old Testament 
doctrine of Sheol. 

The Resurrection. This doctrine, which is first taught 
beyond possibility of doubt in Dan. xii, though a true 
exegesis will find many intimations of the doctrine in earlier 
books, was made a common-place of Jewish theology by the 
book of Enoch. For the various forms this doctrine assumed, 
see note on li. 1. 

(d) The Demonology of Enoch reappears for the most part 
in the New Testament. 

(a) The angels which kept not their first estate, S. Jude 6 ; 
2 S. Pet. ii. 4, are the angelic watchers who fell from 
lusting after the daughters of men, and whose fall and 
punishment are recounted in En. vi-xvi. They have always 
been imprisoned in darkness from the time of their fall. 

(j3) Demons. These are, according to Enoch xvi. 1, the 
spirits which went forth from the souls of the giants who 
were the children of the fallen angels and the daughters of 
men. These demons were to work moral ruin on the earth 
without hindrance till the final judgment as disembodied 
spirits. 

So in the New Testament. The demons are disembodied 
spirits, S. Matt. xii. 43-45; S. Luke xi. 24-26. They are 
not punished till the final judgment : S. Matt. viii. 29, 'Art 
Thou come hither to torment us before the time ? ' They are 
subject to Satan, S. Matt. xii. 24-28. 

(y) Satan appears in Enoch as the ruler of a counter king- 
dom of evil, yet a kingdom subject to the Lord of Spirits. He 
led astray the angels and made them his subjects, liv. 6; lxix. 5. 



General Introduction. 53 

A Satan also led astray Eve, lxix. 6. The Satans (as in Job) 
can still appear in heaven, xl. 7. The functions of the Satans 
are threefold : they tempted to evil, lxix. 4, 6 ; they accused 
the fallen, xl. 7 ; they punished the condemned as angels of 
punishment, liii. 3 ; lvi. I. 

So in the New Testament there is the counter-kingdom of 
sin, S. Matt. xii. 26; S. Luke xi. 18; f if Satan cast out 
Satan, how shall his kingdom stand ? ' Satan led astray the 
angels, Rev. xii. 4, and led astray man, 2 Cor. xi. 3. The 
demons are subjects of Satan, S. Matt. xii. 24-28. The 
functions of Satan are tempting, S. Matt. iv. 1-12; S. Luke 
xxii. 31; accusing, Rev. xii. 10 ; punishing, 1 Cor. v. 5, where 
impenitent sinners are delivered over to Satan for punishment. 



THE BOOK OF ENOCH 



SECTION I. 

(chapters I XXXVI.) 

INTRODUCTION. 

A. Critical Structure. B. Relation of this Section to (a) lxxii- 
lxxxii; (6) lxxxiii-xc ; (c) xci-civ. C. Its Bate. D. The 
Problem and its Solution. 
A. Critical Structure. For the relation of this Section to the 
rest of his book, see General Introduction (p. 26). This Section is 
at once incomplete and composite. To determine its original form 
is perfectly hopeless ; it has suffered from all the evils incident to 
tradition and unscrupulous interpolation. It is impossible to 
regard it as a complete work in itself, and its leading ideas 
preclude our finding its original complement in the other Sections 
of the book. It is composite in character, not to speak of exten- 
sive interpolations (i.e. xvii-xix). There are two distinct world- 
conceptions present. In xii-xvi the transcendence of God is 
pictured in an extreme degree. He dwells in heaven in a crystal 
palace of fire, into which not even an angel may enter, xiv. 9-23 ; 
whereas in i-xi, xx-xxxvi, the old Hebrew standpoint is fairly 
preserved. God will come down to judge on Sinai, i. 4 ; the 
Messianic kingdom will be established on earth, and all sin will 
vanish, x. 17-22 j the chambers of blessing in heaven will be 
opened, xi. 1 ; Jerusalem will be the centre of the Messianic king- 
dom, xxv. 5 ; and God Himself will come down to visit the earth with 
blessing, and will sit on His throne on earth, xxv. 3 ; men will enjoy 
patriarchal lives, and die in happy old age, v. 9 ; x. 1 7 ; xxv. 6. 

There are many interpolations : vi. 3-8; viii. 1-3; ix. 7 ; x. 1-3; 
xvii-xix. The peculiarity attaching to these interpolations is 



5 6 The Book of Enoch. [Sect, I. 

that no attempt is made to assimilate them to their new contexts. 
Generally they stand in glaring contradiction with them. 

B. (a) Relation of i-xxxvi to lxxii-lxxxii. These two sections 
come from different authors ; see Special Introd. to lxxii-lxxxii. 
(b) Relation of i-xxxvi to lxxxiii-xe. These two Sections 
are of distinct authorship. The former is the older, and was 
known to the author of the latter; see Special Introd. to 
lxxxiii-xc. (c) Relation of i-xxxvi to xci-civ. These two 
Sections are likewise independent; but the author of the latter 
was acquainted with i-xxxvi or some form of it; see Special 
Introd. to xci-civ. 

C. Its Date. As i-xxxvi is anterior to lxxxiii-xc, the oldest 
of the remaining Sections of the book, and as that Section must 
have been written before 161 b. c, we have thus the latest 
possible date of the composition of i-xxxvi. But it is highly 
probable, that it was written much earlier, earlier in fact than the 
persecution under Antiochus ; for to the horrors of that persecu- 
tion, which impressed themselves so strongly on the author of 
Daniel, and of En. lxxxiii-xc there is not the faintest allusion 
in i-xxxvi. 

D. The Problem and its Solution. The author essays to 
justify the ways of God. The righteous will not always suffer, 
and the wicked will not always prosper, i. i. The limits thereto 
are set by death, xxii, and by great world judgments. But the 
cure of the world's corruption can only be understood by appre- 
hending its cause, and this cause is to be traced to the lust of the 
fallen Watchers for the daughters of men. Original sin stands not 
in the following of Adam— whose sin seems limited in its effects to 
himself, xxxii. 6— but in the evil engendered through the Watchers, 
ix. 6, 9, io; x. 8. Hence the Watchers, their companions and 
children were destroyed, x. 4-10, 12 ; and their condemnation and 
confinement form the prelude to the first world judgment, of 
which the Deluge forms the completion, x. 1-3. But though only 
the righteous survived the Deluge, sin still prevailed in the world 
through the demons— the spirits which had gone forth from the 
slaughtered children of the Watchers and the daughters of men, 
and all manner of corruption was wrought through them, xvi. 1, as 
they escape punishment till the final judgment. But the recom- 
pense of character is not withheld till the last judgment ; there is 
a foretaste of the final doom immediately after death, xxii. In the 
second and last judgment on Sinai, i. 4, the Watchers, the demons, 



Sect. I.] Chapter I. 1-2. 57 

and godless, x. 12; xvi. 1, and all classes of Israel, with one excep- 
tion, receive their final award, i. 9. To make this possible, this 
judgment is preceded by a General Resurrection of Israel, xxii. 
A final end is now made of sin on the earth, and the earth cleansed, 
x. 15, 16, 20-22 ; the wicked are cast into Gehenna, and their 
punishment is a spectacle for the righteous to behold, xxvii. 2 ; the 
Messianic kingdom is established, with Jerusalem and Palestine as 
its centre, xxv. 5 — there is no Messiah, and God abides with men, 
xxv. 3 ; all the Gentiles will become righteous and worship God, 
x. 2 1 ; the righteous are allowed to eat of the tree of life, xxv. 4-6, 
and thereby enjoy patriarchal lives, v. 9 ; xxv. 6, begetting 1000 
children, x. 17, and enjoying unlimited material blessings, v. 7, 
x. 18, 19; xi. 2. 

As to what becomes of the righteous, after the second death, 
there is no hint in this fragmentary Section. There is much 
celestial, terrestrial, and subterrestrial geography in xvii-xix, xxi- 
xxx vi. 

TRANSLATION. 

I. I. The words of the blessing of Enoch, wherewith he 
blessed the elect and righteous, who will be Jiving in the day 
of tribulation, when all the wicked and godless are to be 
removed. 2. And Enoch answered and spake — (Enoch) a 

righteous man, whose eyes were opened by God, that he might 
see a vision of the Holy One in the heavens, which the angels 
showed me, and from them I heard everything and I under- 
stood what I saw, but not for this generation, but for the 
remote generations which are for to come. 3. Concerning 



I. 2. God. I have rendered hVYUMrtyC by 'God,' and &7R& 
by ' Lord.' The former word is at times a rendering of 6 Kvpws, 
and at times of 6 6e6s in the LXX. It occurs ten times in Enoch. 
h7°^\\l = 6 6e6s is found nine times. Vision of the Holy One. 
So BG fcfcfl and the Giz. Gk. Other MSS. 'holy vision/ 



I. 1. The elect and righteous. similar designations of God see v. 3. 

This designation is found also in The change from the third to the first 

xxxviii. 2, 3, 4; xxxix. 6, 7 ; xlviii. 1 ; person in this verse, is of frequent 

lviii. 1, 2 ; lxi. 13 ; lxii. 1 2, 13, 15 ; lxx. occurrence in this book : cf. xii. 1-3 ; 

3. 2. The Holy One. For this and xxxvii. 1, 2 ; lxx. 1-3; lxxi. 5 ; xcii. 1. 



58 The Book of Enoch. [Sect. I. 

the elect I spake, and uttered a parable concerning them : 
the Holy and Great One will come forth from His dwelling, 
the God of the world. 4. And going from thence He 

will tread on Mount Sinai and appear with His hosts, and in 
the strength of His might appear from heaven. 5. And 

everyone will be smitten with fear, and the watchers will 
quake, and great fear and trembling will seize them unto the 
ends of the earth. 6. And the high mountains will be 

shaken, and the high hills will be made low, and will melt 
like wax before the flame. 7. And the earth will be 

rent and all that is upon the earth will perish, and there will 
be a judgment upon everything and upon all the righteous. 
8. But to the righteous He will give peace and will protect 



3. Uttered a parable concerning them : the Holy One. So G 
omitting the H in Dln.'s text, and the Giz. Gk. dviXaftov rrju 
7>apafio\r)v pov. Din., misled by the H and taking 9°1\(\. as a 
preposition, translates : ' conversed concerning them with the 
Holy One.' 7. The earth will be rent. So G ! WCI\T 

and the Giz. Gk. oW X io-0>7o-eT<u. Other MSS. ^wm?" ' will sink 



In xci-civ these changes are confus- here and in x. 9, 15; xii. 2, 4; xiii. 

ing. 3. The elect. This designa- 10 ; xiv. 1, 3 ; xv. 2 ; xvi. 1, 2 ; xci. 15. 

tion belongs mainly to the Similitudes. Inxx. 1 ; xxxix. 12, 13 ; xl. 2 ; lxi. 12 ; 

It is found in i. 8; v. 7; xxv. 5; xl. lxxi. 7 it designates the archangels. 

5; xli. 2; xlviii. 1, 9; li. 5; lvi. 6, It is first found in Dan. iv. 13, 17, 23. 

8; lviii. 3; lxi. 4, 12; lxii. 7, 8, 11; 6. Cf. Judges v. 5; Ps. xcvii. 5; Is. 

xciii. 2. Holy and Great One. lxiv. 1, 3; Mic. i. 4; Judith xvi. 15 

This title is found elsewhere in x. I ; (Din.) Assumpt. Moyseos x. 4. 7. 

xiv. 1 ; xxv. 3 ; lxxxiv. i ; xcii. 2 ; xcvii. Din. thinks that we have in 5-9 a 

6 ; xcviii. 6 ; civ. 9. God is designated description combining the two great 

simply as * the Holy One,' xciii. 1 1 , and judgments ; but everything from verse 

as ' the Great One,' xiv. 2 ; ciii. 4 ; 4 to end is perfectly applicable to the 

civ. 1 (twice). Come forth from His final judgment. Yet cf. lxxxiii. 7. 

dwelling. Cf. Mic. i. 3; Is. xxvi. 21. 8. "Will give peace. See v. 4 note. 

Assumptio Moyseos x. 3. God of The righteous. This designation is 

the world. Cf. lviii. 4; lxxxi. 10; found in all parts of the book: i .7, 8 ; 

lxxxii. 7 ; lxxxiv. 2 ; also xii. 3; lxxxi. v. 6 ; xxv. 4 ; xxxix. 4 ; xliii. 4 ; xlvii. 

3. 4. Sinai, whence the Law 1, 2, 4; xlviii. 1, 7, 9; 1. 2; liii. 7; 

was given, will likewise be the place lvi. 7; lviii. 3, 5 ; lx. 2; lxi. 3; lxii. 3; 

of future judgment. Cf. Deut. xxxiii. lxxxii. 4; xciv. 3, 11; xcv. 3, 7; xcvi. 

2 ; Ps. lxviii. 17. 5. "Watchers. 1, 8; xcvii. 1, 3, 5; xcviii. 12-14; xcix - 

This name belongs to the fallen angels 3; c. 5, 7, 10; cii. 4, 10; ciii. 1; civ. 



Sect. I.] Chapter I. ^—III. 59 

the elect, and grace will be upon them, and they will all belong 
to God, and it will be well with them, and they will be blessed 
and the light of God will shine upon them. 9. And lo ! 

He comes with ten thousands of (His) holy ones to execute ) r 
judgment upon them, and He will destroy the ungodly, and 
will convict all flesh of all that the sinners and ungodly have 
wrought and ungodly committed against Him. 

II. 1. I observed everything that took place in the heaven, 
how the luminaries which are in the heaven do not deviate 
from their orbits, how they all rise and set in order each in 
its season, and transgress not against their appointed order. 
2. Behold ye the earth, and give heed to the things which 
take place upon it from first to last, how unvaryingly every 
work of God appears. 3. Behold the summer and the 
winter, how (in the winter season) the whole earth is full of 
water, and clouds and dew and rain lie upon it. 

III. I observed and saw how (in the winter) all the trees 



down.' 9. Will convict all flesh. £H£V$. So G M. Jude 
15 «Vy£u. The Giz. Gk. eAe 7 £«. Other MSS. £*¥#&=' will 
plead with all flesh/ See Appendix on this verse. 

III. 1. GM read IbtTl 08<0: KG instead of hero; ft.fr; 0*8^: XG 

as Din. 

1,6, 12, 13. The light of God sizes the order that prevails in the 

will shine upon them. Cf. xxxviii. world of nature as a contrast to the 

4. 0. Quoted by St. Jude 14, disorder that prevails in the world of 

15, who in the same passage draws man. In Test. Naphth. 3 men are 

upon v. 4 ; xxvii. 2 ; lx. 8. Cf. ci. 3. bidden to observe the law of God as 

Ten thousands of His holy ones. the sun, moon, and stars observe the 

Cf. Dan. vii. 10. The angels are so order appointed to them, and the 

called in xii. 2 ; xiv. 23 ; xxxix. 5; Watchers, who were cursed of God for 

xlvii. 2; lvii. 2 ; lx. 4; lxi. 8, 10, 12 ; forsaking their natural order and 

lxv. 12; lxix. 13; lxxxi. 5; ciii. 2; estate, are held up as a warning. Cf. 

cvi. 19, as already in Job v. 1 ; xv. 15 ; also Ecclns. xvi. 26-28 ; Pss. Sol. xviii. 

Zech. xiv. 5; Dan. iv. 13; viii. 13. 11-14. 2. The Hebrews divided 

They are called 'holy angels ' in xx. the year into two seasons, y*J) embrac- 

1-7; xxi. 5, 9; xxii. 3; xxiv. 6; xxvii. ing Spring and Summer, and ZQh em- 

2; xxxii. 6; Ixxi. 8; xciii. 2. 'Holy bracing Autumn and Winter. Gen. 

ones of heaven:' ix. 3. For other viii. 22; Is. xviii. 6; Zech. xiv. 8. Cf. 



bions see vi. 2 (note). Herzog's R.E. vi. 497 'Jar. 

II. The author in ii-v. 3 empha- 



60 The Book of Enoch. [Sect. I. 

seem as though they had withered and shed all their leaves, 
except fourteen trees, which do not lose their foliage but retain 
the old foliage from two to three years till the new comes. 

IV. And again I observed the days of summer how the 
sun is above the earth over against it. And you seek shade 
and shelter against the heat of the sun, and the earth also 
burns with glowing heat, and so you cannot tread on the 
earth, or on a rock by reason of its heat. 

V. i. I observed how the trees cover themselves with 
green leaves and bear fruit : wherefore give ye heed to every- 
thing, and recognise how He who liveth for ever hath made 
all this for you. 2. How His works are before Him in 
each succeeding year, and all His works serve Him and alter 
not but everything is done as God hath ordained. 3. And 
behold how the seas and the rivers together accomplish their 
task. 4. But as for you, ye have not continued steadfast, 
and the law of the Lord have ye not fulfilled but have 
transgressed it, and have slanderously spoken proud and 
hard words with your impure mouths against His greatness — 
O ye hard hearted ye will find no peace. 5. And therefore 
will ye execrate your days and be bereft of the years of 
your life: but the years of your destruction will be mul- 



V. 5. Be bereft of the years of your life. "fVT^Ct may be either 
2nd Pers. PI. Future I. i='ye will lose, be bereft of'=a7ro- 
(TTepi)0r)<Te(r6c, or 3rd Pers. PI. Present III. 1 = ' They are perishing/ 
Din. takes it to be the latter. But the present tense is out of 
place between two futures. The years of your destruction. 
The words are drawn from the Giz. Gk., having dropped out of the 
Ethiopic MSS., but the text of G implies them, giving flC7o»^ 



III. On the fourteen evergreen spoken. The charge of blasphemy is 

trees cf. Din. in loc. frequent in xci-civ. Cf. xci. 7, 11; 

V. 4. The law of the Lord. Cf. xciv. 9; xcvi. 7; c. 9. Hard hearted, 

xcix. 2. 'The eternal law.' Proud Cf. xcviii. 11; c. 8 'obstinate of heart.' 

and hard words. Cf. xxvii. 2 ; ci. 3. Ye will find no peace. This phrase 

From these passages the close of occurs in Sects, i-xxxvi. and xci-civ 

St. Jude 15 is drawn. Cf. Ps. xii. 4; only : i. 8; v. 4; xii. 5; xiii. 1; xvi. 

Dan. vii. 8, 11, 20. Slanderously 4; xciv. 6; xcviii. 11, 15; xcix. 13; 



Sect. I.] Chapters IV— V. 61 

tiplied in eternal execration and ye will find no mercy. 

6. In those days ye shall give yonr name for an eternal 
execration unto all the righteous, and they will evermore exe- 
crate you as sinners — you together with (all other) sinners. 

7. But for the elect there will be light and joy and peace, and 
they will inherit the earth : but upon you, ye ungodly, 
there will be execration. 8. Then too will wisdom be 
bestowed on the elect, and they will all live and never 
again sin, either through heedlessness or through pride, 
but they who are wise will be humble nor fall again into 
sin. 9. And they will not be punished all the days of their 
life, nor will they die of plagues or visitations of wrath, but 
they will complete the full number of the days of their life, 
and their lives will grow old in peace, and the years of their 
joy will be many, in eterjial happiness and peace all the days 
of their life. 

'will be multiplied in eternal execration.' Later scribes, finding 
no subject for the verb in this clause, omitted the preposition and 
read <n>C7«7 D : hence Dln.'s text, ' eternal execration will be mul- 
tiplied upon you.' 6. Ye shall give your name for an eternal 
execration unto all the righteous, reading li(W with G instead of 
Mao with all other MSS. but M. If we accept the other reading, 
we are to translate : ' Ye shall give up your peace to become an 
eternal execration/ The phrase appears to be drawn from Isaiah 
lxv. 15, ' Ye shall leave your name for a curse unto My chosen/ 

n^rajj npntfb pjoe* Dnnam. The Giz. Gk. supports G. 



ci. 3; cii. 3; ciii. 8. 7. The tern- 352) has already seen, vi. 3-8; viii. 

poral blessings promised in the O.T. 1-3; ix. 7 ; x. 11 belong to a Sem- 

are here renewed, but on the question jaza cycle of myths ; for in these pas- 

of Sheol and the Eesurrection the sages Semjaza is represented as chief 

writer has forsaken O.T. ground. and Azazel tenth in command : as also 

8. Will wisdom be bestowed on the in lxix. 2. Elsewhere in Enoch Aza- 

elect : see xlii. 1,2. 9. Cf. Is. zel is chief and Semjaza is not men- 

lxv. 20, 22; Zech. viii. 4; En. xxv. 4, tioned. Again x. 1-3 belongs to an 

5 (note). Apocalypse of Noah, many fragments 

VI-XI. The abruptness with which of which are found in Enoch. An- 

vi-xi are introduced, is quite in other fragment of this Apocalypse is 

keeping with the fragmentary and preserved by Syncellus in the Greek ; 

composite nature of the rest of the but to this there is no corresponding 

Section. As Din. (Herzog, R. E. xii. text in the Ethiopic. 



62 



The Book of Enoch. 



[Sect. I. 



VI. I . And it came to pass 
when the children of men 
had multiplied in those days 
that beautiful and comely 
daughters were born unto 
them. 2. And the angels, 

the sons of the heavens, saw 
and lusted after them, and 
spake to one another, ' Come, 
now let us choose us wives 
from among the children of 
men and beget children/ [3. 
And Semjaza who was their 
leader spake unto them : ' I 
fear ye will not indeed agree 
to do this deed and then I 
alone shall have to pay the 
penalty of a great sin/ 4. 
Then answered they all unto 



Fragments of the Greek 
Version of Enoch preserved 
in the Chronography of G. 
Syncellus. Ed. by Dindorf, 
1829. 

'Ek TOV TTptoTOV fil(3\iOV *Ev(i>X 

7T€pl tS>v eyprjyopoov. 
G. Syncellus, S. 20-23. 

Hen. 6, 1-9, 4. 
Kat ZyevtTo, ore Ztt\i)0vv- 
6r)crav ot viol t&v av6pu>TTO)v, 
kyevvr]6r)(rav avrots Ovyartpts 
wpatat, Kat eTreOvpLrja-av avras 
ot £ypr\yopoi, kclI ai:€T:\avr\6y]- 

(TCLV 07710-0) aVT&V, KOI tllTOV 
770OS aW-qhoVS, €Kk€^(0jJL€6a 

eavrois yvvaiKas cltto t&p Ovya- 
T€p(tiv rS>v avOpatTTdiv ttjs yrjs. 
Kat eure 2ejixiafas 6 apyjMV 
avr&v irpbs glvtovs, <fyofiovp.ai 
fjir} ov deXricrrjTe iroLrjcrai to 
7rpayfjLa tovto, Kat lo-oaat eyw 
Ijlovos d^etAenj? afxapTias fJL€y6>- 
kr)S. Kat CLTT€K.pLdr)(rav avTio 



VI. 3. Pay the penalty of a great sin. So G M fJRl ftpOLtfti 

OfljB. and the Giz. and Syn. Gk. dfaikerris dfiaprlas fifydKrjs. Other 



VI. 2. Sons of the heavens. Cf. 
xiii. 8; xiv. 3; xxxix. 1. See xv. 1-7. 
Cf. ' Sons of the holy angels,' lxxi. 1 ; 
v. 6 • Descended in the days of 
Jared.' See Crit. Note. The entire 
myth of the angels and the daughters 
of men in Enoch springs originally 
from Gen. vi. 1-4, where it is said that 
' the sons of God came in to the 
daughters of men.' These words are 
not to be taken as expressing alliances 
between the Sethites and the Cainites, 
but as belonging to a very early myth 
of Persian origin to the effect that 
demons had corrupted the earth before 
the coming of Zoroaster and had allied 
themselves with women. So Delitzsch, 
Neuer Commentar iiber d. Genesis, 
1887, pp. 146-8. The LXX originally 



rendered the words * sons of God ' by 
&yye\oi tov 0eou, and this rendering 
is found in Philo, de Gigantibus, Euse- 
bius, Augustine, and Ambrose. This 
view of Gen. vi. 1-4 was held by 
most of the early fathers. On the 
myths regarding the intercourse of 
angels with the daughters of men, see 
Grunbaum in ZDMG. xxxi. 225 ff. 
(Referred to by Delitzsch.) For state- 
ments of later writers either depend- 
ing directly on this account in Enoch 
or harmonizing with it, cf. Joseph. 
Ant. i. 3. 1; Philo, de Gigantibus; 
Test. Reuben 5 ; Napth. 3 ; Justin 
Martyr, Apol. i. 5 ; Ps. Clemens, Horn. 
viii. 13; Clem. Alex. Strom, v. 1. 10; 
Tert. De Virg. Veland. vii; Adv. 
Marc. v. 18; Deldol.ix; L&ct. I 11 stit. 



Sect. I.] 



Chapter VI. 1-6. 



63 



him and spake : ' Let us all 
swear an oath, and bind our- 
selves by mutual imprecations 
not to abandon this plan but 
to carry it into execution/ 
5. Then sware they all to- 
gether and bound themselves 
by mutual imprecations to its 
fulfilment ; and they were in 
all two hundred. 6. And 
they descended in the days 
of Jared on the summit of 



iravTes kcll eiirov, OfjLoaooiJLev 

a7T(ll>T€S OpKCD KCtl CLVa6€fXaTL(TC0- 

\xzv a\\r)\ovs tov fir} airocrTpe- 
\j/ai tt]v yv&\xy\v Tavrrjv, jue'xpi? 
ov airoTtkiarunAev avTrjv. tot€ 
iravTes &ixoaav opiov kol aveOt- 
IxaTLcrav aAA.77A.ot>?. ^Hcrav he 

OVTOL btaKOGLOL ol KCLTafiaVT€$ 

ev rats f)[A€pcus 'Iapeo* eh Tr\v 
Kopv(f)rjv rod 'EpjLumetjot opovs 
kol eKakeaav to opos 'EpjjicofjL, 



MSS. 'Pay the penalty of this great sin.' 5. Bound them- 

selves by mutual imprecations/ So G M and the Giz. and Syn. 
Gk. Other MSS. insert 'all/ 'They all bound themselves/ &c. 
6. Descended in the days of Jared. I have here followed the 
Greek text ol Karaj3duTes iv Tais rjfiepais 'Iapefi els rrjv Kopv(f)f]v tov 
y Ep/JLoviufx opovs. The Ethiopic text reads : ' descended on Ardis 
which is the summit of Mt. Hermon/ The name Ardis, otherwise 
unknown, is to be explained with Din. as a compression of 'ldpfd th t 
the translator not having found iv reus rjnepcus in his text. Hallevi 
in the Journal Asiatique, Avril-Mai 1867, pp. 356-357, reproduces 
this verse in Hebrew, whereby we see at a glance, why the angels 
descended in the days of Jared — from *TP to descend, and why it 
was that they bound themselves by mutual oaths on Hermon — 
from D"?n a curse. 

Cf. Book of Jubilees iv : ' Jared ; for in his days the angels of the 



ii. 15; Commodian. Instruct, i. 3. In 
the De Civ. Dei xv. 23, Augustine 
combats this view, and denies the in- 
spiration of Enoch, which is upheld by 
Tertullian. 6. Descended in the 
days of Jared. See Crit. Note ; also 
cvi. 1 3. Din. refers also to Orig. Com- 
ment, in Joann. torn. viii. p. 132, ed. 
Huet ; Epiph. adv. Haer. i. 4, ed. 
Petav, torn. i. p. 4. The reasons for 



the descent of the angels in the Book 
of Jubilees differ from those given in 
this chapter. In iv and v of that book 
it is stated that the watchers were sent 
to the earth by God 'to instruct the 
children of men to do judgment 
and uprightness,' and that when so 
doing they began to lust after the 
daughters of men. This form of the 
myth seems to be followed in Test. 



6 4 



The Book of Enoch. 



[Sect, r. 



Mount Hermon, and they 
called it Mount Hermon, be- 
cause they had sworn and 
bound themselves by mutual 
imprecations upon it. 7. 

And these are the names of their 
leaders : Semjaza, their leader, 
Urakibarameel, Kokabiel, Ta- 
miel, Ramuel, Danel, Zaqilo, 
Saraqujal, Asael, Armaros, 
Batraal, Anani, Zaqebe, Sam- 
saveel, Sartael, Turel, Jomjael, 
Arazjal. 8. These are their 
chiefs of tens, and all the 
others were with them.] 

VII. 1. And they took unto 
themselves wives, and each 
chose for himself one, and 
they began to go in unto them 
and they mixed with them, 



KdOoTl &lXO(TOLV KCLL aV€0€fJLaTl(TaV 

aWrjKovs ev avTiD. kclI ravra 
ra ovofxara tcov ap^ovrcov clvt&v' 
a Se/nafcis 6 ap^cov clvt&v. 
ft 'ArapKovcf). y 'ApaKirjA.. h' 
Xoo/3a/3i7jA. e' K Opa\i\i.a\jJ\. r 
'Pa/xi^A. £ ^afixf/L)^. t] ZaKir/A. 
6' BaA/a?}A. 1 'AfaA^rjA. 1a 
QapfJiapos. i/3' 'A/xa/urjA.. ly 
'Avay-qfAas. 18' GavaarjK. te 
2a/xt?}A.. ir'lapivas. if Ev/oinjA. 
ir{ TvpirjA. 10' 'lovpurjk. k 
Sa/nrjA. Ovtol Kal ol XolttoI 
iravTts Iv rw )(iA.ioaT<o kKarovrQ* 

e(3bopL7}KO(TT<2 €T€L TOV KOCTfJLOV 

ekafiov havTois yvvaiKas kcu 
rjp^avTO pLiaLveaQaL €v avrais 



Lord descended on the earth.' 8. These are their chiefs of 

tens. So G IM^ti 'Jtf'C'F: MHTa* and M, hut that for the first 
word it reads thftfri-awi So also the Giz. Gk. ovroi cW Apxai 
avTcdv ol 8e<a, which, as M. Bouriant proposes, should be emended 
into ovtol dcnv ol deicapxoi avriov. The Syn. Gk. omits. These 
twenty dekarchs are over the 200 angels mentioned in verse 5. On 
the other hand the Giz. Gk. omits the rest of this verse, hut the 
Syn. Gk. gives it. Thus G M point to a text anterior to that of 
either Greek fragment. All other MSS. but G M give a corrupt 
reading ' chiefs of the two hundred angels.' 



Reuben v. In Enoch the angels are 
said to have descended through their 
lust for the daughters of men, and the 
same reason is given in JalJcut Schim. 
Beresch. 44. See Weber, Lehren d. 
Talmud 244. Against this and other 
statements of Enoch there is an im- 
plicit polemic in the Book of Jubilees. 
In later tradition (Eisenmenger Ent~ 
decJct. Jud. ii. 387) the reason that 
Azazel could not return to heaven 



was that he had outstayed the limit 
of time assigned to angelic visitants 
to earth — seven days. 7. This list 
contains eighteen names ; lxix. 2 
twenty-one ; the Greek gives twenty. 
They differ considerably from each 
other. Din. makes an elaborate at- 
tempt at harmonizing them, pp. 93, 94. 
VII. The Ethiopic and Greek vary 
considerably in this and the following 
chapter. The notes of time given iu 



Sect. I.] 



Chapters VI. 7 — VIII. 1. 



65 



and taught them charms and 
enchantments, and made them 
acquainted with the cutting 
of roots and of woods. 2. 

And they became pregnant, 
and they bare great giants, 
whose height was three thou- 
sand ells. 3. And these 
consumed all the acquisitions 
of men till men could no 
longer sustain them. 4. Then 
the giants turned them against 
mankind in order to devour 
them. 5. And they began 
to sin against birds, and beasts, 
and reptiles, and fish, and 
to devour one another's flesh, 
and drink the blood there- 
of. 6. Then the earth com- 
plained of the unrighteous 
ones. 
VIII. [t. And Azazel taught 



e<w? tov KaraKkva-fiov. kclI €T€kov 
avTols yivr\ rota* 7rp£>Tov yiyav- 
ras ii€ya\ovs. oi 6e yCyapres 
€T£KV(*)(rav Na^r^A-etjtx, Kat rot? 
Na^A-et/x, eyevvrjOrjo-av 'EAtovo. 
Kat rfTav av^avofjievoL Kara ti]v 
/uteyaAetoTT^ra avr&v, Kat edtda- 
£av kavrovs Kat ras yvvcuKas 
kavT&v (j)apjJLaK€ taj Kat eiraoi- 
Stay. Hp&Tos 'A£ar)A. 6 beKaros 
t&v apyovToav e5t'8afe irotdv 
fxa^atpas Kat OcopaKas Kat tiav 
crKtvosTToheiMKOv Kat ra /xeraAAa 



the Greek are no doubt due to later 
hands. 1. Charms and enchant- 
ments. Cf. Joseph. Ant. viii. 2, 5. 
2. Bare great giants. For further 
references to these cf. Wisd. xiv. 6 ; 
Tob. vi. 14; Ecclus. xvi. 7; Bar. iii.26; 
3 Mace. ii. 4; Jubilees v. Whose 
height was three thousand ells. 
The number three thousand is found in 
the Giz. Gk. but it is wanting in the 
Syn. Gk. The three classes of giants 
mentioned in the Greek — the Great 
Giants, the Nephalim, and the Eliud — 
were, we must suppose, originally 
given in this chapter as they are pre- 
supposed in lxx xvi. 4; lxxxviii. 2, and 
passed from Enoch into Jubilees vii, 
where they are called Giants, Naphil, 
and Elj6. 3-6. These verses occur 



in a different order in the Greek — at 
the end of viii. 3 and in a very short- 
ened form. The Greek order seems 
preferable. 5. Blood. The eating 
of blood with the Jews was a great 
crime, Gen. ix. 4 ; Acts xv. 20 ; Book 
of Jubilees vii, xxi ; En. xcviii. 11. 
One another's flesh. This may refer 
to the destruction of one class of giants 
by another. Cf. Book of Jubilees vii. 
The text— cf. the Giz. Gk. dWrjXuv 
ras o&picas — does not admit of Dln.'s 
interpretation. 

VIII. 1-3. An interpolation. See 
p. 61. Azazel in viii. I is only the 
tenth in command, but first in 
the genuine parts. 1. Azazel. 

Cf. Rosenmuller's Scholia on Lev. 
xvi. 8 ; Herzog's B. E, ii. 23-25. 



66 



The Book of Enoch. 



[Sect. I. 



men to make swords and 
knives and shields, and coats 
of mail, and made known to 
them metals and the art of 
working them, bracelets, and 
ornaments, and the use of anti- 
mony, and the beautifying of 
the eyebrows, and the most 
costly and choicest stones and 
all colouring tinctures, so that 
the world was changed. 2. 
And there arose great godless- 
ness and much fornication, and 
they sinned, and all their ways 



TT]S yfjS KO.L TO \pV(TLOV 770)? 

kpyaaoovrai, Kal noi-qaoao-iv 
avra Koapaa rats yvvai^l /cat 
tov dpyvpov, eoetfe be avTols 

KCU TO 0-Tlhf$€lV KCLl TO KClAAa)- 

tt(£(U> Kal tovs ZkXzktovs Xidovs 
Kal to. (BacpLKa. Kal eiroi-qo-av 
eavTols oi viol t5>v av6pa>iT0)v 
Kal rats OvyaTpdatv avT&v, Kal 
Trape^rjcrav Kal eirXavrjo-av tovs 
ayiovsy Kal eyeveTO acrefieia 
iroXk.7) eirl rrjs yrjs. Kal r)(f)dvL- 
crav ras 68oi)s ai)T&v. Ert be 
Kal 6 np&Tapyos avT&v Sejouaf as 
ebiba£ev elvai opyas Kara tov 
voos, Kal ptfas j3oTav£>v ttjs yrjs. 
6 be hbeKaTOS Qapfxapos cotoafe 
(fyapfxaKeiaSf eiraoibCas, aortas, 



VIII. I. Metals and the art of working them. So Giz. Gk. 
to. fikaKXa km ttjp ipycLvLdv avT&v. The Ethiopic MSS. give ' what 
is after (or ' behind ') them and the art of working them.' Hence 
the translator found or mistook fier avra for fieraWa. The use 
of antimony. Din. translates 'the use of rouge.' But h°rti([ never 
means to put on rouge, but to use antimony for the eyes. See 
Lex. Col. 823. Gk. ro <mXj9«v. The world was changed. 

So G IrwM. Din. gives 'fmA'f and translates 'the metals of 
the earth.' 



Metals. Cf.Tertullian, Be Cultu Fern. 
i. 2 : Metallorum opera nudaverunt. 
Antimony. SeeCrit.Note. Tertullian 
borrows from this and the preceding 
chapter in Be Cultu Fern. i. 2: Her- 
barum ingenia traduxerant et incanta- 
tionum vires provulgaverant et omnem 
curiositatem usque ad stellarum inter- 
pretationem designaverant, proprie et 
quasi peculiariter feminis instrumen- 
tum istud muliebris gloriae contule- 
runt,lumina lapillorumquibus monilia 
variantur et circulos ex auro quibus 
brachia artantur — et ilium ipsum ni- 



grum pulverem quo oculorum exordia 
producuntur : and in Be Cultu Fern. 
ii. 10 : Quodsi iidem angeli qui et 
materias ejusmodi et illecebras dete- 
xerunt, auri dico et lapidum illus- 
trium, et operas eorum tradiderunt, 
et jam ipsum calliblepharum — tinc- 
turas — docuerunt, — ut Enoch refert 
. . . . Cf. Test. Eeuben 5, which 
also depends on these chapters in 
Enoch. 2, 3. The variations be- 

tween the Ethiopic and the Syn. Gk. 
are here numerous. Astrologers. Cf. 
Clem. Alex. Eclog. Projah. Dind. iii. 



Sect. I.] 



Chapters VI I L 2- IX. 2. 



67 



became corrupt. 3. Ame- 
zarak taught all the en- 
chanters and root-cutters, 
Armaros the resolving of en- 
chantments, Baraq'al (taught) 
the astrologers, Kokabel the 
signs, and Temel taught 
astrology, and Asradel the 
course of the moon.] 4. And 
as men perished, they cried, 
and their voice went up to 
heaven. 

IX. 1. Then Michael, Ga- 
briel, Surjan and Urjan, looked 
down from heaven and saw 
the great quantity of blood 
that had been shed upon the 
earth, and all the wrong that 
had been wrought upon the 
earth. 2. And they spake 
to one another ' The earth 
made without inhabitant 
echoes the voice of their cry- 
ing up to the gate of heaven. 



kcli eiraoLb&v kvTrjpia. 6 evvaros 
ebiba^ev aa-rpoa-KOiriav. 6 be 
rerapros ebCba^ev darpokoyiav. 
6 be oyboos ebiba^ev depoa-KO- 
ttlclv. 6 be rpiros ebiba^e tcl 
o-rjjixeta rrjs yrjs. 6 be efibopios 
ebLba£e tcl <n]/xeta tov fjXiov. 
6 be etKooros ebiba^e tcl arjpiela 
Trjs crekrjvrjs. Yldvres ovtol 
r)p£avTo avaKakvTTTeiv tcl \xva-rr\- 
pia rat? yvvaiQiv avT&v kcll 
tols t4kvols avT&v. Mera be 
TavTa rjptjavTo oi yiyavres kclt- 
eaOieiv tcls (rdpKas t&v avOpca- 
ttcov' kcll rjpfjavTO Ot CLvOpOiTTOL 
ekaTTOvadat eirl Trjs yrjs. oi be 
koLirol efi6r]o~av els rbv ovpavbv 
irepl Trjs KaKwo-eco? clvtG>v keyov- 
res elcreveyOrjvaL to pLvrjfjLoa-vvov 
clvt&v ev(6mov Kvpiov. Kat 
aKovaavTes ol Tea-capes /xeyaAot 
dp\dyyekoL M.L\ar]k Kat OvpLr)k 
kcll 'Pa(f)ar)k kcll Taj3pLr)k nape- 
KV\jsav eirl rr)v yrjv eic t&v dyicov 
tov ovpavov' kcll Oeacrd^xevoL 
alpLa irokv eKKexujxevov eirl rrjs 
yrjs Kat iraaav dai^eLav kcll 
avopLLCLV yevofxeviiv en avrrjs, 
elaekOovres elirov irpbs akkrj- 

koVS OTL TCL TTVeVfJLCLTa KCLL at 

\jsv)(aL t&v avOptoiroiv arevd^ov- 



3. The resolving of enchantments. SoGKM &t(h : all other 
MSS. give IsVrti, which is bad in sense and grammar. The Greek 
€naoi8a>v XvTrjpia confirms the reading &.*£(h. Din. gives £JVih in his 
text, but his German translation is a rendering of fafcth. 



474 ^877 5t Ka\ 'Epwx <pt)<riv robs irapa- 
fSavras ayyeAovs 8t5o|ot rovsavdpcairovs 
cmtt pouofiiav Kat fiauriK^v nal ras &\\as 

IX. Surjan and Urjan are variants 
of Suriel and Uriel. Suriel is not 
mentioned again in this book, but is 
known in later Judaism in Talmud 
Berachoth, fol. 51. a, as Din. points 



out. It is probable, however, that 
instead of Surjan we should read 
Raphael in accordance with the Greek. 
See xl. 2 (note). Michael, Gabriel, 
Uriel, and Raphael were generally 
regarded as the four archangels. 2. 
This verse is not found in the Greek. 
Made without inhabitant : cf. lxvii. 
2 ; lxxxiv. 5 ; and Test. Napth. 3 



P 2 



68 The Book of Enoch. [Sect. I. 

(tlv Ivrvyyavovra Kal keyovTa, 
on elaaydyeTe tt)v Kpiaiv f)fiS>v 

TTpOS TOV V\j/iaTOV, Kal TT)V 

cnrcakeiav 7]^5>v evviriov ttjs 
b6£rjs 7-779 fjL€yaXa)a-vv7]s, evcairtov 

TOV KVplOV T&V KVpiiaV TTCLVTCOV 

rrj ixeyak(i)<TVvr\. Kal tlirov tw 
KVpi(o t&v aitt>v(t)V, crv et 6 6ebs 
t&v Oe&v Kal Kvptos t&v Kvpioav 
Kal 6 Bao-iAev? t&v Bao-tXevoV- 
T(ov Kal Oebs t&v alvvaiv, Kal 
6 Opovos T7]s bo£rjs aov els 
Trdaas ras ycveas t&v al(6va>v, 
Kal to ovo^d aov dytov Kal 
evkoyr]\xevov els iravras tovs 
al&vas, Kal tcl ef?}9. ro're 6 
v\jno-TOs eKekevore rots aytots 
apxayyikois, Kal ebrjaav tovs 
*£a>PX 0VS clvt&v Kal e(3akov 
avTovs els ty\v aftvacrov, e'009 
Ttjs Kpiaeoas, Kal to. efrjj. Kal 
TavTa [lev 6 'Evcox fxaprvpel. 

'Ek tov koyov 'Eya>x. 

Ta Xot7ra irepl eypr^yopoav. 

(G. Syncellus. S. 42-47.) 

Hen. 8, 4-10, 14. 

Tore efio7)o-av ol avdpo&'noi 

els tov ovpavbv keyovres, eto-- 

aydyeTe tt)v KpLo~iv r^x&v 77009 

t6v v\jnaTov, Kal tt]v aTi&keiav 

fjfJL&V eVtoTTLOV TTJS b6^T]S TTJS 

/aeyaA.779, evviriov tov Kvpiov 
t&v KVpioav iravTOiV Trj /ixeya- 
k(j>o-vvr\. Kal aKOvaavTes ol 
reWaoes /xeyaAoi ap\ayyekoi 
Mtxa-qk Kal Ovpirjk Kal 'Paccar) A 
Kal Tafipirjk TrapeKvifsav ei:l tt\v 
yr\v Ik t&v ayioav tov ovpavov. 
Kal OeaordfxevoL alfxa nokv 
eKKexv^evov eirl ttjs yyjs Kal 
iraaav avo\kiav Kal dvefieiav 
yivofxevrjv eV avTrjs, elo-ek06v- 
Tes elirov iTpbs dkkrjkovs, otl to. 



Sect. I.] 



Chapter IX. y-6. 



69 



3. And now to you, ye holy 
ones of heaven, complain the 
souls of men, saying, " procure 
us justice with the Most 
High/'' ' 4. And they spake 
to their Lord the King: « Lord 
of Lords, God of Gods, King 
of Kings, the throne of Thy 
glory (standeth) unto all the 
generations of the ages, and 
Thy name holy and glorious 
unto all the ages : blessed and 
glorious art Thou ! 5. Thou 
hast made all things and over 
all things hast Thou dominion : 
and all things are naked and 
open in Thy sight, and 
Thou seest all things and 
nothing can hide itself from 
Thee. 6. See then what 
Azazel hath done, how he hath 
taught all unrighteousness on 
earth and revealed the secret 
things of the world which 
were wrought in the heavens. 



irvevfJiaTa Kal at yf/v^al t&v 
avOptoiroov kvTvyyavovo-i (rreva- 
(ovra kcu keyovTa, tier ay ay ere 
rr\v birjenv fjfx&v irpos top v\jn- 

(TTOV. Kat 7Tp0(T(k66vT€S ol 

T€(T(rap€s dpydyyekoi elirov ra> 
Kvpico, ay et 0€OS T&V 0€COV Kal 
Kvptos tG>v KvpCoiv Kal /3ao-tAei/j 
twv fiaariktvovTav Kal dtbs tG>v 
av0pd>TT(i)V, Kal 6 Opovos rrj? 
bo£r]s (tov (is vd&as ras ytveds 
Ttfo altovaiv, Kal to oVo/xa o~ov 
ayiov Kal evkoyr\ixevov els irdv- 
ras rovs ataxias* o~v yap et 6 
TTOtT^a-as tcl irdvra Kal TrdvT<ov 
T7}V k^ova-iav e^co^, Kal vapra 
ii'dOTTtov <tov (fyavepa Kal CLKa- 
kvnTa, Kal iravra opas, Kal ovk 

€(TTLV b KpvfiijvaC (T€ OVVCLTCLl. 

Spas oaa €TTOir](T€V 'Afa/jA., Kat 
ocra elo-rjveyKev, oaa tbtbatjev, 
abiKLas Kal ajJcapTias tirl Trjs 
yrjs, Kal iravra bokov e7rt Trjs 
£t]pas. eSt'5a£e yap to, \xvaTf]pia 
Kal a7T€Kdkv\j/6 rw al&vi to, iv 
ovpavu). €iTLTr]b€vova-L be to. 
€7rtr?75evf>tara avTov, elbivat to. 



IX. 4. Their Lord the King : so all MSS. but GM, which give 
' the Lord of Kings.' Unto all the ages. So G M omitting : V(D*&i& 
and Greek els ndpras tovs al&vat. All other MSS. 'unto all the genera- 
tions of the world.' 6. Revealed the secret things of the world 



Ta£us t))V yrjv aoiKrjTou. 3. Holy 

ones : see i. 9 (note). Most High. : 
see xcix. 3 (note). 4. The prayer 

of the angels is fuller in the Syn. Gk., 
and a still more rhetorical form of it 
is found in lxxxiv. 2, 3. 6. All 



unrighteousness on earth : cf. vii. 
1. The secret things, &c. What 
these are is not told. 7. An in- 

terpolation from the same source as 
vi. 3-8; viii. 1-3; see p. 61. The 
Syn. Gk. seems to be defective here. 



70 



The Book of Enoch. 



[Sect. I. 



[7. And Semjaza to whom 
Thou hast given authority to 
bear rule over his associates has 
made known enchantments.] 
8. And they have gone to the 
daughters of men upon the 
earth, and have slept with them, 
with those women, and defiled 
themselves, and revealed these 
sins unto them. 9. And the 
women have borne giants, and 
the whole earth has thereby 
been filled with blood and 
unrighteousness. 10. And 
now behold, the spirits of the 
souls which have died, are 
crying and complaining to the 
gate of heaven, and their 
lamentations are ascending- : 



fivcrrripLa ol viol t&v avOptoTrav. 
r<S 2ejoua£a tt)v k^ovo-iav l8co- 
kcls %x€iv t&v o-vv avT<a a\xa 
ovruiv, kcu €TTOpeu6r]<Tav irpbs 
tcls Ovyarepas t&v avdp<air(ov 
tt]s yrjs, kcu o-vv€KOLiArj6r]o~av 
fJL€T avT&v, KCU €V TCUS OrjKelcus 
eiAiavQrjo-av, kcu ibrjkcoo-av av- 
rat? irda-as ras a/xaprta?, kcu 
tbiba^av avras jjLLo-qrpa tiouiv, 
kcu vvv ibov al Ovyaripes t&v 
avOpatircDv €T€kov ef avrcov viovs 
yiyavras. Kifibr)ha iirl rrjs yijs 

T&V dvOpCOTTOiV €KK€XVTCU, KCLL 

okr] rj yyj €7rkrjo-0r] abiKLas. Kcu 
vvv ibov TCL TTVeVfAaTCL T&V \j/v- 
X&v t&v dirodavovTOiv dv9p(o- 
TTOiV kvTvyyavovo~L } kcu ^xpi 
t&v ttvX&v tov ovpavov dv€(3rj 6 
o-T€vayp.bs clvt&v, kcu ov bvvaTcu 



which were wrought in the heavens. So all MSS. and the Giz. Gk. 
but the Syn. Gk. aTreKaXv^-e Ta alwvi to. iv ovpava gives a better sense. 
8. Upon the earth. G M give (KA; A»flX. This, as the reading 
of the Giz. and Syn. Gk. ttjs yijs shows, is a corruption of A<£Q; Wift. 
Hence my translation. All other Ethiopic MSS. give wrongly 
*Jft*£ = together. 10. The spirits of the souls which have died. 
Here I have followed the Syn. Gk. ru nvevpLara tS>v tyvx&v tg>p cnroBa- 



8, 0. Cf. Justin, Apol. ii. 5 Of Sh 
&yye\oi — yvvauc&v fxl%€0~iv r]TT-f)6y<rav 
koI iraiSas ireKVUffav, ol elaiv ol \ey6- 
fievoi Salfioves — Ka\ els avOpunovs <p6- 
vovs, iro\4fJLovs, fnoixeias — Ka\ irao~av 
Katciav ecireipav. 10. The spirits 

of the souls, &c. See Crit. Note. 
They cannot escape from, &c. The 
Ethiopic is here superior to the Greek. 
The intercession of the angels on 
man's behalf which appears in this 
chapter and is found also in xv. 2 ; xl. 



6; xlvii. 2; xcix. 3, 16; civ. I, is an 
O.T. doctrine ; cf. Job v. 1 ; xxxiii. 
23; Zech. i. 12. It was evidently a 
popular doctrine. Cf. Tobit xii. 12 
> E7<J> irpoa-fiyayov rb /nvrifiSo'vyov tt}s 
irpofftvxys vfA&v ivctnriov rod ayiov 
(contrast Acts x. 4); also xii. 15 4yco 
flfii 'Pa<pa})\ €is e'/e rS>v €irra ay'ioov 
ayye\a)v ot irpoffavcupepovo'i ras irpoffev' 
X&.S ra>v ayicav : Rev. viii. 3 ; Test. 
Levi 3: also 5 iytib ttfU 6 &yy c\os 6 
irapaiTovfxevos rb ytvos 'Icrpafa. 



Sect. I.] 



Chapters IX. 7 — X. 2. 71 



and they cannot escape from 
the unrighteousness which is 
wrought on the earth. 1 1. 
And thou knowest all things 
before they come to pass, and 
Thou knowest this thing and 
every thing affecting them, 
and yet Thou didst not speak 
to us. What are we therefore 
to do in regard to this ? ' 

X. 1. [Then spake the Most 
High, the Great and Holy 
One, and sent Arsjalaljur to 
the son of Lamech and said 
to him : 1. ' Tell him in My 
name " hide thyself ! ", and 
reveal to him the end that is 
approaching: for the whole 
earth will be destroyed, and a 
deluge will presently come 
upon the whole earth, and 
all that is on it will be de- 



cgekOelv and irpoo-to-nov t&v tin 
ttjs yrjs yivo\kkv(&v dbiK-qpLOLTOiV. 
kclI ctv avra olbasirpb t&v avra 
yeviorOai ko1 opqs clvtovs kcli 
eas clvtovs, Kat ovbev Aeyets. 
f( Set Troirjaai clvtovs irepl rov- 
tov ; 

tot€ 6 vy\n<TTos etire kclI 6 
aytos 6 fjiiyas Z\a\r](r€, kol 
e7re/uu/fe tov OvpLrjk irpbs tov 
vlbv Adfxex kiyo)V, iropevov irpbs 
tov N<2e Kat dnbv avTu t<$ 
e/xa> ovopLciTi, Kpv-^rov o-eavroV, 
kol b-qkcoo-ov avrw reAos eirep- 
y6p.€Vov> otl f] yrj cnroWvTai 
irao~a. Kat einbv avTca otl kclto:- 
Kkvo-pibs fxeXXet yLveadai irdo-qs 
ttjs yijst dirokicraL irdvTa dirb 



v6vT<op. The Ethiopic text iWh XAl ^F='the souls which have 
died ' must therefore be emended into aoq^fifri tttWh Xrt; 1*¥. 

We find, moreover, this expression in the correct text of xxii. 3 
«n>££fffr Ai^OP*: Ay°£D*^l and a similar expression in the 
correct text of xvi. 1 ao^h^l fc^Wfr, and the Syn. Gk. ra 
Trvevfxara to. eiaropevopcva. cltto ttjs >ln>XV s ovt5>v. In IX. 3 read the 
spirits of the souls instead of the souls. The Giz. Gk. supports 
in xvi. 1 and xxii. 3 the readings adopted but agrees with the 
Ethiopic text in ix. 3, 10. 



X. 1-3. These verses belong to an 
Apocalypse of Noah. 1. The 

Most High ; see xcix. 3 (note). The 
Great and Holy: see i. 3 (note). 
Arsjaiaijttr. For this the Syn. 
Gk. has simply Uriel, and the Giz. 
Gk. has Istrael. The name in the 



text is probably a corruption. Son 
of Lamech, i. e. Noah. If x. 1-3 
belonged originally to this section, 
the writer must have followed the 
Samaritan reckoning. Hide thyself; 
i. e. in order to receive further dis- 
closures from the angel: cf. xii. I. 



72 



The Book of Enoch. 



[Sect. I. 



stroyed. 3. And now in- 
struct him that he may escape 
and his seed may be preserved 
for all generations.] 4. And 
again the Lord spake to 
Rafael: 'Bind Azazel hand 
and foot, and place him in the 
•darkness : make an opening 
in the desert, which is in Du- 
dael, and place him therein. 
5. And place upon him rough 
and jagged rocks, and cover 
him with darkness, and let 
him abide there for ever, and 
cover his face that he may 
not see the light. 6. And 
on the great day of judgment 
he shall be cast into the fire. 



Trpoo-toiTov rijs yrjs. bubagov 

TOV blKaiOV TL TTOLrj(r€L, TOV vlbv 

AdjjL€\, kclI tt]v ^vyj\v CLVTOV els 
(a)r)v avvTY]prj(r€L Kal eKtyev&Tai 
be* al&vos Kal e£ avrov (f)vrev- 
6i](T€Tai qbvrevpLa kol crradria-tTaL 
irdaas ras yeveas rod al&vos. 
Kal rw *Pa(/>a7)A. elire, rropevov 
^Pa^arjX, Kal brjaov Tov'A£arj\, 
X € P°~ L Ka l ttoctI a-vfJLTTobia-ov av- 
rov, Kal efifiake avrov els to 

(TKOTOS, Kal OLVOl^OV T7]V €pY}[JLOV 

rrjv ovaav ev rfj e/o^jutw Aovbar/X, 
Kal €K€L iropevOels j3d\e avrov 
Kal viroOes airy \l6ovs 6£els 
Kal kCOovs rpaxets, Kal eiti- 
Kakv\j/ov airy vkotos, Kal oIkt]~ 
aaTco €K€L els tov al&va, Kal 
tt)v o\jnv avrov ircafxaa-ov, Kal 
qb&s ixrj decopeCra). Kal ev rfj 
rjfxipq rijs Kpio-€(i)S airayOrio-tTai 
els tov €[xirvpLo-pibv tov nvpos' 



X. 3. For all generations. So G M reading &\ttrao*i ^OhhA. 
Din. and other MSS. except N give 'for all the earth': cf. the Gk. 



3. The Syn. Gk. is much fuller. 4-8. 
The task deputed to Eufael or Ka- 
phael. 4. Azazel as the chief 

offender and leader is first punished. 
The preliminary punishment of Azazel 
is described in vv. 4, 5 : the final one 
in v. 6. Azazel was conceived as 
chained in the wilderness into which 
the scape-goat was led. The Jerusa- 
lem Targum (Ps. Jonathan) on Levi- 
ticus says that ' the goat was sent to 
die in a hard and rough place in the 
wilderness of jagged rocks, i.e. Beth 
Chaduda.' This Beth Chaduda was 
three miles, or according to another 
account, twelve miles from Jerusalem. 
This is clearly the Dudael mentioned 
in this verse, and it is thus a definite 



locality in the neighbourhood of Jeru- 
salem. See Judische Zeitschrift f. 
Wissenschaftund Leben 1 864, pp. 196- 
204. Cf. Lev. xvi. 10, 22. 5. 

Place upon him. The Greek gives 
vir6des airy, but this is probably a 
slip for iiriOes avrf. For ever. Like 
eis rby alwva, of which the Ethiopia 
text is an exact rendering, this phrase 
has no definite meaning in itself. 
It may denote according to the con- 
text an unending period ; or a period 
of seventy generations, as here ; cf. 
v. 12 ; or a period of five hundred 
years, as in v. 10. 6. Great day 

of judgment : see xlv. 2 (note). This 
judgment inaugurates the final punish- 
ment of the angels. The fire : see 



Sect. I.] 



Chapter X. 3-9. 



73 



7. And heal the earth which 
the angels have defiled, and 
proclaim the healing of the 
earth, that I will heal the 
earth, and that all the children 
of men shall not perish through 
all the secret things that the 
watchers have disclosed and 
have taught their sons. 8. 
And the whole earth has been 
defiled through the teaching of 
the works of Azazel: to him 
ascribe all the sin/ 9. And 
to Gabriel said God: 'Pro- 
ceed against the bastards and 
the reprobates, and against 
the children of fornication : 
and destroy the children of 
fornication, and the children 



kcli Icktcli tt]v yrjv fjv rj<f)dvL(rav 
ol typriyopoL, Kal tyjv Xacriv ttJs 
TrX-qyijs hrjk(D(TOVj tva IdautvTai 
TTjv irXrjyrjv, Kal per} a-noXodVTai 

TTCLVTtS ol viol T&V avdptoTTiOV, 

iv rw iJ.vcrTr]pi(i} b zlirov ol typr)- 
yopob Kal Zbiba£av tovs vlovs 
avT&v, kol rjprjjjLCdOrj irao-a rj yrj 
kv Tois epyois ttjs fahao-KaXias 
'A^a^A.* Kal en avrfj ypd\j/ov 
irao-as t<xs a/xaprtay. Kal tw 
Ta(3ptr]X enre, iropevov Tafipir)\ 
kul tovs yiyavras €irl tovs kl/3- 
brjXovs, €irl tovs vlovs ttjs irop- 
veCas, Kai aitoktcrov tovs vlovs 
t&v iypr]y6p(ov dub t&v vl&v 



ndvas ras yeveas tov al£>vo$. 7. Proclaim the healing of the earth, 
that I will heal the earth. The Syn. Gk. gives rfjv laaiv rrjs irXriyrjs 
drjXaxrop, Iva ld(ra>vTai rrjv nXijyrjv. Thus, as the word rendered ' earth ' 
in the Ethiopic appears as TrXrjyT) in the Gk., it is most probable that 
the Hebrew word was 73n which means ' earth ' when punctuated 
<5?, a 'pollution' when punctuated ?2ft . Disclosed. All MSS. 
read <H*rt« 'have slain'; the translator found iirara^av as in the 
Giz. Gk. which is a corruption of en-eraaav. The Syn. Gk. gives 
dnov. 8. To him. So the Giz. Gk. The Syn. Gk. gives ' to it.' 
9. Bastards. So also the Giz. Gk. which gives a corrupt trans- 



xviii. 11; xix; xxi. 7-10. 7. The 

command given to Raphael is such 
as his name suggests from KD"1 'to 
heal.' Cf. Tob. iii. 17; xii. 14. 8. 
Observe how all sin is ascribed to the 
fallen angels. 9, 10. The destruc- 
tion of the giants through Gabriel. 
The account here is followed closely 



by the Book of Jubilees v. The giants 
slay each other in the presence of 
their parents: cf. xiv. 6. The latter 
are then bound in the abysses of the 
earth, and their power of hurting the 
earth is at an end : cf. xiv. 5. But 
this is not so with the spirits of the 
giants. They enjoy an impunity in 



74 



of the watchers from amongst 
men : lead them out and 
send them one against the 
other that they may destroy 
each other in battle : for 
length of days they shall 
not have. io. And no re- 
quest that they (i. e. their 
fathers) make of thee will 
be granted unto their fathers 
on their behalf although they 
hope to live an eternal life, 
and that each one of them 
will live five hundred years, 
[n. And the Lord said unto 
Michael : ' Go, announce to 
Semjaza and his associates who 
have united themselves with 
women so as to have defiled 
themselves with them in all 
their uncleanness.] 1 2. When 
all their sons have slain one an- 



Tke Book of Enoch. [Sect. I. 

TU>V aV0p(OTT(*)V. TT€fJL\jrOV CLVTOVS 

ets aXXrjkovs, ef clvt&v ets av- 
rovs, kv 7roA.e/ixto kclI Iv a7ra)Aeta, 



Kat fACLKpOTTIS f)fJL€p(t)V OVK COTOU 

avTois, Kat iracra epwr^o-ts ovk 
€<ttl rots irarpaaiv avT&v, on 
kX-ni^ovai Cw aL C M V V ai&viov, 
Kat otl Qqaerai €Kaaros avr&v 
hrj TievraKoaia. Kai rw Mt- 
Xaj]X et7re, Ttopevov Mtxa??A, 
brjaov Se/xiafar Kat rous aAAov? 
avv avT(D, tovs crv/xjutyeVras' rats 
OvyaTpaai t&v avdpcairoiv rov 
puavOrjvai kv avrat? h rfj anad- 
apalq avrStv. Kai oiav Kara- 
acfray&aiv ol viol avrcav, Kai 



literation of the Hebrew word, i.e. nafypeovs. 10. No request that 
they make of thee will be granted unto their fathers. So GM 
reading ffft , instead of fr-flftfl* as Din. So the Syn. Gk.: nao-a epcor^o-ts 
ovk eo-Ti rots naTpdaiv avra>v, but M by a slip Xft(fl>l AjBlUD*? instead 
of (DhJftiahi, or (Dhjtffri with G. Although they hope to live 
an eternal life. So G K M : XftffDi £th&OLi J&AfOl.; ch^coTi 
HA^Ay°. So the Gk. : iXnlCovai (fio-ai Ccofjv alaviov. Other MSS. and 
Din. omit the £rh?fflL ' Though they hope for an eternal life.' 
11. And the Lord said unto Michael: 'Go, announce.' So 
G F H L : J&ftta X7R& rthCi Z&M. Other MSS. and Din. omit 
dhC, but wrongly : cf. the Greek nopevov. Instead of announce the 



wrongdoing till the final judgment : angels, cf. xii. 6 ; xiii. 4-6 ; xiv. 7. 

see xv. u-xvi. An eternal life, 11. This verse is an interpolation: 

i.e. five hundred years: see v. 5 see p. 61 ; vv. 9-16 describe the task 

(note). Touching the prayer of the assigned to Gabriel. 12. Slain 



Sect. I.] 



Chapter 



other, and they have seen the 
destruction of their beloved 
ones, bind them fast under 
the hills of the earth for 
seventy generations till the 
day of their judgment and of 
their consummation, till the 
judgment which is for ever 
and ever is consummated. 
13. In those days they will 
be led off to the abyss of 
fire : in torment and in prison 
will they be confined for ever 
and ever. 14. And whoso- 
ever shall be condemned and 
from thenceforward be de- 
stroyed with them, will be 
bound together with them to 
the end of all generations. 



X. 10-14. 75 

tSoxn tt]v aTTtoXetav tG>v dyaur]- 
t&v avT&v, br}<rov clvtovs ZttI 
kfibofjLrjKovTa yeveas els tcls 
vdiras ttjs yrjs, ^i\pi fjfJLtpas 
KptVecos clvt&v, /ute'xpi $l*£pa$ 
reAetwa-ecos rekea-fjiov, eW o~w- 
Tekeo~6fi Kpiixa tov al&vos T&V 

altoVOOV. TOT€ CL7T€V€x0ri(TOVTaL 
€19 TO -)(.aOS TOV TTVpOS KCLl €t? 

tt]V fidaavov kcll els to 8eo-joia)- 

T-qpLOV TTJS 0~VyK\€lCT€(OS TOV 
al&VOS. KCLL OS tlV KCLTaKpiOr} 

kcll dcpavtaOfj diro tov vvv /xer' 
avT&v, beOrfcreTCLL jJL*XP L T ^^ L< ^~ 
creois yeveas clvtcov. 



Syn. Gk. gives brjaov, but this is an error for brjXao-uv. See the Giz. Gk. 
14. And whosoever shall be condemned and from thenceforward 
be destroyed with them, will be bound together (with them) to 
the end of all generations. I have followed the Syn. Gk. The 
Ethiopic runs : 'And forthwith he will burn and thenceforward 
suffer destruction with them : they will be bound together to the 
end of all generations.' The singular in ' he will burn ' is mean- 
ingless, as we have here only to do with the entire body of watchers. 
The Syn. Gk. gives at once excellent sense and explains the origin of 
the Ethiopic corruption : os av KaraKpi6fj Kai d<pavto~6rj ano tov vvv per 
avTOiv, bedrjaeTai pe%pl TeAfi&xreco? yeveas avratv. KaraKpiBji = ' be con- 
demned/ in connexion with the fiery abyss in the preceding line, 



one another : cf. xii. 6 ; xiv. 6 ; Book 
of Jubilees v. The binding of the 
angels under the hills seems to be an 
idea derived from the Greek myths 
of the Titans. Seventy generations. 
This period has no connexion with the 



Apoc. of weeks. See Spec. Introd. of 
xci-civ. With vv. 5, 12 cf. Jude 
6. 13. Abyss of fire, i. e. the 
same as that mentioned in v. 6 ; 
xviii. 11 j xix ; xxi. 7-10; xc. 24. 
14. See Crit. Note : cf. xix. 2. 



76 The Book of Enoch. [Sect. I. 

15. And destroy all the lustful souls, and the children of the 
watchers, because they have oppressed mankind. 16. De- 

stroy all oppression from the face of the earth and let every 
evil work come to an end : and the plant of righteousness 
and uprightness will appear, labour will prove a blessing: 
righteousness and uprightness will be established in joy for 
evermore. 17. And then will all the righteous escape 

and will live till they beget a thousand children, and 
all the days of their youth and their old age (lit. sabbath) 
will they complete in peace. . 18. And in those days 
will the whole earth be tilled in righteousness and will 
all be planted with trees and be full of blessing. 19. And 
all desirable trees will be planted on it, and vines will be 
planted on it : the vine which is planted thereon will yield 
wine in abundance, and of all the seed which is sown 
thereon will each measure bear ten thousand, and each 
measure of olives will yield ten presses of oil. 20. And 

cleanse thou the earth from all oppression, and from all 
unrighteousness, and from all sin, and from all godlessness, 
and from all uncleanness which is wrought upon the earth : 



could easily be taken by the translator for KaraKavOfj = be burned, 
and so give rise to the present Ethiopic text. Rightly translated 
then, the verse refers to the women who are to be destroyed with the 
fallen watchers. Cf. xix. 2. KaTaKavOff is the reading of the Giz. Gk. 



15. Destroy, &c. The writer is still has here gone over wholly to a descrip- 
describing the duties of Gabriel, i. e. tion of the Messianic times. The 
the destruction of the giants and the picture is a very sensuous one. Their 
imprisonment of the fallen watchers. old age : cf. xxv. 3, 4 (note). 18, 

16. Plant of righteousness, i. e. 19. The future is depicted after 0. T. 
Israel. Israel springs from a seed prophesy. Cf. Amos ix. 13, 14 ; Hos. 
that ' is sown' by God, lxii. 8 : hence ii. 22, 23 ; Jer. xxxi. 5 ; Is. xxv. 6 ; 
it is established as 'a plant of the Ezek.xxviii. 26; xxxiv. 26, 27. Will 
seed for ever,' lxxxiv. 6, is called ' the each measure bear, &c. : cf. Is. v. 
plant of uprightness,' xciii. 2, ' the 10, and the chiliastic expectations of 
plant of righteousness,' xciii. 5, ' the Papius in Iren. adv. Meter, v. 33. 
eternal plant of righteousness,' xciii. 20. This verse could be interpreted 
10, and finally ' the plant of righteous of the deluge, but it seems better to 
judgment,' xciii. 5. 17. The writer refer it, as the verses before and after, 



Sect. I.] Chapters X. 15 — XII 4. jj 

destroy them from off the earth. 31. And all the children 

of men shall become righteous, and all nations shall offer 
Me adoration and praise, and all will worship Me. 22. 
And the earth will be cleansed from all corruption, and from 
all sin, and from all punishment and torment, and I will 
never again send (them) upon it, from generation to genera- 
tion, for ever. 

XL i . And in those days I will open the store chambers of 
blessing which are in the heaven, so as to send them down 
upon the earth over the work and labour of the children of 
men. 2. Peace and justice will be wedded throughout 

all the days of the world and throughout all the generations 
of the world. 

XII. t . And before all these things fell out Enoch was hidden, 
and no one of the children of men knew where he was hidden, 
and where he abode, and what had become of him. 2. And 
all his activities had to do with the holy ones and with the 
watchers in his days. 3. And I Enoch was blessing the 
great Lord and the king of the world, when lo ! the watchers 
called me — Enoch the scribe — and spake to me. 4. ' Enoch 
thou scribe of righteousness, go, announce to the watchers of 
the heaven who have abandoned the high heaven and the 
holy eternal place, and have defiled themselves with women, 



to the Messianic kingdom. 21. The sleep and is transported in spirit unto 

conversion of the Gentiles : cf. xc. 30 heaven, xiv. 2 : speaks with a tongue 

(note). 22. In corrupt MSS. there of flesh, xiv. 2 : and is terrified, like a 

is a reference to the deluge here. mortal man, at the presence of God, 

XI. 1. This chapter concludes an xiv. 24. "Was hidden is the Ethiopic 

account of the Messianic kingdom. Cf. translation of rip? and /MeredriKev : cf. 

Deut. xxviii. 12. 2. Cf. lxxxv. 10; lxxi. 1, 5. 2. Holy ones : see i. 9 

Is. xxxii. 17. (note). "Watchers: see i. 5 (note). 

XII-XVI. On these chapters, see 3. King of the world : see i. 3 (note). 
Spec. Introd. p. 55. 1. "Was hidden, The scribe : cf. xcii. 1. Enoch is 
i. e. in order to receive the following further called 'the scribe of righteous- 
revelation : cf. x. 2. Enoch is still ness,' xii.4; xv. 1, because he is him- 
living: his final translation from self a righteous man, xv. I ; lxxi. 14- 
earth has not yet fallen out; for as 16, and declares the righteous judg- 
a man he writes the petition for the ment that is coming, xiii. 10; xiv. 1, 
angels, xiii. 6 : receives a vision in 3 ; lxxxi. 6 ; Ixxxii. 1, &c. 4. Cf. 



78 The Book of Enoch. [Sect. I. 

and have done as the children of men do, and have taken 
unto themselves wives, and have grossly defiled themselves 
on the earth. 5. They will have no peace on the earth 
nor forgiveness of sin : and inasmuch as they delight them- 
selves in their children, 6. the murder of their beloved 
ones they shall see, and over the destruction of their children 
will they lament, and will make supplication unto eternity, 
but mercy and peace will they not attain/ 

XIII. 1 . And Enoch went and said : ' Azazel : thou shalt 
find no peace : a severe sentence has gone forth against thee 
— (Rufael) shall put thee in bonds : 2. And alleviation, 
intercession, and mercy will not be accorded to thee, because 
of the oppression which thou hast taught, and because of all 
the works of blasphemy, oppression, and sin which thou hast 
shown to the children of men.' 3. Then proceeding farther, 
I spoke to them all together and they were all afraid and 
were seized with fear and trembling. 4. And they besought 
me to draw up a petition for them that they might find 
forgiveness, and to take their petition into the presence of 
God in heaven. 5. For from thenceforward they could not 
speak (with Him) nor lift up their eyes to heaven for shame 
of their sins for which they were punished. 6. Then I 

composed their petition and the prayer on behalf of their spirit, 
and for their individual deeds for which they besought for- 
giveness and forbearance. 7. And I went off and sat down 
at the waters of Dan, in Dan, to the right (i. e. the south) 

XII. 5. Inasmuch as they, &e. So G : wkftaoi &Tg P>fo\ 
ah(k£ao*\ tH*A: GQ&LWavi &Ch$, but with the insertion of 
before ahfc£(fl>* with nine other MSS. Cf. the Giz. Gk. nepl hv 

Xaipovcri tcov vlcov avrtov. 



Jude 6. 5. Wo peace : cf. v. 4. ing with Enoch's literary character 

6. Cf. x. 10, 12. that he draws up their petition in 

XIII. 1. Azazel addressed in con- writing, and does not present it by 

formity with x. 4. No peace : cf. word of mouth. 7. Waters of 

v. 4. 4, 5. As the angels could. Dan. This river, called also the 

not address God nor lift up their eyes little Jordan, Joseph. Ant. I. xii. 1, 
to heaven, Enoch is besought to be- * is a tributary of the Jordan. This 

come their intercessor. It is in keep- place, from |H to judge, is chosen 



Sect. I.] Chapters XII. 5 — XIV. 4. 79 

of the west of Hermon, and I read their petition till I fell 
asleep. 8. And behold a dream visited me and visions fell 
down upon me, and I saw the vision of a chastisement to the 
intent that I should recount it to the sons of the heaven 
and reprimand them. 9. And when I awaked, I came to 
them, and they were all sitting together weeping with their 
faces covered at Ublesjael, which is between Lebanon and 
Seneser. 10. And I recounted to them all the visions which 
I had seen in my sleep, and I began to recount those words 
of righteousness, and to reprimand the heavenly watchers. 

XIV. 1. This book is the word of righteousness and 
the reprimand of the eternal watchers in accordance with 
the commandment of the Holy and Great One in that 
vision. 1. I saw in my sleep what I will now recount 
with a tongue of flesh and with my breath which the 
Great One has put into the mouth of men, that they 
might converse with it, and understand in their heart. 
3. As He has created man and given to him the power of 
understanding the word of wisdom, so hath He created me 
also and given me the power of reprimanding the watchers, 
the sons of heaven. 4. ( I wrote out your petition, and in 



XIII. 9. They were all sitting. So all MSS. but G. G reads 
J&Hlft« « were talking.' 

XIV. 4. G inserts after v. 4 mkyfikUa MftOH 0*ftt; tirfc 
<n>«pOA; Mcn>; mm%\ ^fri^ti A0A>*icn>«: (DhJttiahiiun* 'And 
from henceforth their friendship is at an end unto all the days of 
eternity : and judgment has been finally passed upon you and no 



because its name is significant of the is often used in Enoch. Seex. 5 (note). 

subject the writer is dealing with, Holy and Great One : see i. 3 (note). 

i. e. the judgment of the angels. 8. 2, 3. As surely as God has created 

Sons of the heaven : see vi. 2 man and given him a tongue for 

(note). 0. Ublesjael and Seneser speech and a faculty for understand- 

are unknown places. 10. Heavenly ing, so just as certainly has He ap- 

watchers : see i. 5 (note). The vision pointed Enoch to reprimand the 

is described in xiv-xvi. eternal watchers. Tongue of flesh : 

XIV. 1. Eternal watchers, lit. cf. lxxxiv. 1. The Great One : cf. 

watchers who are from eternity, i.e. ciii. 4; civ. I. Sons of heaven: 

in the loose sense in which that word see vi. 2 (note). 4-7. The repri- 



80 The Book of Enoch. [Sect. I. 

my vision it appeared thus, that your petition will not be 
granted throughout all the days of eternity, and that judg- 
ment has been finally passed upon you, and no indulgence will 
be granted to you. 5. And from henceforth you will 

never again ascend into heaven to all eternity, and on the 
earth the decree hath gone forth, they shall bind you for all 
the days of eternity. 6. But previously you will see the 
destruction of your beloved sons and you will not have them 
in your keeping, but they will fall before you by the sword. 
7, Your petition on their behalf will not be granted, nor that 
on your own : likewise despite your tears and prayers you will 
receive nothing whatever contained in the writing which 
I have written/ 8. And the vision appeared to me thus ; 

behold in the vision clouds invited me and a mist invited me : 
the course of the stars and the lightnings drove and im- 
pelled me, and the winds in the vision gave me wings and 
drove me. 9. And they lifted me up into heaven and I 

came till I drew nigh to a wall which is built of crystals 
and surrounded by a fiery flame : and it began to affright me. 
10. And I went into the fiery flame and drew nigh to a 



indulgence will be granted unto you/ 7. You will re- 

ceive nothing whatever. The Ethiopic, which is a literal 
rendering of the Giz. Gk. fifj \a\ovvres nav prjfx.a, gives no in- 
telligible sense. Hence I have supposed XaKovvres to be a cor- 
ruption of Xaxovres, and so translated. But the corruption may 
have originated in the Hebrew through the confusion of 81p and 
mp. 8. Instead of fROQl, GM read ,P8iJ*i = ' incited.' 



mand which Enoch administered to est et conservatur usque nunc testis 

the watchers. 5. Cf. xiii. 5 ; also judicii Dei, quoniam angeli quidam 

the Apology of Athenagoras : ovtoi 01 transgressi deciderunt in terram in 

6ryyeAoi oi iKTreffSvres twv ovpavwv . . . judicium. 8. Clouds invited 

ovkcti eb tci virepovpdvia virepKvtyai me. This is a peculiar expression 

dvvdfievoi. 6. Cf. x. 9. 7- See and may be due to an error. We 

Crit. Note. Irenaeus IV. xvi. 2. should expect some such idea as is 

(Stieren's ed.) refers to this passage : found in Ps. xviii. 10, 11; civ. 3. 

Enoch . . . cum esset homo, legatione 0-13. Enoch is carried up into heaven 

ad angelos fungebatur et translatus and passes within the outer wall that 



Sect. I.] Chapter XIV. 5-21. 81 

large house which was built of crystals : and the walls of that 
house were like a mosaic crystal floor, and its groundwork 
was of crystal. 11. Its ceiling was like the path of the 

stars and lightnings, with fiery cherubim between in a 
transparent heaven (lit. 'and their heaven was water '). 12. 
A flaming fire surrounded the walls of the house, and its 
portal blazed with fire. 13. And I entered into that 

house, and it was hot as fire and cold as ice : there were no 
delights of life therein : fear covered me and trembling gat 
hold upon me. 14. And as I quaked and trembled, I fell 

upon my face and beheld in a vision. 15. And lo ! there 
was a second house, greater than the former, all the portals 
of which stood open before me, and it was built of flames of 
fire. 16. And in every respect it so excelled in splendour 
and magnificence and extent that I cannot describe to you 
its splendour and its extent. 17. And its floor was fire, 

and above it were lightnings and the path of the stars, 
and its ceiling also was flaming fire. 18. And I looked 
and saw therein a lofty throne : its appearance was as 
hoarfrost, its circuit was as a shining sun and the voices 
of cherubim. 19. And from underneath the great throne 
came streams of flaming fire so that it was impossible to look 
thereon. 20. And the Great Glory sat thereon and His 

raiment shone more brightly than the sun and was whiter 
than any snow. 21. None of the angels could enter 

13. There were no delights of life therein. So G M £70: chJ^W^V : 
also the Giz. Gk. Din. and FHLO read £79: (Dch^co^ ' there 
were no delights and no life therein.' 20. The Great Glory. 

So G and the Giz. Gk. Din. gives ' He that is great in glory.' 

surrounds the irpovaos or forecourt of upon Is. vi; Ezek. i, x; Dan. vii. 9, 

the palace of God. 14. Cf. lx. 3 ; 10. This passage (vv. 18-22) is used 

lxxi. 11 ; Ezek. i. 28; Dan. viii. 17, by the author of lxxi. 5-8. A lofty 

18, &c. 15. Enoch approaches throne: cf. Ezek. x. 1 ; Dan. vii. 9. 

the palace of God but does not enter, As hoarfrost, i. e. dazzling and 

as no mortal may behold God. As bright as hoarfrost : cf. Dan. vii. 9 

the doors are open, he can describe ' white as snow.' 19. Cf. Dan. vii. 

what is within. 18. In this and 10. 20. The Great Glory : cf. 

the following verses, the writer draws cii. 3. "Whiter than, &c. : cf. Dan. 



82 The Book of Enoch. [Sect* I. 

and could behold the face of the Honoured and Glorious One 
and no flesh could behold Him. 22. A flaming" fire was 
round about Him, and a great fire stood before Him, and 
none of those who were around Him could draw nigh Him : 
ten thousand times ten thousand were before Him, but He 
stood in no need of counsel. 23. And the holiness of the 
holy ones, who were nigh to Him, did not leave by night nor 
depart from Him. 24. And until then I had had a veil on 
my face, and I was trembling : then the Lord called me with 
His own mouth and spake to me : ( Come hither, Enoch, and 
hear My holy word/ 25. And He made me rise up and 

approach the door : but I turned my face downwards. 

XV. r. And He answered and spake to me with His 
voice : ( I have heard, fear not, Enoch, thou righteous man 
and scribe of righteousness : approach and hear my voice. 
2. And go, say to the watchers of heaven, who have sent thee 
to intercede for them : you should intercede for men, and not 
men for you : 3. Wherefore have ye left the high, holy, 
eternal heaven, and lain with women, and defiled yourselves 
with the daughters of men and taken unto yourselves wives, 
and done like to the children of earth, and begotten giants 



22. A flaming fire. So AGKM and the Giz. Gk. : Din. and 
FHLO 'Fire of flaming fire/ 23. And the holiness of the 

holy ones, who were nigh to Him, did not leave by night nor 
depart from Him. So G aft&tft\ fr^Ti: Xrt: £<PCQri Iftfr; 
Hf-Ohte. AAT; wttftlPi XF°%lh. Also the Giz. Gk. 24. Hear. 
So the Giz. Gk., but wanting in the Ethiopic MSS. 

XV. 1. I have heard. So G M A"¥0fiK Other MSS. ft"70 = 



vii. 9. 21. The Honoured and cases and = ' word' or 'voice.' In xci. 

Glorious One : cf. ciii. 1. 22. t we should probably translate ■ the 

Could draw nigh : cf. 111 Mace. ii. 15: voice calls me,' rather than 'the 

1 Tim. vi. 16. Ten thousand times, word' &c. 25. Enoch is bidden 

&C. Dan. vii. 10. 23. Contrast to draw near the door but not to 

lxxi. 8. 24. My holy word : see enter. 

Crit. Note. In xv. 1, 1 have rendered XV. 1. Scribe of righteousness : 

'hear my voice' as in the Giz. Gk. see xii. 3 (note). 2. Intercede: 

The Ethiopic word is the same in both see ix. 10 (note). 3. Cf. xii. 4 ; 



Sect. L] Chapters XIV 22 — XV 9. 83 

(as your) sons. 4. Whilst you were still spiritual, holy, 
in the enjoyment of eternal life, you have denied yourselves 
with women, have begotten (children) with the blood of flesh, 
and have lusted after the blood of men, and produced 
flesh and blood, as those produce them who are mortal 
and shortlived. 5. Therefore have I given them wives 

also that they might impregnate them, and children be 
borne by them, that thus nothing might be, wanting to 
them on earth. 6. But you were formerly spiritual, 

in the enjoyment of eternal immortal life, for all genera- 
tions of the world. 7. Therefore I have not appointed 
wives for you ; for the spiritual have their dwelling in heaven. 
8. And now, the giants, who jj en j- 3^ 5 T 
are produced from the spirits Kat /xe0' trepa' koL vvv of 
and flesh, will be called evil yiyavrts ol yevvrjOivres airb 
spirits upon the earth, and on ™^™* ™j ™P™ ^ara 

7TOVlf]pa €7TL 77/9 y7]S KdA£(TOV(nv 

the earth will be their dwell- a £ ro ^ 6Vt 3 KaTO l KWiS a i T & v 
ing. 9. Evil spirits proceed carat iul rrjs yrjs* nvtvuaTa 



'hear/ 5. That thus, &c. So G : h<n>j h<W: K^Wli 7»0Ci 

(1 / IOA>0'1. But the last word 'through them' (fern.) I have 
rendered to them (masc.) as in the Giz- Gk. tm /x^ e/cXetVei avrols. 
Din. and FHKNO read hm>: h^fr; jB.t7ttCi V-QC = wie solche 
Dinge zu geschehen pflegen (Din.). 8. From the spirits. 

So G XaVlSftl*?. So the Gk. : cmb 7rvevfxdra>v. Other MSS. 
and Din. KS^i^li^ = ' from the body/ but this is clearly 



Jude 6. 4-7. For man as mortal that the evil activities of these demons 

and dwelling upon the earth wedlock are not restrained or forbidden as 

is appointed that so the race may those of their parents, for the latter 

continue to exist : but for the angels were thrown into chains immediately 

who are immortal and dwell in the on the death of the giants, their 

heaven such commingling is contrary children. 8, 9. From the spirits 

to their nature and involves pollution and flesh : see Crit. Note. On these 

and guilt. 8, 9. The union of verses cf. Justin. Apol. xxii, quoted in 

angels and the daughters of men will the note on ix.8, 9 ; Tertull.^jpo^.xxii: 

give birth to a new order of beings, Quomodo de angelis quibusdam sua 

i. e. giants, and from these giants sponte corruptis corruptior gens dae- 

when they die will proceed evil spirits, monum evaserit . . apud litteras sanctas 

i. e. demons, and these will have the ordo cognoscitur. In Lact. Indit. ii. 

earth for their habitation. Observe 1 5, the demons are regarded purely as 

G 2 



8 4 



The Book of Enoch. 



[Sect. I. 



from their bodies ; because 
they are created from above, 
(and) from the holy watchers 
is their beginning and primal 
origin; they will be evil spirits 
on earth, and evil spirits will 
they be named. 10. And 
the spirits of heaven have 
their dwelling in heaven, but 
the spirits of the earth which 
were born upon the earth have 
on the earth their dwelling, 
li. And the spirits of the 
giants will devour, oppress, 
destroy, attack, do battle, and 
cause destruction on the earth, 
and work affliction : they will 
take no kind of food, nor will 
they thirst, and they will be 



Tiovrjpa eaovrcu, ra irvevpLara 
€^€\r)Xv06ra cltto tov (tco/xoitos 
rrjs crapKos avr&v, bioTL airo 

T&V avdpdOTTCOV tyivOVTO, KOL €K 

rSiV ayitov t&v eyp-qyopcav 7] 
apxjl ttjs kti<t€gj$ avT&v Kal 
ap\r] 06/xeA.ioi;. ■nvevp.ata 7ro- 
vr)pa Zirl ttjs yijs eawrai, ra 
TrvevfJLaTa (al.: Trpwra) t£>v yi- 
yavroiv vepLOfxeva, abtKovvra, 
cMJyavi&vTa, ZpartTTTOvTa Kal 
(TVixTTaXaiovra Kal pnrTovvra eirl 
ttjs yfjs Kal bpojxovs itoiovvra, 
Kal fjirjbtv icrdiovTa, aAA* acrt- 
Tovvra Kal (pao-paTa itoiovvra 
Kal bLxj/cavTa Kal TTpoa-KOirrovra. 



wrong. ii. Will devour, oppress, destroy, attack. So 

the Syn. Gk. : vep.6p.eva, abiKovvra, d<fiavi£ovTa, epn'mrovra. Dln.'s Ethi- 
opic text runs ^ffD^t; XA; JEW0«I fr^toU (D£a)£:$!, and is 
thus translated by him: Welehe auf die Wolken sich stiirzen, 
werden verderben und herabstlirzen, but this is not possible gram- 
matically. Before we compare the two versions we must change 
j2. <7 Y?IJ« into jP^YftJ. in accordance with G and the Gk. d<pavi£ovTa. 
We find there, that ^7^0* is the exact equivalent of ddiKovvra, 
•f ^yfli* the equivalent of afyavi&vra, and £*a)£:<te a bad rendering of 
ifXTrlnTovra. We now come to the main difficulty, „&n>£1*; XA as an 
equivalent of vepopeva. Dr. Neubauer has suggested to me that 
the Hebrew may have been lay i.e. Ey = 'they oppressed,' of 
which vepopeva might stand as a free rendering, and that this lay 
may have been confused with py 'a cloud' by the Greek translator, 
whom the Ethiopic followed. The Giz. Gk. supports the corrupt 
Ethiopic text, and reads ve<pe\as. Nor will they thirst. The Gk. 



wicked angels. 10. Not found in account of the evil activities of the 

the Gk. 13 See Crit. Note. An demons. 



Sect. I.] Chapters XV. 10 — XVI. i. 



85 



invisible. 12. And these 

spirits will rise up against the 
children of men and against 
the women, because they have 
proceeded from them. 

XVI. 1. In the days of murder 
and of destruction and of the 
death of the giants when the 
spirits have gone forth from the 
souls of their flesh, in order to de- 
stroy without incurring judg- 
ment — thus will they destroy 
until the day when the great 
consummation of the great 
world be consummated over 
the watchers and the godless. 



kcu k£avacrTr\(TOVTai Tairvevfxara 
€7t\ tovs vlovs T&V aV0p(O1T(OV 
kcu t£>v yvvaiK&v, on e£ clvt&v 
^€Xrf\v9a(n' nal cnrb r^xipas 
Kcupov o-(f)ayi]S kcu d7ro)Aeias 
kcu Oavdrov t&v yiyctVTOdv Na- 
c/^Aei/n, ol l&xypol Trjs yrjs, ol 

[A€ya\OL dvOpLCMTTOL, TCL TTVeVfAClTa 

tcl tKiropevopLtva airo Trjs xj/v^vs 
avrQ>v } cos £k tjjs aapKos <-<tovtcu, 
a(f)avL£ovTa x^P^s KpCcrecos, ov- 
ro>y a^avia-ovart jueyjus r )l JL ^P as 

Trjs T€\€L(O0-€0)S } €0)9 Trjs K/0UTeO)S 

Trjs fjLtyaXrjs, kv fj 6 alvv o p,iyas 
Tek€(rdri(r€TCU, e</)' aira^ 6p,ov 
reAecrflrjcrercu. 



is wrong in omitting the negative ftt^wrra. M is likewise wrong. 
12. "Will rise up against. So M. All other MSS. add a nega- 
tive : the Gk. confirms M. 

XVI. i. Correct X^i^h^ in Dln/s text into X^i^t with 
E and N and the Gk. otto rip \\tv X ^, and iti % into t W2t with A E 
F G H K L M N O and the Gk. T&eivaeus. The text is still very 
corrupt ; hut it is not difficult to restore the original with the help 
of the Book of Jubilees and the Syn. Gk. which runs : ra nvevpaTa 
to. 6K7ropev6p.eva diro Trjs xj/vxr]s avrav, a>s £k tt}$ aap<6s eaovrai, d<pavi£ovTa 
Xeopts KpiVeeos, ovtccs dcfxivlaovcn pe\pis f)p.(pas ttjs TeXeidtaeas. In the 
Book of Jubilees, ch. x, it is said that the purpose of the demons 
is AA CT 7ri9 > : wdhftcMri ty&avi H-Ji = 'to destroy and lead astray 
until the judgment.' This gives the sense of the Gk. and what 
should be the sense of the Ethiopic. The text then should 
read: Kit; fib a>0fr; <n>l£4t; fci^Wl*; >»? \Ta*\ (iJ^h-U 
HJWftJ.: HXiddi Wis h"7tf« PVftU fcfth: OAT; W^t; 00£. 
This is the text which we have translated above. For this use 
of A in A£ft*J« as an inseparable conjunction of purpose, see Dln/s 



XVI. 1. See Crit. Note. The appears in the Eook of Jubilees x, 
demons will not be punished till the and in the N.T. Cf. Matt. viii. 29, 
final judgment. This doctrine likewise 'Art Thou come hither to torment 



86 The Book of Enoch. [Sect. I. 

The following Fragment is not found in the Ethiopic 
Version. It probably belongs to the lost Apocalypse of Noah 
which is interwoven with the book of Enoch. 

Kcu avO is* irapa 8e tov opovs kv <o &p.0(rav Kal avedefxaTicrav 

TTpOS TOV TT\r](TLOV CLVT&V, OTL €t? TOV altoVCL OV [XT} aTTOCTTT] CUT* 

clvtov \jfv^os Kal x. L ^ v KC ^ naxvri Kal bpoaos ov p.r] Karafifj els 
avroy et ixr} ds Karapav KaTafirjo-tTai in avTo, p.i\pis rjfxipas 
Kpicrecos tt}s fxeydXrjs. kv rw KaLpco e/cetVa) KaTCLKavOrjcreTai Kal 
Tai7€LV(o9i]cr€Tai Kal eorai KaraKaiofxevov Kal tt]k6[1€VOv g>j KTjpbs 
curb nvpbs, ovtcos KaTaKar/aeTai irepl ttclvtmv tu>v epycav clvtov. 
Kal vvv eya) \.kyoa Vfuv viols avOpvircov, opyrj /xeyaA.77 kclO* vjx&v, 
Kara t&v vlG>v vjukSz', Kal ov Trawerai r) opyr) avrr] acj) vpi&v, 
[xey^pb Kaipov o~(f)ayr}s t&v vl&v vjxcav. Kal airoXovvTai ol aya- 
tt7]toI vfjL&v Kal airoOavovvTai ol Zvtlijlol vp,(ov and irao~r)s Trjs yr)s, 
otl nao-ai al fjfxepai Trjs (a>rjs ai)T&v curb tov vvv ov fxrj <Lo~ovrai 
7rA.etco t&v tKarbv €Xkoo~iv Zt&v. Kal [xr) bo£r)T€ hi (rjo-ai inl 
Tiktiova hrj' ov yap 1<jtlv Its avTois Tiaaa bhbs kKcfreutjeojs cnrb 
tov vvv bia ry)v dpyrjv, rjv topyio-Orj vpXv 6 fiacnXevs tt&vtuiv t&v 
al(6v(t)V fxr) vopLLcrr]T€ otl €K<£ev£eor0e Tama. 

Kal TavTa fxkv £k tov nptoTov fiifiXiov 9 Evu)\ ntpl tG>v kypr\- 
yopoov. 

2. And now as to the watchers who have sent thee to 
intercede for them, who had been aforetime in heaven, (say to 
them,) 3. " You have been in heaven, and though the 
hidden things had not yet been revealed to you, you knew 
worthless mysteries, and these in the hardness of your hearts 



Lex. Col. 24. The Giz. Gk. supports the view taken above : Ac rr)s 
•tyvxqs Trjs aapKos axiToav carat, though it wrongly omits the as. Dln/s 
text is very corrupt and misleading. Over the watchers and 
the godless. Not in either Greek fragment. 3. Worthless. 

►See Appendix. Cf. the Giz. Gk. to €K tov 6eov yeyevrjfxe'vou. 



us before the timeV Consummation: Strom, ed. Dintlorf. iii. 9 : ol &yy e\oi 
see xlv. 2 (note). 3. This state- itcelvoi ol rov &vw K\r\pov ctAr/x^s, 

ment is the basis of Clem. Alex. KaroAio-e^o-avTes els rjSovds, i£e?irov ra 



Sect. I.] Chapters XVI. 2— X VII. 4. 87 

you have recounted to the women, and through these mysteries 
women and men work much evil on earth." 4. Say to 
them therefore : " You have no peace." ' 

[XVII. 1. And they took me away to a place where there 
were forms like flaming' fire, and when they wished they 
appeared as men. 2. And they conducted me to the place 
of the whirlwind and to a mountain, the point of whose 
summit reached to heaven. 3. And I saw the places of 
the luminaries and of the thunder at the ends thereof ; in the 
depths thereof, a fiery bow and arrows and their quiver, 
and a fiery sword and all the lightnings. 4. And they 
took me to the water of life, and to the fire of the west, 



XVII. 2. G reads w(\&l = they conducted me. Cf. iP'h-l in 

vv. i, 4. Other MSS. give w(\£i. ' one conducted me.' The Giz. 
Gk. supports G. 3. The places of the luminaries. SoMO — 
rn>*iCT; -flC??*, also G <n>V-aCt: UCYST. So also the Giz. Gk. 
Din. and PHLN: ' brightly shining places.' After the places 
of the luminaries the Giz. Gk. adds ml tovs Bqo-avpovs rav 
dareptov. At the ends thereof. See Appendix. And 



air6pp7)Ta reus yvvcuj-lv '6ffa re els XVII. 1. Forms like flaming 

yvaffiv avT&v a<p?Kro. 4. N o peace : fire, &c. These are some kind of 

see v. 4 (note). angels : cf. xix. I. 2. Place of 

XVII-XIX. These chapters are the whirlwind : cf. Job xxxvii. 9. 

certainly foreign to the rest of this A mountain. It is impossible to 

section. They are full of Greek ele- determine anything about this moun- 

ments. "We have references in xvii. tain. 3. Places of the lumin- 

5, 6 to the Pyriphlegethon, Styx, aries. These may be the 'chambers 

Acheron and Cocytus : in xvii. 5, 7, 8 ; of the luminaries' : cf. xli. 5. Of the 

xviii. 10, to the Ocean Stream : in thunder : cf. xli. 3 ; xliv ; lix ; lx. 

xvii. 6, to Hades in the west. Again, 13-15 and notes. In the depths 

xviii. 6-9 is a duplicate account of thereof, i. e. of the places of the 

xxiv. 1-3; xviii. 12-16 a duplicate thunder. Fiery bow — the bow with 

account of xxi. 1-6, and xix of xxi. which the lightnings are shot: cf. Ps. 

7-10, though in the last case there vii. 12 ; Hab. iii. 9; Lam. ii. 4; iii. 12. 

are important divergencies. Again, Arrows, i. e. the lightnings : cf. Ps. 

xix. t contradicts xv. 4-1 2; for, whereas xviii. 14; Ixxvii. 17, 18. Their 

we have in xix demonic beings before quiver: cf. Lam. iii. 13. Sword : 

the fall of the angels, in the rest of cf. Ps. vii. 12; Deut. xxxii. 41. 

i-xxxvi the demons are described as 4. The water of life : see Crit. 

the children of the fallen angels. Note. Cf. 'the fountain of life,' in 



88 The Book of Enoch. [Sect. I. 

which receives every setting of the sun. 5. And I came to 
a river of fire, the fire of which flows like water and discharges 
itself into the great sea towards the west. 6. And I saw 
all the great rivers and came to a great darkness,, and went to 
the place where all flesh wanders. 7. And I saw the 
mountains of the darkness of winter and the place whence the 
waters of the entire deep flow. 8. And I saw the mouths 
of all the rivers of the earth and the mouth of the deep. 

XVIII. 1. And I saw the chambers of all the winds, and I 
saw how He had furnished with them the whole creation and 
the firm foundations of the earth. 2. And I saw the corner- 
stone of the earth, I saw the four winds which bear the earth 
and the firmament of the heaven. 3. And I saw how the 
winds stretch out the vaults of heaven and have their station 
between heaven and earth : these are the pillars of the heaven. 



a fiery sword. Not in the Giz. Gk. 4. The water of life. 

So the Giz. Gk. All Ethiopic MSS. insert the epithet ' so-called ' 
before water, but such a description would be incompatible with 
the prophetic role of the author. 6. After came the Giz. Gk. 
inserts ' to the great river and/ All flesh. The Giz. Gk. states 
exactly the opposite onov ira<ra <rap£ ov nepmarti. If the Greek is 
right, we may find a parallel to this statement in xix. 3. If the 
Ethiopic is right, the place is to be taken as Hades, as in the 
note. 7. The mountains of the darkness of winter. The Giz. 

Gk. gives ' the wintry winds of the darkness.' "We have no means 
of determining which is right. The place whence, not ' den 
Ort wohin ' as Din. Cf. the Giz. Gk. rrjv ckxvo-iv. 



Ps. xxxvi. 9; Prov. x. n; xiii. 14; &c, i.e. Oceanus. 

xiv. 27 ; xvi. 22 ; Rev. xxii. 17, 'water XVIII. 1. Chambers of all the 

of life.' Fire of the west : see xxiii winds : see xli. 4 (note) ; lx. 11, 12 ; 

(notes). 5. Kiver of fire : the also xxxiv-xxxvi. Foundations of 

TIvpi<p\ey46a>p. Great sea : TiKeavds the earth. A frequent phrase in the 

or the Great Ocean Stream. 6. O.T. Cf. 11 Sam. xxii. 16 ; Job xxxviii. 

All the great rivers: Styx, 4; Ps. xviii. 15 ; lxxxii. 5, &c. 2. 

Acheron and Cocytus. The place Cornerstone : Job xxxviii. 6. The 

where, &c, i. e. Hades. 7. The four winds. This theory has no 

mountains, &c. : see Crit. Note. root in the O.T. 3. Pillars of the 

8. The mouths of all the rivers, heaven : the expression is from Job 



Sect. L] Chapters X VII. 5 — X VIII. 1 2. 89 

4. And I saw the winds which turn the heaven, which bring 
the circumference of the sun and all the stars to their setting*. 

5. And I saw the winds on the earth, which carry the clouds ; 
and I saw the paths of the angels : I saw at the end of the 
earth the firmament of the heaven above. 6. And I pro- 
ceeded towards the south, and there it burns day and night, 
where there are seven mountains of magnificent stones, three 
towards the east, and three towards the south : 7. and 
indeed of those towards the east, one was of coloured stone, 
and one of pearls, and one of antimony, and those towards the 
south of red stone. 8. But the middle one reached to 
heaven like the throne of God, of alabaster, and the summit 
of the throne was of sapphire. 9. And I saw a flaming 
fire, which was in all the mountains. 10. And I saw there 
a place, over against the great earth : there the heavens were 
gathered together. 11. And I saw a deep abyss, with 
pillars of heavenly fire and among them I saw pillars of 
heavenly fire fall which were in number beyond count alike 
towards the height and towards the depth. 1 2. And over 



XVIII. 4. Instead of jPOCte AhQQ, G has the strange reading 
?0Oh 40A: Wl-fl. 10. Heavens. So GM A"7JPt and the 

Giz. Gk. Later MSS. *1$!*t ' waters.' 1 1. I saw a deep abyss. 
So GM. Din. and FHKLNO add 'in the earth.' But this 
abyss is beyond the earth. The Giz. Gk. supports G M. 



xxvi. 11. 4. Turn the heaven, and three in the South and the seventh 

&c: cf. lxxii. 5; lxxiii. 2. 5. at their point of contact. The descrip- 

Carry the clouds. An explanation tion here varies somewhat from that 

of the difficulties suggested in Job in xxiv. 1-3. These mountains are 

xxxvi. 29; xxxvii. 16. At the end mentioned in the Book of Jubilees viii. 

of the earth the firmament, &c. 8. Of sapphire : cf. Ezek. i. 26. 

The ends of the firmament of heaven 10. The same idea as in xviii. 5 ; 

rest on the ends of the earth: cf. xxxiii. 2. 11. This may be the final 

xxx iii. 2 ; the vault of heaven is sup- place of punishment for the fallen 

ported by the winds, xviii. 2, 3. angels. If so, cf. x. 6, 13; xix; xxi. 

6-9. This is another version of what 7-10 ; xc. 24. Of heavenly fire : cf. 

is recounted in xxiv. 1-3. These Gen. xix. 24; Ps. xi. 6; Ezek. xxxviii. 

seven mountains lie three in the East 22. 12-16. This place of punish- 



9<d The Book of Enoch. [Sect. I. 

that abyss I saw a place which had no firmament of the 
heaven above and no foundation of earth beneath it : there 
was no water upon it and no birds, but it was a waste place. 

13. And what I saw there was horrible — seven stars like 
great burning mountains, and like spirits, which besought me. 

14. The angel said : c This is the place where heaven and 
earth terminate, it serves for a prison for the stars of heaven 
and the host of heaven. 15. And the stars which roll 
over the fire are they which have transgressed the command- 
ment of God before their rising because they did not come 
forth at the appointed time. t6. And He was wroth with 
them and bound them till the time when their guilt should be 
consummated in the year of the mystery/ 

XIX. 1. And Uriel said to me ( Here will stand the 
angels who have connected themselves with women, and their 



XIX. 1. Dln.'s text is very corrupt. Hence I have transferred 
the W from «flH*^ to the word before it, in accordance with the 
Giz. Gk. Again I have read Xfth for X&cn> with B C H M N 0, 
and OAt, for (10 A^ with CGLMNO. Thus we have a literal 



ment for the disobedient stars is again xix. 1 the angels are said to seduce 

described in xxi. 1-6. It is already mankind into sacrificing to the demons 

occupied. 13. Seven : a sacred as gods ; but according to x-xvi this 

number in this book. Mountains. is impossible ; for the demons are the 

The stars are larger than they appear. spirits which have gone forth from 

Like spirits which besought me. the children of these angels, and as 

The stars are regarded as conscious the imprisonment of the angels and 

beings and accordingly punished for the destruction of their children were 

their disobedience. Cf. the affrcpes in effect contemporaneous (x. 12), it 

ir\avr}Tai in Jude 13. 16. The was impossible for the former to teach 

angel knows not when the punishment men to sacrifice to demons. Accord- 

of these stars will be over, and de- ing to xv. 12-xvi an end was set to 

clares this to be a mystery ; yet in the destructive agencies of the fallen 

xxi. 6 this mystery is disclosed. angels by their imprisonment, whereas 

XIX. This chapter has been misin- unlimited license was accorded to the 

terpreted by Din. We have already demons till the final judgment. We 

seen (p. 87) that xvii-xix are an have here, therefore, a different view 

intrusion in the present text, and the of the origin of the demon-world, 

more closely we study this chapter The demons, according to this chapter, 

the more certain is this conclusion. In are in existence before the fall of the 



Sect. L] Chapters XVIII. 13 — XX. 4. 91 

spirits assuming many different forms have defiled mankind 
and will lead them astray into sacrificing' to demons as gods, 
(here will they stand,) till the day of the great judgment on 
which they shall be judged till they are consummated. 2. 

And with their women also who led astray the angels of 
heaven it will fare in like manner as with their friends/ 3. 
And I, Enoch, alone saw the vision, the ends of all things : 
and no man will see what I have seen as I have seen.] 

XX. 1. And these are the names of the holy angels who 
watch. 3. Uriel, one of the holy angels, the angel over 

the world and over Tartarus. 3. Eufael, one of the holy 

angels, the angel of the spirits of men. 4. Raguel, one of 



translation of the Giz. Gk. 2. The Giz. Gk. differs greatly : ku\ 
al yvvaiKes avrcov to>v irapafiavrcov dyye\a>v els (reiprjvas yevrjaovrai. 3. 

Will see. So G M, and the Giz. Gk. Din. and F H O ' has seen.' 
XX. 2. The angel over the world. So G HMO? , and the 
Giz. Gk. nrl rov <6afiov. Din. gives 'over thunder/ Over 

Tartarus. So the Giz. Gk., but all Ethiopic MSS. give 'over 



angels. 1. Sacrificing to demons Enoch ' universas materias per- 

as gods: cf. Deut. xxxii. 17; Ps. spexi.' 

cvi. 37 ; Bar. iv. 7. This passage and XX. In my Gen. Introd. I have 

xcix. 7 are probably the source of treated this chapter as an interpola- 

Tertullian, Be Idol, iv: Henoch prae- tion. The comparison, however, of 

dicens omnia elementa, omnem mundi the Giz. Gk. shows that many of the 

censum, quae caelo, quae mari, quae statements discordant with the rest of 

terra continentur, in idolatriam ver- the section are foreign to the true text, 

suros daemonas et spiritus desertorum This chapter, therefore, was probably 

angelorum, ut pro Deo adversus Deum an original part of this section. 1. 

consecrarentur. Day of the great "Who watch : see xii. a (note). 2. 

judgment : see xlv. 2 (note). Are The province assigned to Uriel serves 

consummated, or 'are destroyed.' to explain such passages as xxi. 5, 9; 

2. The women will be subjected to xxvii. 2 ; xxxiii. 3, 4. Cf. his r6le in 

the same punishment as the fallen iv Ezra iv. 1. 3. Bufael : see x. 

angels : cf. x. 13. 3. The ends 4, 7- The definition here given is 

of all things. Quoted by Clemens vague, but suits admirably in xxii. 3, 

Alex. Eclog. Proph. (Dind. iii. 456) : 6. In xxxii. 6, however, Rufael dis- 

6 Aaui^jX Aeyei SfjLuSo^cov t<$ 'E^x t V charges duties which according to xx. 

6i'pr)/coTi" KcudSov ras v\as irdcr as "&nd 7 should belong to Gabriel. 4. 

by Origen, De Princ. iv. 35 : scriptum Raguel (from yy*l ' to chastise ' or 

namque est in eodem libello dicente ' terrify ') is the chastiser of the lu- 



92 The Book of Enoch. [Sect. I. 

the holy angels, who takes vengeance on the world and on the 
luminaries. 5. Michael, one of the holy angels, to wit, he 
that is set over the best part of mankind, over the people. 
6. Saraqael, one of the holy angels, who is set over the spirits 
of the children of men, whose spirits have sinned. 7. 
Gabriel, one of the holy angels, who is over Paradise and the 
serpents and the Cherubin. 

XXI. 1. And I went round to the place of chaos (lit. f where 
nothing was made'). 2. And I saw there something 

horrible, I saw neither a heaven above nor a firmly founded 
earth, but a place chaotic and horrible. 3. And here I 

saw seven stars of the heaven bound together in it, like great 
mountains and flaming as with fire. 4. On this occasion I 
said { For what sin are they bound, and on what account have 
they been cast in hither V 5. Then spake Uriel, one of the 
holy angels, who was with me and was chief over them, and 



quaking.' The Greek is right ; cf. xxi ; xxvii. 2. 6. See 

Appendix. 7. Paradise and the serpents. So G and the Giz. 
Gk. Din. inverts this order. The serpents may be Seraphim. 
See Appendix. 

XXI. 2. I saw neither a heaven above. So G CK\h\ flJltrt' 7 ??; 
ADA: and the Giz. Gk. eapaKa ovre ovpavbv endua. Din. gives ' no 
high heaven.' A place chaotic. So G tw*ili HWs &&&• but 
that it wrongly omits the negative : cf. the Giz. Gk. tottov amTa- 
aKcvaarov. Later MSS. add ' empty ' after ' place ' against G and 
the Giz. Gk. 5. And was chief over them. So the Giz. 

Gk., ml avTos avrcov rjyeiTo. Uriel is over Tartarus, xx. 2. Cf. for 



minaries and seems to be rightly be the speaker in xxxii according to 

mentioned in xxiii. 4, according to the this verse. 

most probable text. See Appendix. XXI. 1-6. This place of punish- 

5. Michael is the guardian angel of ment of the disobedient stars has 

Israel: so in Dan. x. 13, 21; xii. 1, been already described in xviii. 6-12. 

and likewise universally : see Weber, There is no material difference between 

L. d. T. 165 : according to this verse the two accounts. 1. Origen 

Michael is possibly the right speaker (De Pi inc. iv. 35) has cited this 

in xxiv-xxvi. 6. Saraqael. Not verse : Ambulavi usque ad imperfec- 

found elsewhere. 7. Gabriel should turn. 2. Chaotic : see Crit. Note. 



Sect. I.] Chapters XX. 5 — XXII. 1. 93 

said : \ Wherefore dost thou ask, and why dost thou enquire 
and art curious ? 6. These are the stars which have trans- 
gressed the commandment of God, and are bound here till ten 
thousand ages, the number of the days of their guilt, are con- 
summated/ 7. And from thence I went to another place, 
which was still more horrible than the former, and I saw 
a horrible thing : a great fire was there which flamed and 
blazed, and the place was cleft as far as the abyss, being 
full of great descending columns of fire : its extent and 
size I could not see, nor was I able to see its origin. 
8. Then I spake c How horrible is this place and how hideous 
to look upon ! ' 9. Then Uriel answered me, one of the holy 
angels who was with me : he answered and spake to me c Why 
do you entertain such fear and alarm at this horrible place 
and in the presence of this pain?'' 10. And he spake to 
me ' This place is the prison of the angels, and here they will 
be imprisoned for ever/ 

XXII. 1. And then I went to another place, and he showed 



phrase, xxiv. 6. Ethiopic MSS. wrongly 'and was my chief ' or 
' guide/ Why dost thou enquire and art curious ? So G M. 
Din. and FHLNO insert 'why dost thou ask?' after why dost 
thou enquire ? 6. God. So G and the Giz. Gk. Din. gives 

'Most High God.' 7. The place was cleft. So G, reading 

tn>*iJ« instead of Dln/s corrupt w(\k, and the Giz. Gk. dLaKonrju 
ei^ei/ 6 tokos. 8. Hideous to look upon. So G thlP'F . 

Other MSS. toPHF* 'painful to look upon.' 



6. God. Late MSS. read ' Most High detailed description of Sheol or Hades. 

God,' but wrongly — see Crit. Note. According to this writer Sheol is 

This title is not found in Enoch situated in the far west according to 

though ' Most High ' is found in Greek and Egyptian ideas, and in 

all the sections : see xcix. 3 (note). this respect the writer runs counter 

7-10. In these verses we have a full to the views of the Hebrews who 

description of the final place of punish- placed Sheol in the underworld. In 

ment for the angels. See xviii. 11 ; all the other sections of the book the 

xix. Hebrew conception prevails. This is 

XXII. This chapter contains a very the most ancient account of the 



94 



The Book of Enoch. 



[Sect. I. 



me in the west a great high mountain and hard rocks and 
four beautiful places. 2. And there were there deep 

and wide (places) perfectly smooth, as smooth as something 
which rolls, and deep and black to look at. 3. And this 
time Rufael answered me, one of the holy angels who was 
with me, and spake to me: c These hollow places whereon 
the spirits of the souls of the dead are assembled, have 
been created to this very end, that all the souls of the 
children of men should assemble here. 4. These places 

are appointed as their habitation till the day of their judg- 
ment and till their appointed period, and this appointed 
period is long, till the great judgment comes upon them/ 
5. And I saw the spirits of the children of men who were 



XXII. 2. The Ethiopic here is defective and misleading. See 
Appendix. 3. The spirits of the souls of the dead. So G, 

reading (iiQfrav* instead of Dln.'s t5«fl(fl>\ H gives the same 



doctrine of Sheol from the Pharisaic 
or Chasid standpoint, but clearly this 
doctrine cannot have leaped into life 
fullgrown as it appears here, but 
must already have passed through 
several stages of development. Hades 
is no longer here, as in the O.T., a 
place mainly of a semiconscious non- 
moral state of existence where the 
only distinctions that prevailed were 
social and not moral ; but has already 
become essentially a place of conscious 
existence, where everything is deter- 
mined by moral distinctions and moral 
distinctions alone. See lxiii. 10 for 
the history of this doctrine. .So far 
as we may infer from i-xxxvi, the doc- 
trine of this chapter must be limited 
to Israelites and their progenitors 
from Adam, just as only Israelites are 
taken account of in Dan. xii. 1. 

Four. There are four divisions in 
Hades : two for the righteous, vv. 5-9, 
and two for the wicked, vv. 10-13. 
Beautiful. This epithet has no right 



here. It represents Ka\oi, a corruption 
of ko?\oi, and this latter belonged to 
the next verse. See Appendix. 2. 
This verse must refer to the places of 
punishment — ' deep and black to look 
at.' See vv. 10-13. 3. Kufael. 

As Schodde remarks, Rufael has the 
same r61e in Tobit. Spirits of the 
souls of the dead : see Crit. Note. 
3, 4. The object with which Hades 
was created. 5-7. The first division 
of Sheol contains those righteous souls 
which in their life met with persecu- 
tion and suffered a violent and un- 
deserved death. These cry continually 
to God for vengeance on those who 
wronged them. In the time of the 
author many of the Chasidim must 
have perished in this way. This idea 
of the righteous or of the angels 
crying for vengeance on the wicked 
is in some form common to all the 
sections of this book. Cf. ix. 1-3, 10, 
11 ; xxii. 5-8 ; xlvii. 1,2; lxxxix. 76; 
xcvii. 3, 5 ; xcix. 3, 16 ; civ. 3. Cf. 



Sect. I.] Chapter XXII. 2-12. 95 

dead and their voice penetrated to the heaven and complained. 
6. This time I asked the angel Rufael who was with me and 
spake to him : ' Whose spirit is that one yonder whose voice 
thus penetrates (to heaven) and complains ? ' 7. And he 

answered me and spake thus to me saying : ' This is the spirit 
which went forth from Abel, whom his brother Cain slew, 
and he keeps complaining of him till his seed is destroyed 
from the face of the earth, and his seed disappears from 
amongst the seed of men/ 8. And therefore at that time I 
asked regarding him, and regarding the judgment of all, 
1 Why is one separated from the other ?' 9. And he 

answered me and spake to me : ' These three divisions are made 
to separate the spirits of the dead. And the souls of the 
righteous are thus separated (from the rest) : there is a 
spring of water and light above it. 10. Such a (division) 

likewise has been made for sinners when they die and are 
buried in the earth without incurring judgment in their 
lifetime. 11. Here their souls are placed apart in this 

great pain, till the great day of judgment and punish- 
ment and torture of the revilers for ever, and vengeance 
for their souls, there will they be bound for ever. 12. 



meaning aoSffilti \Qt\&>*. Din. and FKLMN give 'the spirits, 
the souls of the dead.' The Giz. Gk. supports G. See Crit. Note 



also Rev. vi. 10; iv Ezra iv. 35 ; Weber, in life, and finally attained to honour- 

L.d.T. 314. 6, 7. Abel's soul able burial. According to Hebrew 

cries for the destruction of the seed and Greek ideas the privation of 

of Cain : cf. Gen. iv. 10. 8. This funeral rites was a great calamity, 

verse serves to introduce an account and involved, at least according to 

of the three remaining divisions of Greek ideas, inevitable suffering for 

Sheol. 9. The second division the departed soul. 11. Great 

is for the souls of the righteous who pain : cf. ciii. 7, 8 ; Luke xvi. 23-25. 

have not as those in the first division Great day of judgment. See xcv. 

met with a violent and undeserved 2 (note). Of the revilers. This 

death. These have a spring of water could also be translated ' of the ac- 

and light. G may be right here : ' a cursed ' (lit. on those whom one 

spring of the water of life : ' cf. xvii. 4, curses). For ever. This means only 

Crit. Note. 10, 11. The third to the final judgment. 12, 13. The 

division is for those sinners who lived fourth division is for the sinners who 

prosperously and escaped punishment suffered in their life and therefore 



9 6 



The Book of Enoch. 



[Sect. L 



And such a division has been made for the souls of those 
who complain and make known their destruction when they 
were slain in the days of the sinners. 13. Thus it has 

been made for the souls of men who were not righteous 
but sinners, complete in their crimes : they will be with 
criminals like themselves ; but their souls will not be slain 
on the day of judgment nor will they be raised from thence/ 
14. Then I blessed the Lord of glory and said : f Blessed be 
my Lord, the Lord of righteousness, who ruleth for ever/ 

XXIII. 1. From thence I went to another place towards 
the west, unto the ends of the earth. 2. And I saw a 

burning fire which ran without resting and paused not from 
its course day or night but (ran) regularly. 3. And I 



on ix. 10. 14. The Lord of righteousness, who ruleth for 

ever. So G M. Din. and FHLNO give ' The Lord of glory and 
righteousness who ruleth all things for evermore/ 

XXIII. 2. And paused not. So Din. and FHKLMNO and 
the Giz. Gk. G omits. 



incur a less penalty in Sheol. 12. 

Such a division has been made. 
This is the reading of the Giz. Gk. 
and has good parallels in verses 9, 10. 
See Appendix. The Ethiopic MSS. 
insert against the Greek the words 
• if it was before eternity.' But 
this addition is meaningless, and 
must be corrupt. Complain, &c. 
These sinners demand vengeance on 
those that did violence to them 
in life, just as the righteous in 
the first division demanded justice 
against those that had destroyed 
them. In the days of the sin- 
ners : probably the times of Antiochus 
Epiphanus. 13. Their souls will 
not be slain. There are degrees of 
suffering in Sheol. The worst penalty 
appears to be f the slaying of the soul,' 
but even this did not imply annihila- 
tion. See cviii. 3 (note); also xcix. 
11. Nor will they be raised. The 



sinners in the third division will rise 
in order to be delivered over to a 
severer condemnation. The resurrec- 
tion here implied is of Israel only : 
so the entire section i-xxxvi would lead 
us to infer. Otherwise this declaration 
of a General Resurrection is solitary 
and unique in pre-Christian Jewish 
Apocrypha. 14. After each fresh 

revelation Enoch generally bursts 
forth into a doxology. Cf. xxv. 7 ; 
xxvii. 5 ; xxxvi. 4; xxxix. 9-12 ; xlviii. 
10; lxxxi. 3 ; lxxxiii. 11 ; lxxxiv; xc. 
40. These doxologies have as a rule 
a close connexion in thought with 
their respective contents. Lord of 
glory : see xxv. 3 (note). Lord of 
righteousness : cf. xc. 40 ; cvi. 3. 

XXIII. 1, 2. Enoch still remains 
in the West, but proceeds to another 
quarter of the West where there is 
a restless river of fire. xvii. 4 ap- 
pears to deal with the same subject. 



Sect. L] Chapter XXI L 13 — XXIV. 5. 97 

asked, saying : 'What is this which rests not?"' 4. This time 
Raguel, one of the holy angels who was with me, answered me 
and spake to me : < This burning fire in the direction of the 
west, the course of which you have seen (is the fire of) all the 
luminaries of heaven/ 

XXIV. 1. From thence I went to another place of the earth, 
and he showed me a mountain range of fire which flamed day 
and night. %. And I approached it and saw seven mag- 

nificent mountains each different from the other, and magni- 
ficent beautiful stones, magnificent as a whole, of glorious 
appearance and fair exterior : three towards the east, one 
founded on the other, and three towards the south, one upon 
the other, and deep winding ravines, no one of which joined 
with any other. 3. And the seventh mountain was between 
these, and in their elevation they all resemble the seats of 
a throne : and the throne was encircled with fragrant trees. 
4. And amongst them was a tree such as I had never yet 
smelt : neither was any amongst them nor were others like it ; 
it had a fragrance beyond all fragrance : its leaves and blooms 
and wood wither not for ever : and its fruit is beautiful, and 
it resembles the dates of a palm. 5. And on this occasion 

I said : ' Behold this beautiful tree, beautiful to look upon, 
and its leaves are fair and its fruit very delightful to the eye/ 



XXIV. 2 . One founded on the other. So Din. and FHKLMO. 
For JM- 1 }! GN read ftHK"! = ' mounted or resting upon.' One 
upon the other. So DEFGHKLMK Din. with A B C 
inserts cdJWJ ' one founded on the other.' The Giz. Gk. supports G. 



4. The idea, as Din. suggests, seems to Enoch finds it to consist of seven 

be that the luminaries recruit their summits, the middle and highest of 

wasted fires by passing through this which is the throne of God. These 

restless stream of fire in the West. mountains were composed of precious 

The text seems corrupt. See Ap- stones, each of a different one. The 

pendix. throne was girt with fragrant trees, 

XXIV. 1-3. This mountain range, the most desirable of trees. 4. The 

according to xviii. 6-9, is in the tree here described, so notable for its 

South. On nearer acquaintance fragrance (cf. xxv. 6), is the tree of 

H 



98 The Book of Enoch. [Sect. I. 

6. Then answered Michael, one of the holy and honoured 
angels who was with me, and was in charge thereof : 

XXV. I. And he spake to me ; ' Enoch what dost thou ask 
as touching the fragrance of this tree and what dost thou seek 
to know ? ' 1. Then I, Enoch, answered him and said : 

( I should like to know about everything, but especially about 
this tree/ 3. And he answered me and said : ' This high 

mountain which thou hast seen, whose summit is like the 
throne of the Lord, is His throne, where the Holy and Great 
One, the Lord of Glory, the Eternal King, will sit, when He 
shall come down to visit the earth with goodness. 4. And 
no mortal is permitted to touch this tree of delicious fragrance 



XXV. 4. Till the great day of judgment, when He shall 
avenge and bring everything to its consummation for ever; 
this tree, I say, will (then) be given, &c. So G : Xfth; Oft£; 
OtfVfc MT: Mb *<*>; £*ft#&: h-ta (D^K^i Xfth; Cfi(W°\ 
"Hh» . . . J&faDlMl. Din., supported in the main by the other MSS., 
reads : Xlftii fcn>: 0O£; Mi; frn>; £tft*&: fr.ft>: wj^gj^^i 
XftJl*. MCWl 7ttb . . . PfWlMl ; which he translates thus : ' Bis 
um die Zeit des grossen Gerichts : wann Alles gesiihnt nnd vol- 
lendet werden wird fur die Ewigkeit, wird dieser — 'ubergeben 



life, xxv. 4-6 (notes). G.Michael, of life. By the eating of this tree 

the patron angel of Israel, is in charge after the final judgment men are en- 

of these special treasures of the Mes- dovved with long life — not eternal 

sianic kingdom. life: cf. v. 9 ; x. 17; xxv. 6. Cf. 

XXV. 3. This high mountain, Apoc. Bar. lxxiii. 2, 3, 6, 7. The 

i. e. the middle one of the seven. writer of i-xxxvi has not risen to the 

This mountain, described in xviii. 6- conception of an eternal life of blessed- 

9, xxiv. 1-3, is not to be identified ness for the righteous, and so has not 

with Sinai, i. 4, for there God descends advanced a single step beyond the 

to judgment. This mountain is God's conceptions found in Is. lxv, lxvi. 

throne on earth when he comes down This materialistic conception of the 

to bless the earth. Cf. lxxvii. 1 . tree of life based on Gen. ii. 9, iii. 2 2, 

Holy and Great One : see i. 3 (note). and here published afresh, gained 

Lord of Glory: cf. xxii. 14; xxv. afterwards a wide currency in Jewish 

7 ; xxvii. 3, 5 ; xxxvi. 4 ; xl. 3 ; lxiii. and Christian literature : cf. Rev. ii. 

2; lxxxiii. 8. Eternal King: cf. 7; xxii. 2, 14; iv Ezra viii. 52. Why 
vv - 5> 7 > xxvii. 3 ; only found in i- - this tree should be amongst the 

xxxvi. 4, 5. This tree is the tree mountains in the South does not 



Sect, L] Chapter XXIV. 6 — XXVI. 2. 99 

till the great day of judgment, when He shall avenge and 
bring everything to its consummation for ever; this tree, I say, 
will (then) be given to the righteous and humble. 5. By 
its fruit life will be given to the elect : it will be transplanted 
to the north, to the holy place, to the temple of the Lord, the 
Eternal King. 6. Then will they rejoice with joy and be 

glad: they will enter the holy habitation : the fragrance thereof 
will be in their limbs, and they will live a long life on earth, 
such as thy fathers have lived : and in their days no sorrow or 
pain or trouble or calamity will affect them/ 7. Then 

blessed I the Lord of Glory, the Eternal King, because that 
He hath prepared such (recompense) for the righteous, and 
hath created it and promised to give it to them. 

XXVI. 1. And I went from thence to the middle of the earth, 
and I saw a blessed and fruitful place, and there were branches 
there which had taken root and grew o#it of a dismembered 
tree. 2. And then I saw a holy mountain, and underneath 



werden.' 6. Will enter the holy habitation. So G : ahft-fi 

fr&fti c'I'h&C, but defectively, omitting J&fla*k which later MSS. 
corrupted into ^(la^fr. Cf. the Giz. Gk. els to dyiov claeXevo-ovTai. 
For W*H G reads q0C. 

XXYI. 1. G omits Xi^Ofl : but F H L M 1ST O support Din. 



appear. 4. Great day of judgment: 20. 7. For the doxology, cf. 

seexlv. 2 (note). Avenge and bring xxii. 14. 

everything to its consummation : XXVI. Enoch visits Jerusalem and 

Bee Crit. Note. Kighteous : see i. its vicinity. 1. The middle of 

8 (note). Humble: cf. cviii. 7. 5. the earth. The writer regards Jeru- 

Elect : see i. 3 (note). To the holy salem as the centre of the earth : cf. 

place, i.e. Jerusalem. We cannot tell Ezek. xxxviii. 12 ; v. 5. In the Book 

whether the author intended here the of Jubilees, viii, it is called the navel 

New Jerusalem, which according to or b/x(pak6s of the earth, just as 

lxxxix. 28, 29 was to be set up by Delphi was regarded amongst the 

God Himself. It is, at all events, Greeks. In En. xc. 26 Gehenna is in 

a Jerusalem cleansed from all im- the middle of the earth. Blessed 

purity, and that is probably all and fruitful place : cf. xxvii. 1 ; 

that the author meant. 6. The lxxxix. 40; Dan. xi. 16, 41,45. A 

holy habitation : see Crit. Note. dismembered tree, i. e. Israel. The 

The fragrance thereof, i. e. of the branches are the righteous descendants 

tree of life. Cf. xxiv. 4. No sor- who are to participate in the Mes- 

row or pain, &c. : cf. Is. lxv. 19, sianic kingdom. 2. Aholymoun- 

H 2 



IOO 



The Book of Enoch. 



[Sect. I. 



the mountain to the east of it a stream which flowed towards 
the south. 3. And I saw towards the east another moun- 
tain of the same height, and between them a deep and narrow 
ravine : in it also ran a stream skirting" the mountain. 4. 
And to the west thereof there was another mountain, lower 
than the former and of small elevation, and underneath it and 
between them both was a ravine : and other deep and sterile 
ravines were at the extremities of all three. 5. And all the 
ravines were deep and narrow (and formed) of hard rock, and 
trees were planted upon them. 6. And I marvelled at the 

rocks, and I marvelled at the ravine, yea, I marvelled very 
much. 

XXVII. 1. Then said I : ' For what object is this blessed 
land, which is entirely filled with trees, and this accursed 
valley between V 1. Then Uriel, one of the holy angels who 
was with me, answered me and spake : ' This accursed valley 



tain, i. e. Zion. A stream, i. e. the 
brook of Siloah. 3. Another 

mount, i. e. the Mount of Olives. 
Kavine, i.e. the valley of the Kedron 
or of Jehoshaphat. A stream, i. e. 
the brook Kedron. 4. Another 

mountain, i. e. the Mount of Offence. 
A ravine, i. e. the valley of Hinnom. 

5. The account is to be relied on. 

6. The valley of Hinnom. 
XXVII. 1. This blessed land: 

see xxvi. 1, note 1. This accursed 
valley. Gehenna was early associated 
with the worship of Moloch, to whom 
the Israelites caused their children 
to pass through the fire. For the re- 
pression of their abominations Josiah 
took the severest measures, 11 Kings 
xxiii. 10; II Cbron. xxviii. 3, but not 
with any permanent effect ; for we 
find Jeremiah pronouncing the valley 
accursed, and declaring that it should 
henceforth be known as the valley 
of slaughter: Jer. vii. 31, 32 ; xix. 2, 
6 ; xxxii. 35. Again, in Is. lxvi. 24 
there is a clear reference to the valley 



of Hinnom as the place where the 
slain enemies of the Messianic kingdom 
should suffer by fire, and that in the 
presence of the righteous. From this 
point it is not a far cry to the definite 
conception of Gehenna as it appears 
in Enoch. Gehenna is in Enoch the 
place of punishment of the apostate 
or faithless Jews who suffer in the 
presence of the righteous ; cf. xxvii. 
2, 3 ; xlviii. 9 ; liv. 1,2; lxii. 12, 13 ; 
xc. 26, 27. Observe that there is a 
slight modification of the conception 
in the Similitudes, xlviii. 9 (note). 
In the N. T. (Matt. v. 29, 30 ; x. 28 ; 
xviii. 9 ; xxiii. 15, &c.) and in iv Ezra 
[vi. 1-3] Gehenna is no longer the 
place of punishment of unrighteous 
Jews but of the wicked generally. 
In later Judaism the conception 
underwent a further change. Gehen na 
was regarded as the Purgatory of 
faithless Jews who were afterwards 
to be admitted into Paradise, but the 
place of eternal perdition for the 
Gentiles; cf. Weber, L. d. T. 326, %. 



Sect. I.] Chapter XXVI. 3 — XXIX. 2. 101 

is for those who are accursed for ever : here will all those be 
gathered together who utter unseemly words with their lips 
against God_, and speak hard things of His Glory; here will 
they be gathered together, and here is the place of their pun- 
ishment. 3. And in the last days there will be the spectacle 
of a righteous judgment upon them, in the presence of the 
righteous continually for ever : here will those who have 
found mercy bless the Lord of glory, the Eternal King. 
4. And in the days of judgment over the former, they will 
bless Him for the mercy in accordance with which He has 
assigned them (their lot)/ 5. At that time I also blessed 
the Lord of Glory and spake to Him and remembered His 
greatness, as was befitting. 

XXVIII. 1. Then I went towards the east, into the midst 
of the mountain range of the desert, and I saw here nothing 
save a plain. 2. Nevertheless it was filled with trees of 
this seed, and water streamed down from above over it. 3. 
It was manifest that there were many watercourses which 
flowed as well towards the north as to the west, and here 
also as everywhere water and dew ascended. 

XXIX. 1. And I went to another place, away from the desert, 
drawing nigh to the east of the mountain range. 1. And 
then I saw the trees of judgment, particularly such as give 



XXVII. 3. Those who have found mercy. The text gives 
en>UCPl = ' the merciful '; but the sense requires the meaning given 
above. The text may be a corruption of SF > tfr&'} = ' those who have 
found mercy.' The Giz. Gk. gives do-fpels, a corruption of evo-epels. 



2. Utter unseemly words : see v. which separates this plain from Jeru- 

4 (note). 3. Spectacle : cf. xlviii. salem. According to Ezek. xlvii. 8, 

9; lxii. 12. "Who have found mercy: this desert should one day be well 

see Crit. Note. Lord of glory : see watered and covered with trees. 

xxv. 3. Eternal King : see xxv. 3 XXIX. 1. Enoch goes still further 

(note). East and comes to the region of fra- 

XXVIII. 1. Din. takes the plain grant trees. 2. Trees of judgment, 

here referred to to be that of the i. e. trees which will be given to the 

Jordan, and the mountain range of righteous after the judgment: cf. x. 

the desert to be the rocky region 19; Is. lx. 6; Ps. lxxii. 10. So 



102 The Book of Enoch, [Sect. I. 

forth the fragrance of frankincense and myrrh, and the trees 
also were similar. 

XXX. i. And above that (even) above these, above the 
Eastern Mountain and not far distant, I saw another place, 
valleys (fed) with unfailing streams. 2. And I saw a 
beautiful tree, which resembles a fragrant tree such as the 
mastic. 3. And on the sides of those valleys I saw sweet- 
smelling cinnamon. And passing over these I drew nigh to 
the east. 

XXXI. 1. And I saw other mountains on which there were 
trees, and there flowed forth from them as it were nectar, and 
it is named Sarira and Galbanum. 2. And over that 
mountain I saw another mountain whereon were aloe-trees 
and those trees were full of a hard substance like almonds. 
3. And the taste of that fruit (lit. 'when one took of that 
fruit ') was better than all fragrant odours. 

XXXII. 1. And after these fragrant odours, as I looked to- 
wards the north, over the mountains, I saw seven mountains 
full of choice nard and aromatic trees and cinnamon and 
pepper. 2. And thence I went over the summits of those 



XXIX. 2. The trees also were similar. So G M : Oflfl^Zi 
J&t^YA^. Add 'to walnut-trees' from the Giz. Gk. Din. and 
FHKLNO give 00<DL; fL^vyhfr, which Din. translates 'waren 
nicht gleich (gewohnlichen) Baumen.' 

XXX. 2. Which resembles a fragrant tree such as the mastic. 
So GM : U&JDftfc 08; (n>V\\ *un>; fclt; Hrth.^1. This reading 
supports the reading of GM in xxix. 2. Cf. xxxii. 4. Din. 
and FHLNO give ■ the fragrance of which is like the fragrance 
of mastic.' 

XXXI. 1. There flowed forth from them as it were nectar. 
So G: a)£w$Xi X^ilh: h<n>; %<£TC. Din. and FHKLNO 
insert °H^\ (D&m&K 'and there flowed forth water, and there 
flowed forth from them as it were nectar.' M points to the text 
of G. The Giz. Gk. supports G. 



Din., but this interpretation seems tree he means is uncertain, 
forced. XXXI. 1. See Crit. Note. 

XXX. 2. A beautiful tree. What 



Sect. L] Chapter XXX. i — XXXIII. i. 103 

mountains, far towards the east, and passed above the Ery- 
thraean sea and went far from it and passed over the angel 
Zutel. 3. And I came into the garden of righteousness and 
saw beyond those trees many large trees growing there, of 
goodly fragrance, large, very beautiful and glorious, and 
the tree of wisdom which imparts great wisdom to those who 
eat of it. 4. And it is like the Carob tree : its fruit is 
like the clusters of the vine, very beautiful : the fragrance 
of the tree goes forth and penetrates afar. 5. And I said : 
1 This tree is beautiful, and how beautiful and attractive 
is its look!' 6. And the holy angel Rufael, who was with 
me, answered me and said : ' This is the tree of wisdom, of 
which thy old father and thy aged mother, who were before 
thee, have eaten, and they learnt wisdom and their eyes were 
opened, and they recognised that they were naked, and they 
were driven out of the garden/ 

XXXIII. 1. From thence I went to the ends of the earth 
and saw there great beasts, and each differed from the other, 
and (I saw) birds also differing in appearance and beauty and 



XXXII. 2. Erythraean sea. The for righteous souls. This view is 

Persian and Indian oceans : cf. lxxvii. further confirmed by the fact that 

6, 7. Zutel. This seems to be the this Paradise of the righteous is said 

angel who guarded the entrance to to lie in the N.W. in lxx. 3, 4 — a 

Paradise. 3. Garden of righte- statement that harmonizes perfectly 

ousness : cf. lxxvii. 3 ; also lx. 8, with the locality assigned to Sheol 

23; lxi. 12, with notes. In lxxvii. 3 inxxii. I, i.e. the West. The earthly 

the garden is in the N.E., and the Garden of Eden therefore appears to 

description here would admit of the have no further connexion with the 

same locality ; in lxx. 3, on the other destinies of mankind according to the 

hand, it is in the N.W. Again, in Ethiopic Enoch. 6. Adam and 

xxxvii-lxx, as well as in the Noachic Eve are here supposed to be still 

fragments, this garden is the abode living. Hence, if x. I belongs to this 

of the departed righteous ; but in i- section originally, the writer adopted 

xxxvi this is not so; for a special the Samaritan chronology, but if, as 

division in Sheol is assigned to the we must rather believe, x. 1-3 is 

souls of the righteous. It would seem an interpolation, then the Hebrew 

therefore that the Garden or Paradise reckoning is here possible. See lxv. 

spoken of in xxxvii-lxx is not the 2 (note). Observe that Adam's sin is 

earthly Paradise, but the heavenly not regarded as the cause of man's 

one, and that it is in fact identical fall and destruction in the deluge, 
with the division set apart in Sheol 



104 The Book of Enoch. [Sect. I. 

voice, and they all differed the one from the other. 2. And 
to the east of these beasts I saw the ends of the earth whereon 
the heaven rests, and the portals of the heaven were open. 
3. And I saw how the stars of heaven come forth, and I 
counted the portals out of which they proceed, and wrote 
down all their outlets; of each individual star by itself, 
according to their number, their names, their connexions, their 
positions, their times and their months, as the holy angel 
Uriel who was with me showed me. 4. He showed all 

things to me and wrote them down for me : also their names 
he wrote for me, and their laws and their companies. 

XXXIV. 1. From thence I went towards the north to the 
ends of the earth, and there I saw a great and glorious wonder 
at the ends of the whole earth. %, Here I saw three open 
portals of heaven in the heaven : from each of them proceed 
north winds: when one of these blows there is cold, hail, 
frost, snow, dew, and rain. 3. And out of one portal it 
blows for good : but when they blow through the two other 
portals, it is with violence, and it brings misfortune on the 
earth, and they blow (at such times) violently. 

XXXV. From thence I went towards the west to the 
ends of the earth, and saw there three open portals such as I 
saw (afterwards) in the east, the like portals and the like 
outlets. 

XXXVI. 1. From thence I went to the south to the ends 



XXXIII. 4. Their companies. So GM < 1 ¥'lQ£'£U , ffD\ Din, 
gives y^a&Woi* < their functions.' 

XXXIV. 1. A great and glorious wonder. So Din. and all 
MSS. but G, which reads 9»XlL =' device.' 



XXXIII. 2. Whereon the heaven and moon, lxxii. 3. 

rests: see xviii. 5 (note). 3. The XXXIV. In this chapter Enoch 

portals of the stars here mentioned describes the portals of the north winds 

are described at length in Ixxii-lxxxii. as well as the nature of these winds. 

If we are to regard the two accounts Cf. lxxvi. 

as in the main consistent, the portals XXXV. Portals of the west winds, 

of the stars are also those of the sun XXXVI. 1. Portals of the south 



Sect. I.] Chapter XXXIII. 2 — XXX VI. 4. 105 

of the earth, and saw there three open portals of the heaven ■ 
thence come the south wind, dew, rain, and wind. 2. From 
thence I went to the east to the ends of the heaven, and saw 
here the three eastern portals of heaven open and small portals 
above them. 3. Through each of these small portals pass 
the stars of heaven and run their course to the west on the 
path which is shown to them. 4. And when I saw it I 
blessed (Him) and thus each time I blessed the Lord of Glory 
who had made the great and glorious wonders, to show the 
greatness of His work to the angels and the souls of men, 
that they might praise His work and all His creation : that 
they might see the work of His might and praise the great 
work of His hands and bless Him for ever. 



XXXVI. 4. Might praise His work and all His creation : 
that they might see. So G M : fr.ft»; -fVaC. Other MSS. and 
Din. give 'Might praise His work and that all His creatures 
mi«:ht see/ 



■©• 



winds. 2. Enoch returns to the the winds and the portals for the stars 

East, and here he sees the portals for above them. 



SECTION II. 

(chapters XXXVII — LXXI.) 
THE SIMILITUDES. INTRODUCTION. 

A. Critical Structure. B. Relation of xxxvii-lxxi to the rest of 
the booh. C. Date. D. The Problem and its Solution. 

A. Critical Structure. This Section gives on the whole 
a consistent apocalyptic as distinguished from a prophetic picture 
of the future, and may be regarded as coming from one and the 
same hand. It contains, however, numerous and extensive inter- 
polations, i.e. xxxix. i, 2 a ; xli. 3-8; xliii ; xliv; 1; liv. 7-lv. 2 ; 
lvi. 5-lvii. 3 a ; lix; lx; lxv-lxix. 25; lxxi. These interpolations, 
with the exception possibly of 1; lvi. 5-lvii. 3*; lxxi, are drawn 
from an already existing Apocalypse of Noah and adapted by their 
editor to their adjoining contexts in Enoch. This he does by 
borrowing characteristic terms, such as ' Lord of Spirits,' ' Head of 
Days,' ' Son of Man,' to which, however, either through ignorance 
or of set intention he generally gives a new connotation : see Notes 
for details. 1; lvi. 5-lvii. 3 a may be from the same hand, but 
belong rather to the prophetic than to the Apocalyptic school of 
thought, lxxi is of the nature of a mosaic and is modelled, as 
Kostlin saw (Theol. Jahr. 1856, p. 378), on ch. xiv, and on 
various sections of the Similitudes, of which it appears to give 
a deliberate perversion. See Notes. 

B. Relation of xxxvii-lxxi to the rest of the book. As all 
critics are now agreed that the Similitudes are distinct in origin 
from the rest of the book, there is no occasion for treating ex- 
haustively the grounds for this conclusion. Accordingly, we shall 
give here only a few of the chief characteristics which differentiate 
this Section from all the other Sections of the book. (a) Names 
of God found only in xxxvii-lxxi. ' Lord of Spirits ' (passim) ; 



Introduction. 107 

'Head of Days' (xlvi. 2); 'Lord of the Mighty' (lxiii. 2); 'Lord 
of the Rulers ' (lxiii. 2); ' Lord of Wisdom ' (lxiii. 2). (b) Angel- 

ology. The four chief angels in xxxvii-lxxi are Michael, Rufael, 
Gabriel, and Fanuel. Fanuel is not mentioned elsewhere in the 
book, which gives Uriel instead. In xiv. 11 God is surrounded 
by Cherubim: but in lxi. 10; lxxi. 6, by Cherubim, Sera- 
phim, and Ophanim, angels of power, and angels of dominions. 
The angel of peace (xl. 8) is also peculiar to the Similitudes, 
(c) Demonology. In the other Sections of the book the sins of 
the angels consisted in their lusting after the daughters of men 
(vi-viii), but in liv. 6 in their becoming subjects of Satan. In xxxvii- 
lxx an evil spirit-world is presupposed from the beginning, but not 
in the rest of the book. Satan and the Satans, xl. 7; liii. 3; liv. 6, 
are not even mentioned in the other Sections. These have access 
to heaven, xl. 7, whereas in the other Sections only good angels have 
access there. The angels of punishment also are found for the first 
time in xxxvii-lxxi. (d) The Messianic doctrine in xxxvii-lxx 
is unique, not only as regards the other Sections of Enoch, but 
also in Jewish literature as a whole. The Messiah pre-exists 
xlviii. 2 (note) from the beginning : he sits on the throne of God, 
xlvii. 3, and possesses universal dominion, lxii. 6 ; all judgment is 
committed unto him, lxix. 27, and he slays the wicked by the word 
of his mouth, lxii. 2. Turning to the other Sections we find that 
there is no Messiah in i-xxxvi and in xci-civ, while in lxxxiii-xc 
the Messiah is evidently human and possesses none of the great 
attributes belonging to the Messiah of the Similitudes. (e) The 
scene of the Messianic kingdom in i-xxxvi is Jerusalem and the 
earth purified from sin; in lxxxiii-xc, a heavenly Jerusalem set 
up by God Himself; in xci-civ, Jerusalem and the earth as 
they are ; but in xxxvii-lxx, a new heaven and a new earth, 
xlv. 4, 5 (note). Again, the duration of the Messianic kingdom 
in i-xxxvi is eternal, but the life of its members limited. The 
duration of the Messianic kingdom in lxxxiii-xc is eternal, and 
the life of its members eternal (?). The duration of the Messianic 
kingdom in xci-civ is limited, and the life of its members limited. 
(In xci-civ the real interest centres, not in the Messianic king- 
dom, but in the future spiritual life of the righteous.) But 
the duration of the Messianic kingdom in xxxvii-lxx is eternal, 
and the life of its members eternal. 

C. Date. From a full review of the evidence, which is given 
and discussed in the notes on xxxviii. 5, it appears that the kings 



1 08 The Book of Enoch. [Sect. 11. 

and the mighty so often denounced in the Similitudes are the later 
Maccabean princes and their Sadducean supporters — the later 
Maccabean princes, on the one hand, and not the earlier ; for the 
blood of the righteous was not shed as the writer complains (xlvii. 
1, 2, 4) before 95 B.C.: the later Maccabean princes, on the other 
hand, and not the Herodians; for (1) the Sadducees were not 
supporters of the latter, and (2) Eome was not as yet known to 
the writer as one of the great world-powers — a fact which neces- 
sitates an earlier date than 64 B.C., when Rome interposed 
authoritatively in the affairs of Judaea. Thus the date of the 
Similitudes could not have been earlier than 94 b. c. or later than 
64 b. c. But it is possible to define the date more precisely. 
As the Pharisees enjoyed unbroken power and prosperity under 
Alexandra 79-70 b. c, the Similitudes must be assigned either 
to the years 94-79 or 70-64. Finally, if we consider that lvi. 5- 
lvii. 3 a is an interpolation, and that this passage must have been 
written and interpolated before 64 B.C., the Similitudes might reason- 
ably be referred to the years 94-79. See also Gen. Introd., p. 30. 

D. The Problem and its Solution. Seeing that God is a 
just God, how comes it that wickedness is throned in high places 
and that righteousness is oppressed? Is there no end to the 
prosperity and power of unbelieving rulers, and no recompense 
of reward for the suffering righteous 1 The author (in the genuine 
portions) finds the answer in a comprehensive view of the world's 
history : only by tracing evil to its source can the present wrong- 
ness of things be understood, and only by pursuing the world's 
history to its final issues can its present inequalities be justified. 
The author has no interest save for the moral and spiritual worlds, 
and this is manifest even in the divine names ' Lord of Spirits,' 
' Head of Days/ ' Most High.' Whole hierarchies of angelic beings 
appear in lxi. 10-12. His view is strongly apocalyptic, and 
follows closely in the wake of Daniel. The origin of Sin is traced 
one stage further back than in i-xxxvi. The first authors of sin 
were the Satans, the adversaries of man, xl. 7. The Watchers fell 
through becoming subject to these, and leading mankind astray, 
liv. 6. Punishment was at once meted out to the Watchers, and 
they were confined in a deep abyss, liv. 5, to await the final judg- 
ment, liv. 6 ; lv. 4 ; lxiv. In the meantime sin flourishes in the 
world : sinners deny the name of the Lord of Spirits, xxxviii. 2 ; 
xli. 2, and of His Anointed, xlviii. 10; the kings and the mighty 
of the earth trust in their sceptre and glory, lxiii. 7, and 



Sect. II.] Introdtiction. 1 09 

oppress the elect of the children of God, lxii. 1 1 . But the prayer 
of the righteous ascends, and their blood goes up before the Lord 
of Spirits crying for vengeance, xlvii. 1 ; and the angels unite 
in the prayer of the righteous, xlvii. 2. But the oppression of 
the kings and the mighty will not continue for ever : suddenly 
the Head of Days will appear and with Him the Son of Man, 
xlvi. 2, 3, 4 ; xlviii. 2, to execute judgment upon all alike — on the 
righteous and wicked, on angel and on man. And to this end 
there will be a Eesurrection of all Israel, li. 1 ; lxi. 5 ; the books 
of the living will be opened, xlvii. 3 : all judgment will be com- 
mitted unto the Son of Man, xli. 9 ; lxix. 2 7 ; the Son of Man 
will possess universal dominion, lxii. 6, and sit on the throne of 
his glory, lxii. 3, 5; lxix. 27, 29, which is likewise God's throne, 
xlvii. 3 ; li. 3. He will judge the holy angels, lxi. 8, and the 
fallen angels, lv. 4, the righteous upon earth, lxii. 3, and the 
sinners, lxii. 2 ; but particularly those who oppress his saints, 
the kings and the mighty and those who possess the earth, xlviii. 
4-7 ; liii. 3 ; lxii. 3, 11. All are judged according to their deeds, 
for their deeds are weighed in the balance, xli. 1. The fallen 
angels are cast into a fiery furnace, liv. 6; the kings and the 
mighty confess their sins, and pray for forgiveness, but in vain, 
lxiii ; and are given into the hands of the righteous, xxxviii. 5 ; 
and their destruction will furnish a spectacle to the righteous as 
they burn and vanish for ever out of sight, xlviii. 9, 10; lxii. 1 2 ; 
to be tortured in Gehenna by the angels of punishment, liii. 3-5 ; 
liv. 1, 2. The remaining sinners and godless will be driven from 
off the face of the earth, xxxviii. 3 ; xli. 2 ; xlv. 6. The Son of 
Man will slay them with the word of his mouth, lxii. 2. Sin and 
wrongdoing will be banished from the earth, xlix. 2 ; and heaven and 
earth will be transformed, xlv. 4, 5 ; and the righteous and elect 
will have their mansions therein, xxxix. 6 ; xli. 2. And the light 
of the Lord of Spirits will shine upon them, xxxviii. 4 ; xlviii. 9 ; 
they will live in the light of eternal life, lviii. 3. The Elect One 
will dwell amongst them, xlv. 4 ; and they will eat and lie down 
and rise up with him for ever and ever, lxii. 14. They will be 
clad in garments of life, lxii. 15, 16; and shine as fiery lights, 
xxxix. 7 ; and become angels in heaven, li. 4. And they will 
seek after light and find righteousness and peace with the Lord of 
Spirits, lviii. 3, 4 ; and grow in knowledge and righteousness, 
lviii. 5. 



no The Book of Enoch, [Sect. n. 

TRANSLATION. 

XXXVII. I. The vision which he saw, the second vision of 
wisdom — which Enoch the son of Jared, the son of Mahalalel, 
the son of Cainan, the son of Enos. the son of Seth, the 
son of Adam saw. 2. And this is the beginning- of the 
words of wisdom which I lifted up my voice to declare and 
recount to those which dwell on earth : hear, ye men of 
old time, and see, ye that come after, the holy words which I 
will speak before the Lord of Spirits. 3. It were better 



XXXVII. 1. The vision which he saw : £&£; HCX?. These 
words are omitted in Dln.'s translation. 2. Lifted up my voice 

to declare. Ki u lhYbl X^"V7C Din. gives wrongly ' anhob zu 
reden,' but the phrase is rightly translated in his Lexicon. $>{[ 
is to be understood after KiP*h. The same idiom occurs in 
xxxvii. 5 : lxxxiii. 5 : lxxxv. 2. When the writers of Enoch 
wish to express the idea of beginning to do an action, they 
use A1H; KM followed by the indicative, as in lxxxvi. 5; 
lxxxviii. 2, or ftlH followed immediately by the subjunctive, 
lviii. 1. WCIXi is also used in this sense in this book followed 



XXXVII. 1. The genealogy with 5, 9; liii. 6; liv. 5, 7; lv. 3, 4; Ivii. 3; 

which this section begins agrees with lviii. 4, 6 (twice); lix. I, 2 ; lx. 6, 8, 24, 

many other characteristics of the 25 (twice); lxi. 3, 5,8,9 (thrice), 11, 13 

Similitudes in marking it out as an (twice); lxii. 2, 10, 12, 14, 16 (twice); 

independent work. 2. Men of old lxiii. 1, 2 (twice), 7, 12 (twice); lxv. 

time. These would embrace Cainan, 9, 11; lxvi. 2 ; lxvii. 8, 9; lxviii. 4 

Mahalaleel, and Jared, according to (twice); lxix. 24 (twice), 29; lxx. 1 ; 

the LXX. chronology, which is fol- lxxi. 2, 17. In the text of G, which 

lowed in the Similitudes. See liv. 7 I have followed, this title occurs in 

(note); lxx. 4 (note). Lord of xl. 10 and lxi. 9, where it does not 

Spirits. This expression occurs in appear in Dln.'s text. In Dln.'s enu- 

II Mace. iii. 24 and nowhere else in meration of the passages in which it 

contemporary or earlier writings that occurs, he omits seven by oversight. 

I am aware of. It is found in xxxvii. We find it in all 104 times, and 28 of 

4 (twice) ; xxxviii. 2 (twice), 4, 6 ; these at least in the Interpolations. 

xxxix. 2, 7 (twice), 8, 9 (twice), 12 ; In the genuine portions it stands in 

xl. 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10; xli. 2 (twice), the closest connexion with the charac- 

6, 7 J xliii. 4 (twice); xlv. I, 2 ; xlvi. ter of its context: cf. xxxix. 12 ; xl. 

3 (twice), 6, 7, 8 ; xlvii. 1, 2 (twice), 1-10; xlvi. 3-8, &c: but in the In- 

4; xlviii. 2, 3, 5, 7 (twice), 10 (twice); terpolations this appropriateness is 

xlix. 2,4; 1. 2, 3 (twice), 5 ; li. 3 ; Hi. wanting : cf. xli. 6, 7 ; lix. 1, 2, where 



Sect. II.] Chapter XXXVII. i— XXX VI I L i. in 



to declare (them) to those men of old time, but even from 
those that come after we will not withhold the beginning of 
wisdom. 4. Till the present day the Lord of Spirits has 
never given such wisdom as I have received according to 
my insight, according to the good pleasure of the Lord of 
Spirits by whom the lot of eternal life has been given to me. 
5. Three Similitudes were imparted to me, and I lifted up my 
voice and recounted them to those that dwell on the earth. 

XXXVIII. 1. First Similitude. When the congregation of 
the righteous will appear and sinners are judged for their sins 



immediately by the subjunctive, XlH with the indicative, or (D 
and a finite verb. 5. Lifted up my voice : see note on v. 2. 



only things of the natural world are 
in question : cf . also the other pas- 
sages. This leads to the conjecture 
that this title was introduced into 
these Interpolations when they were 
incorporated in the Similitudes, with 
a view to adapting them to their new 
contexts. 4. The lot of eternal 
life : cf. xl. 9 ; lviii. 3 ; lxii. 14. In 
i-xxxvi the life of the member of the 
Messianic kingdom is at the best 
limited in duration, v. 9 ; x. 17; xxv.6. 
In xxxvii-lxix it is eternal: in the 
Messianic kingdom of the Dream 
Visions, lxxxiii-lxxxix, its duration is 
uncertain. The kingdom itself is 
temporary in xci-civ and the real re- 
compense of the righteous is the eter- 
nal life which follows on the close of 
the Messianic kingdom and the final 
judgment. 5. Similitudes. The 

Ethiopic word here represents im- 
mediately irapafioAai and mediately 
DvK^D. ?WO is used pretty much 
in the same sense here as in Num. 
xxxii. 7, 18 or Job xxvii. 1, and means 
merely an elaborate discourse, whether 
in the form of a vision, a prophecy, 
or a poem. Its object is generally 
parenetic. Those that dwell on the 



earth. This phrase (except in xlvi. 
7 and lxx. 1, where it is merely geo- 
graphical) is used in a good ethical 
sense in the genuine portions of this 
section. Cf.xxxvii. 2 ; xl. 6, 7 ; xlviii. 5. 
So Kev. xiv. 6. But in the Interpo- 
lations it calls up different associa- 
tions : these are bad in liv. 9 ; lv. 1 ; 
lx. 5 ; lxv. 6, 12 ; lxvi. 1 ; lxvii. 8 ; 
and either doubtful or merely geo- 
graphical in xliii. 4 ; liii. 1 ; liv. 6 ; lv. 
2 ; lxvii. 7; lxix. 1. We should observe 
that this phrase has an evil signifi- 
cance in Revelation, except in xiv. 8. 
Cf. iii. 10; vi. 10; viii. 13; xi. 10 
(twice) ; xiii. 8, 14 ; xvii. 8. 

XXXVIII. The time of requital 
is coming. When the Messiah ap- 
pears and the light of the Lord of 
Spirits shines on the face of the right- 
eous and elect, where will be the 
future habitation of the sinners and 
godless ? 1. The congregation of 
the righteous. This phrase, which 
is peculiar to the parables, is explained 
by a comparison of xxxviii. 3 ; liii. 6 ; 
lxii. 8. Cf. Ps. cxlix. 1, ' In the congre- 
gation of the saints ' ; Pss. Sol. xvii. 18. 
Driven from the face of the earth. 
This form of punishment is frequently 



I 12 



The Book of Enoch. 



[Sect. TI. 



and driven from the face of the earth : 2. And when the 

Righteous One shall appear before the eyes of the elect right- 
eous whose works are wrought in dependence on the Lord of 
Spirits, and light will appear to the righteous and the elect 
who dwell on the earth — where then will be the dwelling of 
the sinners, and where the resting place of those who have 
denied the Lord of Spirits ? It had been good for them if 
they had not been born. 3. And when the secrets of the 

righteous shall be revealed, then will the sinners be judged 
and the godless driven from the presence of the righteous and 
elect. 4. And from that time those who possess the earth 



XXXVIII. 2. "Whose works are wrought in dependence on 
the Lord of Spirits : lit. ' hang upon/ The same meaning is to 
be given to the word ft<fe£V in xl. 5 and xlvi. 8. In these three 
instances Dln/s translation gives to this word the meaning of ' gewo- 
gen,' 'weighed ': ' whose works are weighed by the Lord of Spirits/ 
but in his Lexicon he has tacitly withdrawn this interpretation. 



found. Cf. i. 1 ; xxxviii. 3 ; xli. 2 ; 
xlv. 2, 6 ; xlvi. 8 ; xlviii. 9, 10 ; liii. 2 ; 
lxix. 27. 2. The Bighteous One. 
The Messiah will not appear till the 
final judgment. The Messiah is vari- 
ously named: 'The Righteous and 
Elect One/ liii. 6 ; ' The Elect One of 
righteousness and of faith,' xxxix. 6 ; 
' The Elect One/ xl. 5 ; xlv. 3 ; xlix. 
2, 4 ; li. 3, 5 ; lii. 6, 9 ; liii. 6 ; lv. 4 ; 
lxi. 5, 8, 10; lxii. 1 ; 'The Messiah/ 
xlviii. 10 ; lii. 4. For other designa- 
tions, see note on xlvi. 2. Observe 
that as the members of the kingdom 
are ' the righteous,' so the Messiah is 
' the Righteous One ' : cf. ' The Elect/ 
* The Elect One.' Elect righteous. 
Here only in Enoch. Denied the 
Lord of Spirits. This charge is fre- 
quently brought against the sinners : 
it is in fact 'the head and front of 
their offending.' Cf. xli. 2 ; xlv. 2 ; 
xlvi. 7 ; xlviii. 10 ; lxiii. 7. Cf. St. 
Jude, 4. They deny likewise the 



heavenly world, xlv. 1 ; the Messiah, 
xlviii. 10 ; the spirit of God, lxvii. 10 ; ' 
the righteous judgment, lx. 6. The 
righteous on the other hand believe 
in the name of the Lord, xliii. 4. 
Observe that this phrase is taken over 
into the Interpolations, lxvii. 8, 10. 
It had been good for them, &c. 
Cf. St. Matt. xxvi. 24. Edersheim, 
Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah, 
ii. 1 20, points out that this was a well- 
known rabbinic expression. 3.When 
the secrets of the righteous shall 
be revealed. The blessings in store 
for the righteous, the heritage of faith, 
are still hidden, lviii. 5 ; but they will 
one day be revealed. The Messiah 
himself is hidden with the Lord of 
Spirits, lxii. 7. 4. The supremacy 
and oppression of the earth's rulers 
and great ones are speedily drawing 
to a close. This is the constant theme 
of the Similitudes, xlvi. 4-8 ; xlviii. 
8-10; liii. 5 ; lxii. 1-12 ; lxiii, and 



Sect. II.] 



Chapter XXX VI II, 2-5. 



113 



will no longer be powerful and exalted, and they will not be 
able to behold the face of the holy, for the light of the Lord 
of Spirits is seen on the face of the holy and righteous and 
elect. 5. Then will the kings and the mighty perish and 



5. The kings and the mighty. So G M. 



has been taken over into the Interpo- 
lations, lxvii. 8-1 3 ; and this is one 
of the leading characteristics which 
distinguish xxxvii-lxix from xci-civ. 
With the rulers of the earth as such 
the latter section has practically no 
concern. The holy and right- 

eous and elect. This designation is 
found also in xlviii. I. The light 
of the Lord of Spirits is seen on 
the face of the holy. This light is 
at once spiritual and physical : the 
nearness of God's presence transfigures 
the countenance and person of His 
saints. Light in all its forms is the 
blessing of the kingdom. The right- 
eous will have light, and joy, and 
peace, v. 7, and the light of God 
shining upon them, i. 8. In the 
Similitudes the heaven will be trans- 
formed into an eternal light, xlv. 4 ; 
and light will appear unto the right- 
eous, xxxviii. 2 ; and the light of days 
will abide upon them, 1. 1 ; they will 
abide in the light of the sun and in 
the light of eternal life, lviii. 3 ; their 
faces will be illuminated with the 
light of the Lord of Spirits, xxxviii. 4; 
and they will seek after light and find 
righteousness, and the light of truth 
will be mighty for evermore, lviii. 
3-6. The idea is still further de- 
veloped in xci-cviii. The righteous 
belong to the generation of light, 
cviii. 1 1 ; and will be clad in light, 
cviii. 1 2 ; and will walk in eternal 
light, xcii. 4 ; and will be resplendent 
and shine as the lights of heaven for 
evermore, cviii. 13; civ. 2. 5. The 
kings and the mighty : cf. lxii. 1,. 



3,6,9; lxiii. 1, 2, 12; lxvii. 8, 12. 
These designations are practically 
synonymous in the Similitudes. The 
phrase 'mighty kings,' which appears 
often in Dln.'s text, is without the 
support of the best MSS. except in 
lv. 4, and there I feel we must regard 
the text as corrupt, and read 'the 
kings and the mighty.' This better 
text removes, as we shall find, at least 
one formidable difficulty in the inter- 
pretation. Who then are these kings 
and mighty ones ? The facts taken 
together point decidedly to unbeliev- 
ing native rulers and Sadducees. They 
have denied the Lord and His Anoint- 
ed, xlviii. 10 ; and a heavenly world, 
xlv. 1 ; they belong to the houses of 
His congregations — to the Theocratic 
community, xlvi. 8 ; but they are an 
offence thereto, an offence on the 
removal of which the Theocratic ideal 
will be realised, liii. 6 ; they do not 
acknowledge from whom their power 
is derived, xlvi. 5 ; but trust in their 
riches, xlvi. 7 ; and place their hope 
in their sceptre and glory, lxiii. 7 ; 
they have made the righteous their 
servants, xlvi. 7 ; and outraged God's 
children, lxii. 1 1 ; and shed then- 
blood, xlvii. 1, 2. Accordingly they 
will have to stand before the Messiah 
whom they have denied, when He 
judges the angels, lxi. 8 ; lv. 4 ; and 
the righteous, lxii. 3 ; and the sinners, 
lxii. 2 ; and they will be terrified, 
lxii. 5 ; and fall down and worship 
the Messiah, lxii. 9 ; and acknowledge 
the righteousness of their judgment, 
lxiii. 9 ; and pray for a respite in order 



U4 



The Book of Enoch. 



[Sect. II. 



be given into the hand of the righteous and holy. 6. And 
thenceforward none will seek for mercy for them with the Lord 
of Spirits, for their life is at an end. 



to repent, lxiii. i ; and express their 
thanksgiving of faith, lxiii. 8 ; but 
their prayer will not be heard, and the 
Lord of Spirits, lxii. 12, and the 
righteous, xlviii. 9, will execute judg- 
ment upon them, and their destruc- 
tion will form a spectacle over which 
the righteous will rejoice, lxii. 1 2 ; 
and they will be delivered over to the 
angels of punishment, lxii. 1 1 ; and 
will descend into the tortures of hell, 
lxiii. 10. Only one statement seems 
to point to heathen rulers : i.e.* their 
faith is in the gods which they have 
made with their hands,' xlvi. 7. But 
this is only a strong expression for 
the heathen or Sadducean attitude 
of the Maccabean princes and their 
supporters, and with it we might aptly 
compare Pes. Sol. i. 8 ; viii. 14 ; xvii. 
17, wherein the same persons are 
charged with surpassing the heathen 
in idolatries. There is a like exag- 
geration of the wickedness of the Sad- 
ducees in xcix. 7 ; civ. 9. The kings 
and the mighty in the text, therefore, 
are native rulers and Sadducees. We 
thus agree with Kostlin, Theol. Jahrb. 
1 856, 268 sqq., and Din., Herzog, R. E. 
xii. 352, in identifying these princes 
with the last of the decaying Asmonean 
dynasty. The Herodian dynasty was 
not supported by the Sadducees, and 
thus may be left out of consideration. 
Further, as there are no references 
to Rome in the Similitudes, it can- 
not as yet have made its power to be 
felt in Palestine ; and the Similitudes, 
therefore, must have been written be- 
fore 64 B. c, when Rome interposed in 
favour of Aristobulus II. Baldensper- 
ger, Do s SelbstbewilsstseinJesu (p. 12), 
indeed, tries to ehow that there are 



references to the Roman power j but 
his main contention, that the falling 
Asmoneans could hardly be designated 
as 'mighty kings,' is already answered 
on critical grounds : the phrase ' mighty 
kings,' does not belong to the true 
text. The lower limit is thus 64 B. c, 
and the higher may be reasonably 
fixed at 94. The differences between 
the Maccabees and the Pharisees, 
which had already grown important 
under John Hyrcanus with his Sad- 
ducean policy, were further developed 
under Aristobulus I, and in the early 
years of Alex. Jannaeus were intensi- 
fied into an irreconcilable antagonism. 
This antagonism first issued in blood- 
shed about 95 B.C., when 6000 Phari- 
sees were put to death because they 
insulted Alex. Jannaeus for failing to 
comply with their views on ritual. 
This fact explains the writer's demand 
for vengeance for the murder of the 
righteous, xlvii. I, 2, 4. Subsequent 
years only embittered the strife be- 
tween the Pharisees and the Asmo- 
nean head of the Sadducees, and 
provoked a civil war in which 50,000 
Jews fell. Weary of the struggle, 
Jannaeus asked the Pharisees to 
name their conditions of peace : their 
answer was laconic and irreconcilable, 
'Thy death'; but in the subsequent 
strife they were for the time crushed 
into impotence. Owing to the multi- 
tudes of Pharisees slain by Jannaeus, 
he came to be called 'the slayer of 
the pious.' With the accession of 
Alexandra 79, however, the Pharisees 
became masters of the nation, and 
peace prevailed till 70, when again 
the nation was rent in twain and 
plunged into devastating and bloody 



Sect. II.] Chapters XXX VIII. 6 — XXXIX. 4. 115 



XXXIX. [1. And it will come to pass in those days that elect 
and holy children of the high heaven will descend, and their 
seed will become one with the children of men. %. In 

those days Enoch received books of zeal and wrath, and books 
of disquiet and expulsion] and f mercy will not be accorded to 
them' saith the Lord of Spirits. 3. And in those days 

a cloud and a whirlwind carried me off from the earth, and 
set me down at the end of the heavens. 4. And here I saw 
another vision, the mansions of the holy and the resting-places 



wars, through the fraternal strife of 
Hyrcanus II and Aristobulus II. 
To a devout Pharisee, the Maccabees 
with their Sadducean and Hellenic 
principles might well appear as ene- 
mies of the Theocratic community 
during the years 94-79 or 70-64. To 
one or other of these periods, therefore, 
we assign the composition of the 
Similitudes. Will be given into 
the hand of the righteous. This 
phrase would seem to indicate the 
period of the sword, when the right- 
eous were themselves to slay the 
wicked. But this would be unsuit- 
able here : the judgment is catastro- 
phic and forensic. The Son of Man 
is judge, and his judgments are exe- 
cuted by the angels of punishment, 
xli. 2; lxii. 11. This phrase recurs 
in xlviii. 9; but there the context 
requires us to understand the casting 
of the kings into Gehenna. In 1. 2, 
where we again find this idea unmis- 
takeably, the difficulty is obviated by 
the fact that 1 is most probably an 
interpolation. Either, then, we have 
here an inconsistent feature introduced 
by the original writer, or else the 
phrase is only to be taken in a gen- 
eral sense, as expressing the triumph 
of the righteous. Righteous and 
holy. This designation of the mem- 
bers of the kingdom is found also in 
xlviii. 1, 4, 7 ; li. 2 (lxv. 12). 6. 

None will seek for mercy. The 

I 



season for mercy is past, 1. 5. Their 
life is at an end : i. e. their temporal 
life. 

XXXIX. 1, 2*. This is undoubt- 
edly an interpolation : Din. tried in 
his commentary to take this as an 
account of the descent of the unfallen 
angels to live with the righteous, but 
he has since (Herzog, R. E.) come to 
see that it can only refer to the de- 
scent of the watchers to unite them- 
selves with the daughters of men, and 
must therefore be an intrusion here. 
By omitting it we get a smooth text. 
Elect and holy children of the 
high heaven: cf. cvi. 13, 'Some 
from the heights of heaven.' For 
the epithet 'elect,' cf. 1 Tim. v. 21 'the 
elect angels.' Schodde compares Tob. 
viii. 15. , Enoch received books of 
zeal, &c. As we shall find later, 
sometimes an angel dictates to Enoch, 
at others the angel himself writes 
the book and commits it to Enoch. 
3. Carried me off. This seems to 
be recounted as a real translation of 
Enoch, as in Hi. 1 ; cf. II Kings ii. II, 
an d not as a mere incident in a dream, as 
in xiv. 8, 9. 4. Mansions. This could 
be rendered 'dwellings' or 'abiding- 
places': see xxxix. 7, 8; xli. 2. The 
vision here (xxxix. 4-12) set forth is pro- 
phetic, but there are many difficulties 
in the interpretation which we can sur» 
mount only by bearing in mind that 
what we have here to deal with is a vision 



1 1 6 The Book of Enoch. [Sect. II. 

of the righteous. 5. Here mine eyes saw their dwellings with 
His righteous angels, and their resting-places with the holy, 
and they petitioned, and interceded and prayed for the children 
of men, and righteousness flowed before them as water, and 
mercy like dew upon the earth j thus it is they fare for ever 
and ever. 6. And in that place mine eyes saw the Elect 

One of righteousness and of faith, and how righteousness 
shall prevail in his days, and the righteous and elect shall be 
without number before him for ever and ever. 7. And I 
saw his dwelling-place under the wings of the Lord of Spirits, 
and all the righteous and elect before him are beautifully 
resplendent as lights of fire, and their mouth is full of blessing, 
and their lips extol the name of the Lord of Spirits, and 
righteousness before Him never faileth, and uprightness never 



XXXIX. 6. And in that place. So G : hSD-tt\ cn>*il Din. 
reads RmftVl cn>«p0£v 'in those days.' The Elect One of 
righteousness. So G M : «K* rt8\£*>. Din. and FHKLO 
give cn>*if ; 'Ksffc HJWHr* = ' the place of the elect ones of right- 
eousness.' In his days. So G M. Din. and FHKLO give 
'in their days/ 7. His dwelling-place. So GM "V'l&G. 
Din. and FHKLNO "Y'^U'cn*' = 'their dwelling-places/ 
The original reading of G is obliterated: a late hand gives 
&T*iR(k. And uprightness never faileth before Him. 



of the future Messianic kingdom, and under the wings of the Lord of Spirits ; 

that we must not press the details ; yet this is impossible, as the history 

for in this, as in visions frequently, of mankind is not yet consummated, 

there is no exact observance of the and the Messiah appears only to carry 

unities of time and place. No one out its consummation. The chief 

individual period is indicated ; for the inference that we can legitimately 

fact that the Messiah is surrounded draw is that the Messianic community 

by all His righteous and elect ones will one day be composed of both 

shows that the history of the world angels and men, under the rule of the 

is closed, and the final judgment Messiah and the immediate protec- 

already passed ; yet this is impossible, tion of the Lord of Spirits. 5. The 

as the angels are still praying on be- water and dew are here symbolical 

half of men. Nor from this chapter, of abundance. Cf. Is. xi. 9 ; Amos 

taken by itself, can we argue as to v. 24. See also ch. xlix. 1 ; xcvii. 9. 

the locality indicated by the vision. 6. The Elect One of righteousness 

At first sight it seems to be heaven, and of faith : see note on xxxviii. 2. 

as the Messiah and the righteous are 7. Besplendent as lights of fire = 



Sect. II.] Chapter XXXIX. 5-14. 1 1 7 

faileth before Him. 8. Here I wished to dwell and my 

soul longed for that dwelling-place : here already heretofore 
had been my portion, for so has it been established concerning 
me before the Lord of Spirits. 9. And in those days I 

lauded and extolled the name of the Lord of Spirits with 
blessings and praises, because He hath destined for me 
blessing and glory according to the good pleasure of the Lord 
of Spirits. 10. For a long time my eyes regarded that 

place and I blessed Him and extolled Him, saying : ( Blessed be 
and may He be blessed from the beginning for evermore. 
11. Before Him there is no ceasing. He knows what the 
world is before it is created, and generation unto generation 
that shall arise : 12. Those who sleep not bless Thee : 

they stand before Thy glory and bless, laud, and extol, saying : 
" Holy, holy, holy, is the Lord of Spirits : He filleth the earth 
with spirits."' 13. And here my eyes saw all those who 

sleep not, how they stand before Him and bless, and say : 
' Blessed be Thou and blessed be the name of the Lord for 
ever and ever/ 14. And my face was changed until I 

could no longer see. 

SoCEFGHLMNO. Din. omits with A B D. 10. Blessed 

Him and extolled. So C E G M. Din., with A B D, omits ' and 
extolled Him' wftftcMlfP. 14. Until I could no longer see. 

Instead of Xflh = ' until,' G reads XftffD =< for.' 



' shine as the stars.' 8. Enoch pre- i. 5 I have identified them with the 

destined to a place in the kingdom. ' Watchers.' Holy, holy, holy, 

Cf. lxxi. 14-17; xc. 31. 9. The is the Lord of Spirits. The change 

good pleasure of the Lord. In in the trisagion, Is. vi. 3, is in keeping 

xxxvii. 4, and here, the free grace with the character of the entire sec- 

of God is brought forward, but not tion. 13-XL. Enoch next sees all 

exclusively ; for, like a true Pharisee, the chief angels and thousands of 

man's part in salvation is emphasised thousands of angels who stood before 

in xxxvii. 4 ' according to my insight.' the throne of God, and recounts this, 

11. Before Him there is no eeas- not as a prophetic vision, but as an 

ing. Past, present, and future are be- actual experience. 14. The change 

fore Him. 12. Those who sleep of face here is not to be understood as 

not : cf. xxxix. 13 ; xl. 2 ; lxi. 1 2. This a transfiguration, as in Ascensio Isaiae 

designation is taken over into the In- vii. 25 : Enoch is ' blinded by excess 

terpolations, lxxi. 7. In the note on of light.' 



n8 



The Book of Enoch. 



[Sect. II. 



XL. I. And after that I saw thousands of thousands and 
ten thousand times ten thousand, a multitude beyond number 
and reckoning, who stood before the Lord of Spirits. 2* I 
looked and on the four sides of the Lord of Spirits I saw four 
presences, different from those that sleep not, and I learnt, 
their names : for the angel that came with me made known 
to me their names, and showed me all the hidden things. 
3. And I heard the voice of those four presences as they gave 



XL. 1. Before the Lord of Spirits. SoADFGMO. Din. 
and HLN' Before the glory of the Lord of Spirits.' 2. Those 
that sleep not. So G &&\ah<fl>*. This is better than Dln.'s 
(also FHLNO) £$ahao* 'those that stand': cf. xxxix. 13; lxi. 
12. Dln.'s &<PahaD* is probably an emendation of M's reading 



XL. 1. Thousands of thousands 
and ten thousand times ten thou- 
sand. This phrase is taken over 
exactly into the Interpolations, lx. 1 ; 
lxxi. 8, though the phrase was of 
course a current one, owing to Dan. 
vii. 10. 2. There are higher angels 
than those that sleep not: these 
are the four angels of the presence — 
Owl , Ok!hD— so called from Is. lxiii. 

• t - •• ~: : ~ 

9. Their names here are Michael, 
Rufael, Gabriel, and Fanuel ; and the 
same list is carried over into the Inter- 
polations, lxxi. 9. In later Judaism 
we find Uriel instead of Fanuel. In 
ix. 1 the names of the four chiefs 
are Michael, Gabriel, Surjan, and Ur- 
jan (for Surjan, the Greek text gives 
Raphael). In xx there are six chief 
angels enumerated : Uriel, Rufael, 
Raguel, Michael, Saraqael, and Ga- 
briel. Thus, Michael, Rufael, and 
Gabriel belong in common to xx and 
xl, but the functions respectively as- 
signed them in these chapters are 
irreconcilable. In xc. 21 there is a 
reference to seven chief angels : 
in lxxxi. 5; xc. 31 three angels are 
mentioned who were charged with 



the escort of Enoch : in lxxxvii. 
2, 3 we find again four. It would be 
a mere waste of time to attempt to 
reconcile the angelology of these vari- 
ous passages. On Angelology see 
Eisenmenger, EntdecMes Jud. ii. 370- 
468 ; Herzog, B. E. iv. 220-227 ; but 
especially Hamburger, R. E. i. 305- 
312: Weber, Lehren d. Talmud, 
161-168, 242-250. The angel 

that came with me. This angel is 
mentioned in the same vague manner 
in xliii. 3 ; xlvi. 2 ; lii. 3, 4 ; lxi. 2, 3 ; 
lxiv. 2, but is named the 'angel of 
peace ' in xl. 8 ; lii. 5 ; liii. 4 ; liv. 4 ; 
lvi. 2. There is generally a certain 
fitness in the designation * angel of 
peace' in the contexts, where it 
occurs in contrast to the wicked angels 
and the angels of punishment. This 
designation has also been taken over 
into the Interpolations, lx. 24 ; and 
borrowed by the writer of Test. Benj. 6. 
The origin of the phrase is probably 
to be traced to Is. xxxiii. 7, as that 
verse was, according to Jerome, under- 
stood of the angels, and D&£ £|t!»D 
would in that case = ' angels of peace.' 
Cf. Rosenmuller's Scholia in loc. 



Sect. II.] Chapter XL, 1-7 '. 119 

glory before the Lord of Glory. 4. The first voice blesses 

the Lord of Spirits for ever and ever. 5. And the second 

voice I heard blessing the Elect One and the elect ones who 
cleave to the Lord of Spirits. 6. And the third voice I 

heard pray and intercede for those who dwell on the earth and 
supplicate in the name of the Lord of Spirits. 7. And I 

heard the fourth voice fending off the Satans and forbidding 
them to appear before the Lord of Spirits to accuse them who 



&iah(fl>*, which wants the negative. 5. See note on xxxviii. 2. 



4. The first presence, Michael, has 
for his task the praise of the Lord of 
Spirits, as his name indicates, PN2 l, tp . 
In verse 9 he is ' the merciful and 
long suffering.' 5. The second 

presence is Rufael, who praises the 
Elect and the elect ones. Conform- 
ably to his name (from tf £H , to heal) 
he is appointed to heal the wounds 
and ills of men (verse 9) : cf. Tobit 
xii. 14 'God sent me (Raphael) to 
heal thee '; and iii. 17 ' Raphael was 
sent to heal them both/ In Rabbinic 
writings he was the power that pre- 
sided over medicine : cf. Eisenmeng. 
Entd. Jud. ii. 380. See also x. 7 ; xx. 3. 
The Elect One. This designation 
of the Messiah comes from Is. xlii. I, 
Its later use seems to be confined to 
the Similitudes (see xxxviii. 2) and 
St. Luke ix. 35, ovt6s iariv 6 vlos 
fiov 6 k/ckckeyfiivos = ' the Elect One ' 
(W and H). This, the correct text, 
has been preserved in the Ethiopic 
N. T.: St. Luke xxiii. 35 < the Christ of 
God the Elect One.' 6. The third 
presence is Gabriel, whose task is that 
of intercession on behalf of the in- 
habiters of the earth. As the hero or 
strong one of God ("133 and ?N) he is 
naturally set over all the powers 
(verse 9). Those who dwell, &c. : 
see xxx vii. 5. 7. The fourth is 
Fanuel, who is set over the repen- 



tance and hope of the inheritors of 
eternal life (verse 9). He prevents 
the Satans from appearing before the 
Lord of Spirits to accuse men. The 
Satans appear here for the first time 
in Enoch, xl. 7. They seem to belong 
to a counter kingdom of evil, ruled 
by a chief called Satan, liii. 3. They 
existed as evil agencies before the fall 
of the watchers ; for the guilt of the 
latter consisted in becoming subject 
to Satan, liv. 6. This view har- 
monises exactly with that of Gen. 
iii. 1 combined with vi. 1-4. These 
Satans had the right of access into 
heaven, xl. 7 (cf. Job i. 6 ; Zech. iii) 
— a privilege denied to the watchers, 
xiii. 5 ; xiv. 5. Their functions were 
threefold : they tempted to evil, lxix. 
4, 6 ; they accused the dwellers upon 
earth, xl. 7 ; they punished the con- 
demned. In this last character they 
are technically called • angels of pun- 
ishment,' liii. 3 ; lvi. 1 ; lxii. 1 1 ; 
lxiii. 1 ; this designation has been 
taken over into the Interpolations : 
cf. lxvi. 1 (note). The Talmud (cf. 
Weber, L. d. T. 242-245) does not 
draw this clear line of demarcation 
between the Satans and the fallen 
angels, but rather confuses their attri- 
butes just as in ch. lxix. For the 
close connexion between the De- 
monology of Enoch and the N. T. see 



1 20 The Book of Enoch. [Sect. 11. 

dwell on the earth. 8. After that I asked the angel of 

peace who went with me, who showed me everything that 
is hidden, 'Who are these four presences which I have 
seen and whose words I have heard and written down ? ' 
9. And he said to me : f This first is Michael, the merciful 
and long-suffering : and the second, who is set over all the 
diseases and the wounds of the children of men, is Rufael : 
and the third, who is set over all the powers, is Gabriel : and 
the fourth, who is set over the repentance and hope of those 
who inherit eternal life, is named Fanuel/ 10. And these 

are the four angels of the Lord of Spirits and the four voices 
I heard in those days. 

XLI. 1. And after that I saw all the secrets of the heavens, 
and how the kingdom is divided and how the actions of men 



8. Who are, &c. ? Before these words Din. inserts ' and I said 
unto him ' against G M. 9. This first is Michael. So G M. 
Din. and FHKLNO read ' this first is the holy Michael/ 
The third . . . Gabriel. So G M. Din. and FHKLNO 'the 
holy Gabriel/ Is named Fanuel. So G M : Hftffi*; fohh 

Other MSS. 'is Fanuel/ 10. The Lord of Spirits. So GM. 
Din., with other MSS., ' the Most High God/ 



Gen. Introd. (pp. 52-3). 8. Angel with the doctrine of divine grace; 

of peace: see note on verse 2. but in the Talmud it is absolutely 

XLI. 1. The kingdom is divided. materialised, and man's salvation de- 

What 'the kingdom' means here is pends on a literal preponderance of 

doubtful. Din. takes it to mean the his good deeds over his bad ones : see 

Messianic kingdom; Schodde, the Weber, L. d. T. 269-273. This weigh- 

kingdom of this world. Can it refer ing of man's deeds goes on daily 

to the division of heaven into seven (idem 272). But as the results of such 

parts? The actions of men are judgments were necessarily unknown, 

weighed : cf. lxi. 8. The idea is there could not fail to be much uneasi- 

derived from the 0. T., where Job ness, and to allay this the doctrine 

(xxxi. 6) prays to be weighed in an of Abraham's meritorious righteous- 

even balance, and the spirits of men ness was in due time developed, in 

are weighed by God, Prov. xvi. 2 ; virtue of which all natural descen- 

xxi. 2; xxiv. 12, and the wicked are dants of Abraham through Jacob 

found wanting, Ps. lxii. 9; Dan. v. 27; became entitled to salvation (Weber, 

Pss. Sol. v. 6. In Enoch, as in the 280-285). This doctrine, though as 

O. T., this idea is not incompatible yet unknown in Enoch, was a popular 



Sect. II.] Chapters XL. 8 — XLL 5. 121 

are weighed upon the balance. 2. There saw I the mansions 
of the elect and the mansions of the holy, and mine eyes saw 
there all the sinners being driven from thence which had 
denied the name of the Lord of Spirits, and being dragged 
off : and they could not abide there because of the punishment 
which proceeds from the Lord of Spirits. [3. And there 

mine eyes saw the secrets of the lightning and of the thunder, 
and the secrets of the winds, how they are divided to blow over 
the earth, and the secrets of the clouds and dew : and there I saw 
from whence they proceed in that place and from whence they 
saturate the dust of the earth. 4. And there I saw closed 

chambers out of which the winds are apportioned, and the 
chamber of the hail and winds, and the chamber of the mist, 
and the cloud thereof hovers over the earth from before 
eternity. 5. And I saw the chambers of the sun and moon 



XLI. 2. Instead of ZhtotoPat* G reads jB.rtfhfl\ The sense 
practically comes to the same, hut G gives a more uniform text. 
Cf. the co-ordinate verb in the previous line $»&£&*. M J&ftrhft* 
— an easy corruption of G. 3. The dust of the earth. G reads 
0(WI 'the dusty earth/ 4. The chamber of the hail and 

winds, and the chamber of the mist. So GM. Din. and 
F H L N give : ' The chamber of the hail and the chamber of the 
mist and of the clouds/ O combines both readings : ' The chamber 
of the hail and winds, and the chamber of the mist and clouds/ 



belief in N. T. times : cf. Matt. iii. 9. winds. On the manifold functions 
2. The sinners being driven from of the winds in Enoch see xviii. 1-5 ; 
thence: see xxxviii. 1. Denied xxxiv-vi; lxxvi. 4. The chambers 
the name of the Lord of Spirits: of the winds, mist, cloud,&c. These 
see xxxviii. 2. 3-8. These verses conceptions rest on the poetical fan- 
are, it is obvious, alien in spirit and cies of Job xxxviii. 22. The writers 
position to the context. They belong in Enoch conceive all the natural 
in character and detail to xliii. 1, 2; powers, as thunder and lightning, 
xliv; lix; lxix. 13-25: see xliii. They rain, hail, dew, sun and moon, &c, 
may possibly, as Tideman thinks, as dwelling in their respective cham- 
belong to the Noah- Apocalypse. 3. bers. The cloud thereof, i.e. the 
The lightning and thunder are treated cloud of mist. Dln/s reading (see 
of repeatedly : see xvii. 3 ; xliii. 1-2 ; Crit. Note) is full of difficulty. Have 
xliv; lix; lx. 13-15: cf. Job xxxviii. we here a reference to Gen. i. 2? 
2 4> 2 5> 35- The secrets of the 5. For the teaching of Enoch on the 



122 The Book of Enoch. [Sect. II. 

whence they proceed and whither they come again, and their 
glorious return, and how one is superior to the other, and 
their stately orbit, and how they do not leave their orbit, and 
they add nothing to their orbit and they take nothing from 
it, and they keep faith with each other, abiding by the oath. 
6. And first the sun goes forth and traverses his path ac- 
cording to the commandment of the Lord of Spirits, and 
mighty is His name for ever and ever. 7. And after that 

comes the hidden and the visible path of the moon traversing 
the orbit of her path in that place by day and by night — the 
one holding a position opposite to the other before the Lord 
of Spirits. And they give thanks and praise and rest not; 
for to them their thanksgiving is rest. 8. For the sun 

changes oft for a blessing or a curse, and the course of the 
path of the moon is light to the righteous and darkness to 
the sinners in the name of the Lord, who made a separation 
between the light and the darkness, and divided the spirits of 



5. Their stately orbit. Din. translates 'Ihren festbestimmten 
Lauf.' But this meaning of >(10*£V is not possible, and is tacitly 
withdrawn in his Lexicon. Abiding by the oath. E G M give 
H*f»£4« instead of H}fl4«, but the sense does not differ materially. 
8. The sun. So G. All other MSS. read 'the shining sun.' 



sun and moon, see lxxii. 5. Their cf. lxix. 24. God calls the stars by 
glorious return, i. e. from west to name and they answer, xliii. 1 ; they 
east on the other side of the firma- keep faith with each other, xliii. 2 ; 
ment, or, according to lxxii. 5, round by they are weighed, as men, in a right- 
way of the north. The perfect regu- eous balance, xliii. 2 ; the disobedient 
larity with which the sun and moon stars are punished, xviii. 13. In 
traverse their orbits is here empha- lxxii-lxxix various functions regard- 
sised, as in lxxiv. 12 is that of the ing the division of time are assigned 
moon. Yet in lxxx. 4 it is said that to them. In the Persian religion 
the moon will become irregular. We the stars were regarded as embodied 
shall find, however, that lxxx is an existences divided into troops, each 
interpolation. The oath. A cer- under its own leader, Herzog, R. E. 
tain degree of consciousness seems xi. 235. This theory would suit 
to be attributed to the sun, moon lxxxii. 9-20 perfectly. It must be 
and stars. The sun and moon are confessed, however, that the concep- 
subject only to God, xli. 6 ; they give tion varies. 7. Hidden path of 
thanks and praise, and rest not ; for the moon, i. e. when the moon is 
to them thanksgiving is rest, xli. 7: invisible : see lxxiii-iv. 8. Divided 



Sect. II.] Chapters XLI. 6 — XLIL 3. 123 

men and strengthens the spirits of the righteous in the name 
of His righteousness.] 9. For neither angel nor power is 
able to hinder; for He appoints a judge for them all and 
he judges them all before Him. 

XLIL 1. Wisdom found no place where she might dwell; 
then a dwelling-place was assigned her in the heavens. 2. 
Wisdom came to make her dwelling among the children of 
men and found no dwelling-place : then Wisdom returned to 
her place and took her seat among the angels. 3. And 



9. For neither angel nor power is able to hinder ; for He 
appoints a judge for them all and he, &c. This is the trans- 
lation of G, only that I have read aoh°Yl as (frYfrtt ; for in this 
MS. the nominative and accusative are constantly confused. This 
text gives an excellent sense, and harmonises perfectly with the last 
words of xli. 2 ' because of the punishment which proceeds from the 
Lord of Spirits.' vv. 3-8 are an interpolation. G differs from the 
other MSS. and Oln. in reading jL£h£V instead of AJ&fr£vX, and 
J&lotl. instead of j^loh.. The sense of Dln.'s text is poor : 'For an 
angel hinders not and no power can hinder : but the Judge sees 
them all and He judges them all before Him.' F H K L M O sup- 
port Din. If we do not change tn>h»H into rn>h°U, G can be 
translated ' For the judge has appointed them all/ N reads £C&. 



the spirits of men. There seems Job xxviii. 12-14; 20-24; Baruch 
to be an actual predestination here iii. 29 ; Ecclus. xxiv. 4 ; and as com- 
spoken of. This division into chil- ing to earth and desiring to make her 
dren of light and darkness is in the abode with men, Prov. i. 20 sqq. ; viii 
past: the spirits of the righteous are sqq.; ix. 1-10; Ecclus. xxiv. 7 : but 
strengthened in the present. 9. as men refused to receive her, cf. xciv. 
See Crit. Note. The judge appointed 5, she returned to heaven. But in the 
is the Messiah. This verse is to be Messianic times she will return, and 
read directly after xli. 2 : cf. Acts will be poured out as water in abun- 
xvii. 31. dance, xlix. 1 ; and the thirsty will 
XLII. As Din. and others have drink to the full of wisdom, xlviii. I ; 
already recognised, this chapter is a she will be bestowed on the elect, 
fragment,and out of connexion with its v. 8; xci. 10: cf. Apoc. Bar. xliv. 
present context : where in the present 14 ; iv Ezra viii. 52; and the spirit 
book of Enoch it should stand, I do of Wisdom will abide in the Messiah 
not know. 1, 2. The praise of the Elect One, xlix. 3. We are re- 
wisdom was a favourite theme. Wis- minded in some measure here of the 
dom was regarded as having her Prologue of St. John. 3. The 
dwelling-place in heaven, lxxxiv. 3 ; different welcome which the wicked 



1 24 The Book of Enoch. [Sect. II. 

unrighteousness came forth from her chambers : and she 
found those whom she sought not, and dwelt with them 
(being welcome to them) as rain in a desert and dew on a 
thirsty land. 

[XLIII. 1. And again I saw lightning and the stars of 
heaven } and I saw how He called them all by their names and 
they heard Him. 3. And I saw how they are weighed in 

a righteous balance according to their proportions of light, the 
width of their spaces and the day of their appearing, and how 
their revolution produces lightning : and (I saw) their revolu- 
tion according to the number of the angels, and how they 
keep faith with each other. 3. And I asked the angel who 
went with me and showed me what was hidden, c What are 



XLIII. 2. The day of their appearing, and how their revo- 
lution produces lightning. So G, omitting the ao*{{£& in Din. 
M also omits it, but varies otherwise. Other MSS. give ' The 
day of their appearing and revolution : how one flash of lightning 



give to unrighteousness intensifies the great and imaginative thinker 
their guilt in respect to wisdom. They who wrote the Similitudes. The 
received not wisdom when she came original ending of this Similitude is 
unto them ; but they took home unto lost ; that of the other two is pre- 
themselves unrighteousness though served : see lvii. 3 ; lxix. 29. 
she sought them not. XLIII. 1. Called them all by 
XLIII, XLIV. These chapters their names : cf. Ps. cxlvii. 4 ; Is. 
belong to the same class of Interpola- xl. 26 ; Bar. iii. 34. 2. "Weighed 
tions as xli. 3-8. The study of the in a righteous balance. On the 
third Similitude, where the Interpola- conscious existence attributed to the 
tions cannot be mistaken, and of the stars, see xli. 5. 3. The angel 
Similitudes generally, shows that the who went with me and showed me 
original writer had no interest in what was hidden : cf. xlvi. 2. Taken 
natural phenomena, but that all his over into the Interpolations, lx. It. 
attention was directed immediately 3, 4. There is some mysterious con- 
to the spiritual world, and the great nexion between the stars and the 
spiritual background and crisis of the holy, whereby the stars represent the 
world's history. The Interpolations names of the holy. Does it mean 
come from minds of a far inferior that the holy will be as numerous as 
type ; and though of an ethical turn, the stars ? or as bright as the stars ? 
they are as a rule fantastic and frivo- cf. civ. 2 ; Dan. xii. 3 ; Matt. xiii. 43. 
lous, and their authors are closely There was a close connexion between 
allied to the later Rabbinical writers, the stars and the angels in the 0. T. : 
but have nothing in common with cf. Job xxxviii. 7, where the morning 



Sect, ii.] Chapters XLIII. i — XL V. 2. 125 

these ? J 4. And he said to me, ' the Lord of Spirits hath 

showed thee their parabolic meaning (lit. 'their parable ') : these 
are the names of the holy who dwell on the earth and believe 
in the name of the Lord of Spirits for ever and ever/ 

XLIV. Also other phenomena I saw in regard to the 
lightnings : how some of the stars arise and become lightnings 
and cannot part with their new form.] 

XLV. 1. And this is the second Similitude concerning 
those who deny the name of the dwelling of the holy ones 
and the Lord of Spirits. 2. They will not ascend into the 

heaven, and on the earth they will not come : such will be 
the lot of the sinners who deny the name of the Lord of 
Spirits, who are thus preserved for the day of suffering and 



produces another.' 4. Their parabolic meaning. Din. trans- 
lates ' ein Bild von ihnen.' The names of the holy. So G M 
tfUMfc Other MSS. ' The names of the righteous/ 

XLIV. How some of the stars arise and become lightnings 
and cannot part with their new form. Din. translates : ' Wie 
die (i. e. die Blitze) aus den Sternen entstehen und zu Blitzen 
werden/ But X7 v h f P\l'd : V is a familiar idiomatic expression for 
1 some of the stars.' In the above translation we have taken 
9°h(l>\F a*** as if it were yftfr'cfl* . Din. points but that it stands 
for this form in Exod. xxxiv. 13. 



stars are undoubtedly angels : cf. also accurate description of the contents 

Deut. iv. 19. 4. Believe in the of the Similitude from the opening 

name : cf. xxxix. 6 'the Elect One . . . verse or superscription. "We find none 

of faith 1 ; lviii. 5 'the inheritance of such in xxxviii. 1, 2; nor yet in lviii. 

faith''; lxi. 4 ' the measures given to 1, 2. For a summary of the thought 

faith''', lxi. 11 ' in the spirit of faith.'' of the Similitudes, see pp. 108-109. 

Contrast the denial of sinners, Those who deny the dwelling : see 

xxxviii. 2. xxxviii. 2 (note). 2. On the earth 

XLIV. The reference here is to they will not come. The earth will 

shooting stars, aortpes diaOeovres : be transformed (v. 5) and be thence- 

Arisfc. Meteor, i. 4. Lightning in forth the abode of the righteous only, 

general is produced by the quick Deny the name of the Lord of 

movement of the stars, xliii. 2 ; but Spirits : see xxxviii. 2 (note). Day 

some of the stars at times are trans- of suffering and tribulation. The 

formed wholly into lightning. final judgment is variously named 

XLV. 1. It is idle to expect an ' that great day,' liv. 6 ; ' day of judg- 



126 



The Book of Enoch. 



[Sect. II. 



tribulation. 3. On that day Mine Elect One will sit on the 
throne of glory and make choice amongst their (men's) deeds, 
and their mansions will be innumerable, and their souls will 
grow strong within them when they see Mine elect ones and 
those who have called upon My glorious name. 4. And on 



XLV. 3. Mine Elect One. So G I^JW. FHLMN 

and Din. give 'The Elect One/ as we find in xl. 5 ; xlix. 2, 4 ; 
li. 3, 5 ; lii. 6, 9 ; liii. 6. See Mine elect ones. So G L N : 
Ch£<Pa*i A'fisff: Rft?. Din. and FHMO give 'See Mine 
Elect One.' Glorious name. So GM. Other MSS. and 



ment,' xxii. 4 ; c. 4; ' day of j udgment 
and consummation,' x. 12; 'day 
of the great consummation,' xvi. 1 ; 
' the great judgment,' xix. I ; xxii. 4 ; 
1 day of the great judgment,' xix. I ; 
lxxxiv. 4 ; xciv. 9 ; xcviii. 10 ; xcix. 
*5 > *▼• 5 » ' great day of judgment ' 
x. 6 ; xxii. 1 1 ; xxv. 4 ; ' judgment 
which is for ever,' civ. 5 ; ' great 
judgment which is for ever,' xci. 15 ; 
'judgment which is for ever and 
ever,' x. 1 2 ; ' day of tribulation,' i. 1 ; 
xcvi. 2 ; ' day of tribulation and pain,' 
lv. 3; 'day of tribulation and great 
shame,' xcviii. 10 ; ' day of suffering 
and tribulation,' xlv. 2 ; lxiii. 8; 'day 
of affliction,' xlviii. 10 ; 1. 2 ; ' day of 
anguish and affliction,' xlviii. 8 ; ' day 
of destruction,' xcviii. 10; *day of 
slaughter,' xciv. 9 ; ' day of unceasing 
bloodshed,' xcix. 6; 'day of darkness,' 
xciv. 9 ; ' day of unrighteousness,' 
xcvii. 1. As the same phrase is ap- 
plied to quite different events it is 
necessary to observe that — (1) The 
Deluge or first world judgment is re- 
ferred to in x. 4, 5, i2 b ; liv. 5, 7-10; 
xci. 5 ; xciii. 4. (2) Final world 
judgment at the beginning of the Mes- 
sianic kingdom, x. 6, I2 C ; xvi. 1; 
xix. 1 ; xxii. 4, 1 1 ; xxv. 4 ; xlv. 2 ; 
liv. 6 ; lv. 4; xc. 20-27. (3) Judg- 
ment of the sword at the beginning 
of the Messianic kingdom, when the 



righteous slay the wicked, 1. 2 ; xc. 19 ; 
xci.12; xcv. 7; xcvi. 1 ; xcviii. 12. (4) 
Final world- judgment at the close of 
the Messianic kingdom, xciv. 9 ; xcviii. 
10 ; c. 4 ; ciii. 8 ; civ. 5. In xlviii. 8- 
10 there seems to be a combination of 

(2) and (3), and in xcix. 9, xcix. 15 of 

(3) and (4). 3. Mine Elect One : 
see xl. 5. On the throne of glory. 
The Elect One will sit on the throne 
of his glory, xlv. 3 ; lv. 4 ; lxii. 3, 5 : 
as Son of Man, he will sit on the 
throne of his glory, lxix. 27, 29 ; being 
placed thereon by the Lord of Spirits, 
lxi. 8 ; lxii. 2 ; and his throne is like- 
wise the throne of the Head of Days, 
xlvii. 3 ; li. 3. The Elect One sits on 
his throne to judge ; for all judgment 
has been committed unto him, lxix. 
27. Make choice among their 
deeds. This seems to mean ' to sepa- 
rate their good deeds and their evil 
deeds in order to weigh them in the 
balance for purposes of judgment.' 
The step is here distinctly taken 
towards the later gross conceptions of 
the Talmud : see xli. 1 (note). Man- 
sions. This is not the same word as 
is used in xxxix. 4 ; but may be ren- 
dered similarly, as it is the Ethiopic 
rendering of mansio, ^0107. 4, 5. 
After the judgment the Messianic 
kingdom is established and its scene 
will be a transformed heaven, xlv. 4 j 



Sect. II.] Chapters XL V. 3. — XL VI. 2. 127 

that day I will cause Mine Elect One to dwell among them, 
and I will transform the heaven and make it an eternal 
blessing and light. 5* And I will transform the earth and 
make it a blessing and cause Mine elect ones to dwell upon 
it : but the sinners and evil-doers will not set foot thereon. 
6. For I have seen and satisfied with peace My righteous ones, 
and have caused them to dwell before Me : but for the sinners 
there is judgment impending with Me so that I may destroy 
them from the face of the earth. 

(^XLVL) 1 . And there I saw One who had a head of days, 
and His head was white like wool, and with Him was another 
being whose countenance had the appearance of a man and 
his face was full of graciousness, like one of the holy angels. 
2. And I asked the angel who went with me and showed me 
all the hidden things, concerning that Son of Man, who he 



Din. give: 'Holy and glorious name.' 4. Cause Mine Elect 
One to dwell among them. G reads KidCl A^Khft : (H4sft? 

RA? which is untranslateable. All other MSS. support the text. 
XL VI. 2. The angel who went with me. The Ethiopic gives 



li. 4 ; and earth xli. 2 ; xlv. 5 : its contribution, and from it have been 

members will be angels, xxxix. 4 (note), drawn directly the expressions * Head 

and men ; and the Elect One will of Days,' and ' Son of Man.' The 

abide amongst them. This idea of former means in Daniel the Everlast- 

the transformation of the world was ing. It is found in Enoch in xlvi. 2 ; 

derived directly from Is. lxv. 17 and xlvii. 3; xlviii. 2, and has been carried 

lxvi. 2, and probably originally from over into the Interpolations, lv. 1 ; 

Zoroastrianism : see Cheyne's Origin lx. 2; lxxi. 10, 12, 13, 14. Theoriginal 

of the Psalter, 404, 405. It is found writer uses this expression of Daniel 

elsewhere in Enoch in lxxii. 1 ; xci. with much appropriateness in con- 

16. In Isaiah this idea is only nexion with the supernatural Son of 

adopted eclectically ; for it is incom- Man and the question of final judg- 

patible with other facts in the context ; ment ; in fact the two expressions are 

i.e. lxv. 20, &c. ; but in Enoch it is correlative: observe the question, 

accepted in its entire significance as ' Why he went with the Head of 

logically involving the immortal bless- Days ? ' but this technical appropri- 

edness of man : cf. Apoc. Bar. xxxii. ateness is wanting in the Interpola- 

6 ; lvii. 2 ; iv Ezra [vi. 49]. tions. Another being . . . like one 

XLVI. 1. In this and the following of the holy angels : cf. I Sam. xxix. 

chapters Daniel vii has been laid under 9 ; Acts vi. 15. 2. Son of Man. 



128 



The Book of Enoch. 



[Sect. II. 



was, and whence he was, and why he went with the Head of 
Days ? 3. And he answered and said unto me ' This is the 



'one of the angels who went with me.' But, as Volkmar has 
already recognised, Enoch has only an Angel to guide him in the 



There are some difficulties connected 
with this expression in Enoch, as it 
has there three different Ethiopic 
renderings, =filius hominis, xlvi. 2, 
3, 4; xlviii. 2, filius viri, lxix. 29; 
lxxi. 14, and filius prolis matris vi- 
ventium, lxii. 7, 9, 14 ; lxiii. 11 ; lxix. 
26, 27; lxx. 1 ; lxxi. 17; and these 
are the greater as the Ethiopic trans- 
lator can only have had one and the 
same phrase before him, i.e. 6 vlbs 
rod avOpouTrov. For the LXX. invari- 
ably uses vlbs avOpwirov as a rendering 
of DTttrp and BhJK-p, and exact 
Greek equivalents of the Ethiopic 
expressions are hardly conceivable. 
Are we then to suppose that these 
variations existed in the Hebrew, 
and accordingly postulate on the part 
of the Ethiopic translators a direct 
acquaintance with an Hebrew MS. 
(similarly, as Noldeke, Encyc. Brit. 
xxi. 654, in the case of the Ethiopic 
Bible, postulates the presence of 
Aramaic teachers in order to ex- 
plain the fact that certain religious 
conceptions are there expressed by 
Aramaic words)? These suppositions 
are not necessary. There is no strict 
uniformity of rendering in the Ethiopic 
Bible, vlbs avOpwvov is rendered by 
proles matris viventium in Num. xxiii. 
19 ; Ps. viii. 4; cxliv. 3 ; cxlvi. 3 (in 
the last two instances, two distinct 
Hebrew expressions are used) : but 
by filius prolis matris viventium in 
Ps. lxxx. 17. This latter rendering is 
practically the authorised one in the 
Ethiopic as it is found throughout 
Ezekiel, in Dan. vii. 13, and tmi-. 



versally in the N.T. Again *flX rt* = 
vir is frequently used where we should 
expect lWlA = homo, and vice versa. 
Hence filius viri and filius hominis in 
the Ethiopic text may be synonymous 
and the variation may be due to the 
carelessness of the translator. Of such 
carelessness there are many instances 
in Enoch. In lxxxix. 1 we find U*flA 
where we should have *C1aiL as it is 
correctly in vv. 9 and 36. Again in 
lxxxix. 45 we have twice the render- 
ing • sheep ' where according to the 
context and the Greek it should be 
'lamb.' Accordingly we hold that 
these variations were confined to the 
Ethiopic version, and this conclusion 
is confirmed by the fact that filius 
viri, lxix. 29, does not imply one 
born of man without the mediation of 
a mother as some have supposed ; for 
the same phrase is applied to Enoch 
in lxxi. 14, and is therefore the equiva- 
lent of filius hominis in xlvi. 2, &c. 
We have above remarked that the ex- 
pression in the Greek version of Enoch 
must have been 6 vlbs rov avOpcuirov, 
and not vlbs avOpwirov, for in Enoch it 
is the distinct designation of the per- 
sonal Messiah. In xlviii. 10; lii. 4 he 
is styled the ' Messiah.' For the rela- 
tion between the title • Son of Man ' in 
Enoch and in the N.T., see Appendix 
on ' the Son of Man.' 3. The Mes- 
siah is conceived in the Similitudes as 
(1) the Judge of the world, (2) the Ee- 
vealer of all things, (3) the Messianic 
Champion and Ruler of the righteous. 
(1 ) As judge, he possesses (a) righteous- 
ness, (b) wisdom, and (c) power (Pss. 



Sect. II.] 



Chapter XL VI. 3, 4. 



129 



Son of Man who hath righteousness, with whom dwelleth 
righteousness, and who reveals all the treasures of that which 
is hidden, because the Lord of Spirits hath chosen him, and his 
lot before the Lord of Spirits hath surpassed everything in 
uprightness for ever. 4. And this Son of Man whom thou 
hast seen will arouse the kings and the mighty ones from 
their couches and the strong from their thrones, and will 
loosen the reins of the strong and grind to powder the teeth 



Similitudes. Hence, as in lii. 3, we must read A<n>£Vftft instead of 
ASXffD'lJvh^r. The error probably arose through the occurrence 



xlv. 4-8 ; lxxii ; Is. xi. 3-5 ; Jer. xxiii. 

5, 6). (a) He is the Righteous One 
in an extraordinary sense, xxxviii. 2 
(see note) ; liii. 6 : he possesses right- 
eousness, and it dwells with him, 
xlvi. 3, and on the ground of his 
essential righteousness, xlvi. 3, has he 
been chosen no less than according to 
God's good pleasure, xlix. 4. (b) 
Wisdom, which could find no dwelling- 
place on earth, xlii, dwells in him 
and the spirit of Him who giveth 
knowledge, xlix. 3 : and the secrets of 
wisdom stream forth from his mouth, 
li. 3, and wisdom is poured out like 
water before him, xlix. 1 . (c) In him 
abides the spirit of power, xlix. 3, and 
he possesses universal dominion, Ixii. 

6. (2) He is the revealer of all 
things. His appearance will be the 
signal for the revelation of good and 
the unmasking of evil : will bring to 
light everything that is hidden, alike 
the invisible world of righteousness 
and the hidden world of sin, xlvi. 3 ; 
xlix. 2, 4 : and will recall to life 
those that have perished on land and 
sea, and those that are in Sheol and 
hell, li. 1 ; lxi. 5. Evil when once 
unmasked will vanish from his pre- 
sence, xlix. 2. Hence all judgment 
has been committed unto him, lxix. 



27, and he will sit on the throne of 
his glory, xlv. 3 (see note), and all 
men and angels will be judged before 
him, li. 2 ; lv. 4 ; lxi. 8 ; lxii. 2, 3, and 
no lying utterance will be possible 
before him, xlix. 4 ; lxii. 3, and by the 
mere word of his mouth will he slay 
the ungodly, lxii. 2. (3) He is the 
Messianic champion and ruler of the 
righteous. He is the stay of the 
righteous, xlviii. 4, and has already 
been revealed to them, lxii. 7 : he is 
the avenger of their life, xlviii. 7, the 
preserver of their inheritance, xlviii. 
7 : he will vindicate the earth as their 
possession for ever, li. 5, and establish 
the community of the righteous in 
unhindered prosperity, liii. 6 ; lxii. 8 : 
their faces will shine with joy, li. 5, 
and they will be vestured with life, 
lxii. 15, and be resplendent with light, 
xxxix. 7, and he will abide in closest 
communion with them for ever, lxii. 
14, in the immediate presence of the 
Lord of Spirits, xxxix. 7, and his glory 
is for ever and ever, and his might 
unto all generations, xlix. 2. Hath 
chosen him. Hence he is called ' the 
Elect One ' : see xxxviii. 2 (note) ; xl. 
4 (note). His lot . . . hath surpassed 
everything in uprightness: cf.Heb. 
i. 4. 4-8. Grind to powder. 



1 30 The Book of Enoch, [Sect. II. 

of the sinners. 5. And he will put down the kings from 

their thrones and kingdoms because they do not extol and 
praise him, nor thankfully acknowledge whence the kingdom 
was bestowed upon them. 6. And he will put down the 
countenance of the strong and shame will cover them : dark- 
ness will be their dwelling and worms their bed, and they will 
have no hope of rising from their beds because they do not 
extol the name of the Lord of Spirits. 7. And these are 
those who make themselves masters of the stars of heaven, 
and raise their hands against the Most High, and tread down 
the earth and dwell upon it, and all their deeds manifest 
unrighteousness and all their deeds are unrighteousness : 
their power rests upon their riches, and their faith is in the 
gods which they have made with their hands, and the name 

of the latter phrase in the preceding line. 5. Put down the 
kings from their thrones and kingdoms. So all MSS. but G M, 
which give mt^; CNlF*t\ aDq^CtWa^i (l£(li ffDWlCfclFcn* 
'Put down the kings, throne upon throne of them' (?) 7- -A- 1 * 
their deeds manifest unrighteousness and all their deeds are un- 
righteousness : their power, &c. So G M, omitting the (D before 
SC>& with DEFHL, and inserting WltCt after JPCfc?<. Din. 
and O give : ' All their deeds are unrighteousness and manifest 



The phraseology of these verses is taken as a figurative expression for 

largely drawn from the O.T. : cf. w. the destruction awaiting the mighty 

4 and 6 with Is. xiv. 9, 11 ; Pss. iii. 7 ; the oppressors of the righteous : cf. Is. 

lviii. 6; Lam. iii. 16. We have here lxvi. 24; Judith xvi. 17 ; Ecclus. vii. 

a highly figurative description of the 17 ; Mark ix. 48. "Worms their bed 

Messianic judgment of the mighty . . . because they do not extol the 

ones of the earth. 5. Put down name of the Lord : cf. Acts xii. 23 

the kings from their thrones : cf. for a like connexion of thought. 7. 

Luke i. 52, which seems to depend Make themselves masters of the 

directly on this verse in Enoch in stars. The stars by a bold figure 

phrasing and thought. Nor acknow- stand in Enoch for (1) the angels ; 

ledge whence the kingdom: cf. (2) the righteous, as in this verse: 

Wisdom vi. 3; Rom. xiii. 1. 6. cf. xliii. 4; Dan. viii. 10, 11, 13, 25. 

"Worms their bed. Baldensperger Dwell upon it (i.e. the earth). When 

(p. 14) thinks that this expression this phrase occurs by itself in the Simili- 

refers to the disease of which Herod tudes it has a good ethical sense. See 

died (b. c. 4). In 11 Mace. ix. 5, 9 it xxxviii. 2 (note). Their power rests 

is said that Antiochus Epiphanes died upon their riches : cf. Pss. xlix. 6 ; 

of this disease. It is rather to be Iii. 7 ; En. xciv. 8 (note). Their 



Sect, ii.] Chapters XL VI 5 — XL VI L 3. 131 

of the Lord of Spirits have they denied. 8. And they will 
be driven forth from the houses of His congregations and of 
the faithful who cleave to the name of the Lord of Spirits.' 

XLVII. 1. And in those days the prayer of the righteous 
and the blood of the righteous will have ascended from the 
earth before the Lord of Spirits. %. In those days will the 
holy ones who dwell above in the heavens unite with one voice 
and supplicate and intercede and laud and give thanks and 
bless the name of the Lord of Spirits on account of the blood 
of the righteous which has been shed, and the prayer of the 
righteous that it may not be in vain before the Lord of 
Spirits, that judgment may be done unto them, and that they 
may not have to suffer for ever. 3. And in those days I 

saw the Head of Days when He had seated Himself on the 
throne of His glory, and the books of the living were opened 

unrighteousness, and their power, &c.' The Lord of Spirits 
have they denied. So G. FHLINO and Din. read ■ The 
name of the Lord of Spirits have they denied.' 8. Will be 

driven forth from the houses of His congregations. GM 
read $»(\£;&\ h'Qf'T ' The houses of His congregations will drive 
forth.' Cleave to the name : see xxxviii. 2 (note). 

faith is in the gods which they righteous one will arise from sleep 

have made . . . and the name of the and wisdom . . . will be given unto 

Lord of Spirits have they denied. them. ' Above all, in the next verse, 

This is a strong expression for the where the phrase occurs again, we 

idolatrous tendencies of the Sadducean find ' the blood of the righteous ones.' 

court. For a discussion of the verse, The first of the Maccabees to shed the 

see xxxviii. 5 (note). 8. Cf. liii. 6. blood of the righteous was Alex. 

XLVII. 1. On the dethronement Jannaeus, 95 B.C. See xxxviii. 5 (note), 

and destruction of the mighty follows 2. On the intercession of the angels 

a description of the judgment. The see xv. 2 (note). The prayer of the 

blood of the righteous. ' The righteous : cf. Rev. vi. 10 for exactly 

righteous ' is here a collective in the the same Judaistic sentiment. See 

singular, though, in the preceding xcvii. 5 (note). 3. Books of the 

phrase, ' the prayer of the righteous,' living. The idea underlying this 

it is in the plural. Some have thought phrase is to be traced to the O.T. 

the singular side by side with the There the book of life (or its equiva- 

plural must be significant here, — in lents, Exod. xxxii. 32 sq. 'God's 

fact a Christian allusion: but this is book'; Ps. lxix. 28 'book of the liv- 

not so; the same juxtaposition of cases ing') was a register of the citizens of 

is found in xlvii. 4 ; xci. 10 * the the Theocratic community. To have 

K % 



132 The Book of Enoch. [Sect. 11. 

before Him, and His whole host which is in heaven above 



one's name written in the book of life 
implied the privilege of participating 
in the temporal blessings of the Theo- 
cracy, Is. iv. 3, while to be blotted 
out of this book, Exod. xxxii. 32 ; Ps. 
lxix. 28, meant exclusion therefrom. 
In the 0. T. this expression was 
originally confined to temporal bless- 
ings only, but in Dan. xii. 1 it is 
transformed through the influence of 
the new conception of the kingdom, 
and distinctly refers to an immortality 
of blessedness. It has the same mean- 
ing in our text. A further reference 
to it is to be found in civ. 1. The 
phrase again appears in the Book of 
Jubilees xxx in contrast with ' the 
book of those that shall be destroyed,' 
but in the O.T. sense. The 'Books 
of the Saints' in cviii. 3 (ciii. 2 ?) has 
practically the same meaning. In the 
N.T. the phrase is of frequent occur- 
rence, Phil. iv. 3 ; Rev. iii. 5 ; xiii. 8 ; 
xvii. 8 ; xx. 12, 15 ; xxi. 27 ; xxii. 19, 
and the idea in Luke x. 20 ; Heb. xii. 
23 'written in heaven.' For later 
instances of its use see Pastor Her- 
mae, Vis. i. 3, 2 (see Harnack in loc.) ; 
Sim. ii. 9 ; Mand. viii. 6 ; 1 Clem. xlv. 
8. There is no idea of absolute pre- 
destination involved in this conception. 
The same thought, i. e. the inscription 
of the name in the book of life, under- 
lies the words 'the memorial of the 
righteous will be before the face of 
the Great One unto all generations,' 
ciii. 4. Contrast Pss. Sol. xiii. 10, 
' the memorial of the wicked shall no 
more be found.' (2) Books of remem- 
brance of good and evil deeds. For 
those wherein good deeds were re- 
corded, see Ps. lvi. 8 ; Mai. iii. 16 ; 
Book of Jubilees xxx ; wherein evil 
deeds were recorded, Is. lxv. 6 ; En. 
lxxxi. 4 ; lxxxix. 61-64, 68, 70, 71, 
76, 77; xc.17, 20; xcviii. 7, 8; civ. 7; 



Apoc. Bar. xxiv. 1 ; wherein good and 
evil deeds were recorded, Dan. vii. 10 ; 
Rev. xx. 12 ; Asc. Is. ix. 20. (3) The 
heavenly tables = irKa/ccs rod ovpavov 
in Test. xii. Patriarch. The concep- 
tion underlying this phrase is to be 
traced partly to Ps. cxxxix. 16 ; Exod. 
xxv. 9, 40 ; xxvi. 30, where we find 
the idea that there exist in heaven 
divine archetypes of certain things on 
earth : partly to Dan. x. 21, where a 
book of God's plans is referred to: 
but most of all to the growing deter- 
minism of thought, for which this 
phrase stands as a concrete expression. 
In Apocryphal literature historical 
events are not depicted according to 
the manifold variety of life, but are 
methodically arranged under artificial 
categories of measure, number, weight, 
Wisdom xi. 20 ; iv Ezra iv. 36, 37. The 
conception is not a hard and fixed one : 
in Enoch and Test. xii. Patriarch, it 
wavers between an absolute determin- 
ism and prediction pure and simple : 
whereas in Jubilees, in addition to 
these significations it implies at times 
little more than a contemporary 
heavenly record of events. In Enoch 
the idea is mainly predestinarian, the 
' heavenly tables ' record all the deeds 
of men to the remotest generations, 
lxxxi. 1,2; and the entire history of 
the earth, xciii. 1-3; and all the 
unrighteousness that will arise, cvi. 
19; cvii. 1 ; as well as all the bless- 
ings in store for the righteous, ciii. 2, 
3. They are likewise called the Book 
of the Angels, ciii. 2 ; for they are 
designed also for the perusal of the 
angels, cviii. 7, that they may know 
the future recompenses of the righteous 
and the wicked. In Test. xii. Patriarch. 
Levi 5 ; Aser 7, the idea is predictive; 
in Aser 2 it concerns a question of 
Levitical law. In Jubilees the use 



Sect. IL] Chapters XL VII. 4 — XL VIIL 2 . 133 



and around Him stood before Him. 4. And the hearts of 

the holy were filled with joy that the number of righteousness 
had drawn nigh, and the prayer of the righteous was heard, and 
the blood of the righteous required before the Lord of Spirits. 
XL VIIL 1. And in that place I saw a fountain of right- 
eousness which was inexhaustible : around it were many 
fountains of wisdom, and all the thirsty drank of them 
and were filled with wisdom, and had their dwellings with 
the righteous and holy and elect. %. And at that hour that 



XL VII. 4. Had drawn nigh. So GM *CQ instead of ttBvh 
of Din. 

XLVIII. 1. Which was inexhaustible. It is not necessary to 
conjecture with Din. that K&T$M* is a corruption of /tjE^f £V«J» ; 

for the former is the natural rendering of dpapidfirjros, which in 
Hellenistic Greek meant variously ' great,' ' strong/ ■ immense/ 



of the phrase is very loose ; the 
heavenly tables are the statute book 
of the Theocracy, or a mere contem- 
porary record, or else are predictive or 
determinative. The heavenly tables re- 
cord : (1) Laws Levitical and criminal, 
in some instances previously observed 
in heaven, in others, established for 
the first time on earth : Feast of weeks, 
vi ; Tabernacles, xvi ; Passover, xlix ; 
' the Festival of the Lord,' xviii ; 
Ceremonial cleanness, iii ; Circumci- 
sion, 1 ; the Sabbath, xv ; tithes, xxxii ; 
marriage of elder daughter, xxviii ; 
destruction of him who gives his 
daughter to a Gentile, xxx ; of the 
murderer, iv ; of the incestuous person, 
xxxiii (ordained because of Eeuben) ; 
of the seed of Lot, xvi ; of the Philis- 
tines, xxiv. (2) Merely a contem- 
porary event : the slaughter of the 
Shechemites, xxx; the institution of 
the ' Festival of the Lord/ xviii ; the 
showing of the Seven Tables to Jacob, 
xxxii; Isaac's blessing of Levi and 
Judah, xxxi ; the naming of Abraham, 
xix ; and of Levi, xxx, as friends of 
God. (3) Predictions : of the judg- 



ment of all creation, v ; of the Mes- 
sianic kingdom, xxiii ; of the recording 
of the faithful as friends of God and 
the transgressors as haters, xxx. His 
whole host. God, as the Jehovah 
of Hosts, in His manifestations is 
generally so accompanied : cf. i. 4, 9 ; 
lx. 1, 4; lxxi. 9-14. According to 
the Similitudes it is the Messiah that 
judges. 4. The number of right- 
eousness. Din. takes this to mean the 
period determined beforehand for the 
complete revelation of divine righteous- 
ness, i.e. the year of the final judg- 
ment. This interpretation is perhaps 
favoured by ver. 2 . On the other hand, 
would it not be better to take the 
phrase as meaning that the number of 
the elect was almost fulfilled*, cf. Kev. 
vi. 10, 11. 

XLVIII. 1. Place: see xlvi. 1. 
Fountains of wisdom: see xlii. 
I, 2 (note). Cf. Is. Iv. I sqq. 2. 
At that hour, i.e. when Enoch was 
beholding these visions. That Son 
of Man was named. The pre- 
existence of the Son of Man is plainly 
taught in the Similitudes. He (not 



134 



The Book of Enoch. 



[Sect. II. 



Son of Man was named in the presence of the Lord of 
Spirits and his name before the Head of Days. 3. And 
before the sun and the signs were created, before the stars 
of the heaven were made his name was named before the 
Lord of Spirits. 4. He will be a staff to the righteous 

on which they will support themselves and not fall, and he 
will be the light of the Gentiles and the hope of those who 
are troubled of heart. 5. All who dwell on earth will fall 
down and bow the knee before him and will bless and laud 
and celebrate with song the Lord of Spirits. 6. And for 
this reason has he been chosen and hidden before Him before 
the creation of the world and for evermore. 7. And the 
wisdom of the Lord of Spirits hath revealed him to the holy 



1 innumerable/ 5. The Lord of Spirits. So G : ([XVlUii cn>££ft}\ 
Din. gives ' the name of the Lord of Spirits.' 6. And for ever- 
more. So E G H M N O. L and Din. add a$£ ir Zlh ' And he 



his name) has been chosen and hidden 
in God's presence from before creation 
and unto eternity, xlviii. 3, 6 : the 
Most High has preserved him and 
revealed him to the elect, xlvi. 1,2; 
lxii. 7 ; his glory is for ever and ever, 
xlix. 2 ; and when Enoch was trans- 
lated, the Son of Man was already 
abiding with the Lord of Spirits, lxx. i # 
This actual pre-existence of the Son of 
Man is only in keeping with his other 
supernatural attributes of universal 
dominion, lxii. 6, and unlimited judicial 
authority, lxix. 27. That the earlier 
Rabbis taught only an ideal pre- 
existence of the Messiah (Weber, 
Lehr. d. Talmud, 339-41) does not in 
the least make against the idea of an 
actual pre-existence being found in 
the Similitudes, as the whole con- 
ception of the Son of Man there is 
unique in Jewish literature. It is 
moreover found in iv Ezra xii. 32 ; 
xiii. 26. Besides, Edersheim, Life 



and Times of Jesus, i. 174-6, main- 
tains that this doctrine is taught in 
the oldest Rabbinic writings, and 
Weber (p. 340) concedes its appear- 
ance in the later. Cf. Schurer, Div. 
ii. vol. ii. 159-162, who agrees with 
the view above followed. 3. The 

signs. These are the signs of 
the Zodiac 1"H"W?, Job xxxviii. 32. 
See also viii. 3 ; lxxii. 13, 19. 4. 

The light of the Gentiles. Is. xlii. 
6 ; xlix. 6. The Messiah will become 
the light of the Gentiles through his 
future coming and character being 
made known unto them. Cf. lxii. 7, 
where he is already revealed to the 
righteous. 5. All will bow the 

knee before him. Even those who 
have denied him, lxii. 6, 9, 10 j lxiii. 
See also xc. 33-38. Cf. Phil. ii. 10. 
6. For this reason, i. e. that given 
in vv. 4, 5. Hidden: cf. iv Ezra 
xiii. 52. 7. Kevealed him to 

the holy and righteous, i.e. through 



Sect. IT.] Chapter XL VI I L 3-10. 135 

and righteous for lie preserveth the lot of the righteous, 
because they have hated and despised this world of un- 
righteousness, and have hated all its works and ways in the 
name of the Lord of Spirits : for they are saved in his name 
and he is the avenger of their life. 8. And in those days 
the kings of the earth, and the strong who possess the earth 
will be of downcast countenance because of the works of their 
hands, for on the day of their anguish and affliction their 
souls will not be saved. 9. And I will give them over into 
the hands of Mine elect : as straw in fire and as lead in water 
they will burn before the face of the holy, and sink before 
the face of the righteous and no trace of them will any more 
be found. 10. And on the day of their affliction, there 



will be before Him for evermore/ 7. He is the avenger of 
their life. So all MSS. but G, which reads &&*&& * According 
to His good pleasure is their life ordered ' : lit. ' it happens in 
regard to their life.' G's reading preserves the parallelism in both 
form and meaning. 9. Before the face of the holy. So G. 
Other MSS. except M read: 'before the face of the righteous.' 
Before the face of the righteous. So G M. Other MSS. and Din. 



O.T. prophecy. Cf. lxii. 7. Pre- the hands, &c. : see xxxviii. 5 (note), 

serveth the lot of the righteous. As straw in fire. A common figure 

The Messiah is the stay of the right- in the O.T., Exod. xv. 7 or Is. v. 24; 

eous and the guardian and surety of Mai. iv. 1 : ' as lead in water,' Exod. 

the inheritance that awaits them. xv. 10. Before the face of the holy. 

Hated and despised this world of The reference here is to Gehenna, 

unrighteousness : cf. cviii. 8, 9, 10 ; Cf. xxvii. 2, 3; xc. 26, 27 : but in the 

Gal. i. 4. Saved in his name: cf. Similitudes the idea of Gehenna under- 

I Cor. vi. 11 'Justified in the name goes some transformation. In xxvii. 

of,' &c. Avenger of their life, 2, 3; xc. 26, 27, the sufferings of the 

i. e. by recompensing the righteous wicked form an ever-present spectacle 

and requiting their foes who should to the righteous. Cf. iv Ezra [vi. 1], 

be handed over to the angels of ' Revelabitur furnus gehennae, et ex 

punishment, lxii. 11. 8. Day of ad verso ejus iterum paradisus jucundi- 

their anguish: see xlv. 2 (note). tatum': but in the Similitudes, where 

8-9. As the Messiah is the Saviour heaven and earth are transformed on 

of the righteous, so is he the destroyer the advent of the Messiah, this spec- 

of their oppressors. The souls of the tacle is only a temporary one, and 

oppressors 'will not be saved': cf. Gehenna and its victims vanish for 

xxxviii. 6. Give them over into ever from the sight of the righteous, 



136 



The Book of Enoch. 



[Sect. II. 



will be rest on the earth : before them they will fall and not 
rise again: and there will be no one to take them with his 
hands and raise them : for they have denied the Lord of 
Spirits and His Anointed. The name of the Lord of Spirits be 
blessed. 

XLIX. i. For wisdom is ponred out like water, and glory 
faileth not before him for ever and ever. 2. For he is 

mighty in all the secrets of righteousness, and unrighteousness 
will disappear as a shadow, and have no continuance, because 



give : * before the face of the holy/ 10. Before them. So G M 
nfr£-"ElFai*. Other MSS. 'before him/ His Anointed. The 
name of the Lord of Spirits be blessed. These words are 
omitted by G through homoioteleuton : found in all other MSS. 
XLIX. 1. Is poured out. G reads XlO(D (sic), which when 



xlviii. 9 ; lxii. 12, 13. Cf. Rev. xx. 14. 
10. Eest : cf. liii. 7. Will fall and 
not rise again : cf. ver. 4 for the op- 
posite: cf. also Ps. xxx vi. 12. The 
Lord and His Anointed : cf. Ps. ii. 
2. The term ' Messiah ' or 'Anointed 
One ' was applicable to any one 
specially commissioned by God to a 
religious or Theocratic function : hence 
to David and his successors, and even 
to a Gentile prince — Cyrus (Is. xlv. 
1) : to the Jewish high-priest — ' the 
anointed priest,' Lev. iv. 3, 5, 16; 
vi. 22: to the Servant of Jehovah, 
Is. lxi. 1. In the Psalms the title 
generally refers to the reigning king 
or to the Davidic king as such : yet 
its ideal aspect is never lost sight of. 
When the historical kingship came to 
an end, the idea still remained and 
was kept prominent through the 
liturgical use of the Psalms. Its 
imperfect realisation in the kings of 
the past made Israel look forward to 
the true Messianic king in whom it 
should be perfectly embodied. But 
the term is never used technically in 
this sense in the O.T. In this technical 



sense it is first found in the Similitudes, 
xlviii. 10; lii. 4, and a decade or so 
later in Pss. Sol. xvii. 36 ; xviii. 6, 8. 
For its later occurrence see iv Ezra 
vii. 29 ; xii. 32 ; Apoc. Bar. xxix. 
3 ; xxx. 1 ; xxxix. 7 ; xl. 1 ; lxx. 9 ; 
lxxii. 2, and N.T. passim. SeeCheyne, 
Origin of the Psalter, 338-39 : Art. 
on the Messiah, Encyc. Brit. xvi. 53- 
56. On the question generally, cf. 
Herzog, B. E. ix. 641-72 : Schiirer, 
Div. ii. vol. ii. 120-87. 

XLIX. That the Messiah will thus 
deal with the mighty ones of the 
earth is clear from his nature and 
attributes. 1. "Wisdom is poured 
out like water : cf. Is. xi. 9. Wisdom 
here = the knowledge and fear of God. 
Cf. xxxix. 5. Glory faileth not, &c. 
The Messiah is the object of endless 
glorification. 2. Mighty in all 

the secrets of righteousness. On 
the revealing and manifesting power 
of the Messiah see xlvi. 3 (note). 
Disappear as a shadow, and have 
no continuance. The phraseology 
is borrowed from Job xiv. 2. The 
word translated ' continuance ' is 



Sect. II.] 



Chapters XL IX. i — L. i 



137 



the Elect One standeth before the Lord of Spirits, and his 
glory is for ever and ever, and his might unto all generations. 
3. And in him dwells the spirit of wisdom and the spirit of 
Him who gives knowledge, and the spirit of understanding 
and of might and the spirit of those who have fallen asleep in 
righteousness. 4. And he will judge the secret things and 
no one will be able to utter a lying word before him ; for he 
is the Elect One before the Lord of Spirits according to His 
good pleasure. 

[L. 1. And in those days a change will take place in the 



taken intransitively is equivalent to Dln.'s reading ill0C0. 3. 

The spirit of Him who gives knowledge. Instead of rn>l£(V, 
H£A>Q* G reads m>?&R: H^ftft° = < The spirit which speaks to 
him/ 4. He is the Elect One. Instead of 'JivC G reads ^9" 
1 He is consecrated.' • 



formed from the verb translated 
* standeth ' : ■ unrighteousness will 
have no standing-ground because the 
Elect One standeth, ' &c. Glory is for 
ever and ever, &c. : cf. Is. ix. 6, 7 ; 
Mic. v. 2. 3. Further endow- 

ments of the Messiah after Is. xi. 2. 
The spirit of wisdom: cf. li. 3. 
The spirit of Him who gives 
knowledge. This may correspond 
to 'the spirit of counsel' or to 'the 
spirit of knowledge ' in Is. xi. 2. The 
spirit of those who have fallen 
asleep, &c. The righteousness which 
in some measure belonged to all the 
faithful in the past will in him attain 
perfect realisation. 4. Judge the 
secret things : cf. v. 2 and xliii. 3 
(note). A lying word. Falsehood 
will be impossible in his presence. 
Cf. lxii. 3 ; and lxvii. 9, where it is 
taken over in the Interpolations. 
The word translated 'lying' denotes 
' emptiness ' : there, is no reality cor- 
responding to it. Cf. Ix. 6 ' take His 
name in vain, i.e. commit perjury. 



For he is the Elect One, &c. For 
these very purposes has he been 
chosen : cf. xlviii. 6. 

L. This chapter must, I think, be 
regarded as an interpolation : if it is 
original, the writer was inconsistent 
with himself, and the incongruous 
details were due to literary reminis- 
cence. These details belong to the 
same sphere of thought as lxxxiii-xc 
and xci-civ, where the judgment of 
the sword forms the prelude to the 
Messianic kingdom which is gradually 
established and attended by the con- 
version of the heathen, xc. 30, 33 ; 
xci. 14, and ultimately followed by 
the final judgment. But xxxvii-lxx 
are strongly apocalyptic in character, 
and the kingdom is ushered in by the 
sudden appearing of the Son of Man, 
who inaugurates his reign by the two 
tremendous acts of the resurrection 
and the final judgment. This judg- 
ment is summary and forensic, lxii. 2. 
There is no place of repentance : cf. 
lxii ; lxiii. God's mercy is shown in 



138 The Book of Enoch. [Sect. II. 

lot of the holy and elect ones : and the light of days will 
abide upon them and glory and honour will turn to the holy. 
2. And on the day of affliction, evil will gather over the 
sinners, but the righteous will be victorious in the name of 
the Lord of Spirits : and He will cause the Gentiles (lit. ' the 
others ') to witness (this judgment) that they may repent and 
forego the works of their hands. 3. They will have no 
honour through the name of the Lord of Spirits, yet through 
His name will they be saved and the Lord of Spirits will have 
compassion on them, for His compassion is great. 4. And 
He is righteous in His judgment, and in the presence of 
His glory and in His judgment no unrighteousness shall 
maintain itself : whosoever repents not before Him will perish. 



L. 2. Evil will gather over the sinners. Instead of ^"H7»fl: 
XtvV G reads H1*H7Q: KM and M H7*lfc KM. Other MSS. 
support Din. May repent. &il\rth. G reads PfthP 3 }* 'may 
arise/ M N ^ihdh. 3. Through the name of the Lord of 
Spirits. So G M. ahao instead of tifc&ao of other MSS. and 



His dealings with the righteous, lxi. of the Messiah in vv. 1-4, nor yet of 
1 3. All sinners are forthwith driven the kings and mighty ones, both of 
from off the earth : heaven and earth which facts tend to confirm the con- 
are transformed and become the habi- elusion we have above arrived at. 
tation of the righteous. Hence there Holy and elect : cf. lxii. 8. 2. 
is no room for the period of the The period of the sword, when the 
sword, or for the progressive con- righteous slay the wicked, is here 
version of the heathen. The writer referred to: cf. xc. 19-34; xci. 12. 
has not, any more than Daniel, taken Day of affliction : cf. xlviii. 10 ; xlv. 
into account the destiny of the 2 (note). Cause the Gentiles . . . 
latter, save indirectly in teaching a that they may repent: cf. xc. 30, 
general judgment. These verses, then, 33, 34; xci. 14. 3. The Gentiles 
are a later addition made with the who repent will be saved as by fire, 
purpose of filling up a gap in the They will not have the abundant 
Similitudes, but in reality they serve entering in of the Jews. 4, 5. 
only to rend the seamless vesture of When the hour of the final judgment 
their thought and system. 1. The arrives, the season of mercy for the 
night of oppression will give place Gentiles is past for ever. Note the 
to the sunshine of glory and honour affinities of thought between 1. 3-5 
for the righteous with the advent and lx. 5, 25. Cf. iv Ezra vii. 33 ; 
of the Messianic kingdom: cf. lviii. Apoc. Bar. lxxxv. 12. Observe that 
5, 6. Observe that there is no mention the final judgment here is not at the 



Sect. II.] 



Chapters L. 2 — LI. 1, 



139 



5. And from henceforth He will show no mercy to them, saith 
the Lord of Spirits.] 

LI, 1. And in those days will the earth also give back those 



Din.: 

mercy. 

mercy/ 



Before the Lord of Spirits.' 5. He will show no 
This may equally well be translated ' I will show no 



beginning of the Messianic reign, as 
in the Similitudes, but apparently at 
its close, as in xci-civ. In IV Ezra and 
the Apoc. Bar., where the Messianic 
kingdom is of temporary duration, 
and brought to a close by the final 
judgment, a period of repentance is 
rightly spoken of. Cf. Apoc. Bar. 
lxxxv. 1 2 ; iv Ezra vii. 34. 

LI. 1. The resurrection here is a 
resurrection of all Israel, but not of 
the Gentiles, li. 1 would indeed seem 
to point to the latter, and this all the 
more so as iv Ezra vii. 32 and [vi. 2], 
which are evidently based on it, and 
on En. lx. 6, are applied to a general 
resurrection. But the whole history 
of Jewish thought points in an oppo- 
site direction. As we shall see below , 
no Jewish book except iv Ezra teaches 
indubitably the doctrine of a general 
resurrection ; and this may be due to 
Christian influence, as iv Ezra cannot 
be earlier than 80 a. d. Individual 
utterances to the contrary in the 
Talmud will be noticed below. On 
the question generally, see Cheyne, 
Origin of the Psalter, 381-452 : ' Pos- 
sible Zoroastrian Influences on the 
Religion of Israel,' Expository Times, 
1891, pp. 224-228; 248-253: Eisen- 
menger,Entdecktes Judenthum, ii. 819, 
820-949 : Weber, Die Lehr en d. Tal- 
raud,35i-4;37i-8o:Schulz,X ^.ZicAe 
Theologie, 4 te Aufl. 753-68 : Herzog, 
B. E. Art. Unsterblichkeit, vol. xvi. 
189-195 : Hamburger, B.E. ii. 98 sqq. 
(Art. Belebung der Todten) : Eders- 



heim, Life and Times of Jesus, ii. 
397-403 : Kahle, Biblische Eschato- 
logie, 1870 ; Stade,Z75er d. A. T. lichen 
Vorstellungen von dem Zustande nach 
dem Tode, 1877: Castelli, 'Future 
Life in Rabbinic Literature,' Art. in 
Jewish Quarterly Review, July, 1889, 
pp. 314-52 : Montefiore, 'Doctrine of 
Divine Retribution in O. T.,' Oct. 
1890,1-12. The various forms in which 
the Jewish doctrine of the resurrection 
appeared are : (1) a resurrection of all 
Israelites. This doctrine is first taught 
in Dan. xii. 2 ; but, though so power- 
fully attested, it did not become the 
prevailing belief. It is the accepted 
faith in En. i-xxxvi (with the excep- 
tion of one class of sinners in xxii. 1 3) ; 
xxxvii-lxx; lxxxiii-xc; Ps. lxv (title) 
in Sept. ; 11 Mace. vii. 9, 14, 23, 29, 36 ; 
xii. 43, 44 compared with vi. 26 ; Apoc. 
Bar. 1— li. 6. (2) A resurrection of the 
righteous Israelites. In post-Exilic Is. 
xxv. 8 ; xxvi. 1 9 ; Pss. xvi. 10,11; xvii. 
15 jxlix.i 5,16 ;lxxiii. 24-2 7 (cf. Cheyne, 
Origin of the Psalter, 406-408) ; Job 
xiv. 13-15 ; xix. 26, 27 ; En. xci-civ; 
Pss. Sol. iii. 16 ; xiii. 9 ; xiv. 7; xv. 15 ; 
Apoc. Bar. xxx ; Josephus, Ant. xviii. 
1, 3; Bell. Jud. ii. 8, 14. That the 
resurrection was the sole prerogative 
of righteous Israelites became the ac- 
cepted doctrine in Talmudic theology : 
Weber, Die Lehren d. Talmud, 372- 
3. Individual voices, however, are 
not wanting who asserted the resur- 
rection of pious Gentiles, Eisenmenger, 
EntdecMes Judenthum, 908, 9: indeed 



140 The Book of Enoch. [Sect. II. 

who are treasured up within it, and Sheol also will give back 
that which it has received, and hell will give back that which 
it owes. 2. And he will choose the righteous and holy 
from among them : for the day of their redemption has drawn 
nigh. 3. And the Elect One will in those days sit on My 
throne, and all the secrets of wisdom will stream forth from 
the counsels of his mouth : for the Lord of Spirits hath given 



LI. 1. Those who are treasured up within it, and Sheol 
also will give back that which it has received. So G : Itidl 
+H7Q-; ahlftpi mkh&kA ^7-flX; H1*ffi>mari\ The text of G is 
manifestly better than that of Din., the parallelism of which is 
destroyed apparently by the incorporation of marginal glosses. 
iv Ezra vii. 32 which is evidently modelled on li. 1 confirms text 
of G. Din. is supported byFHLNO and gives : ' That which is 
entrusted to it, and Sheol will give back that which is entrusted 
to it, which it has received.' M agrees with Din. but that it 
omits ai i*i#\$* in the first clause and ^7*flX in the second. 3. 
On My throne. So G M. Other MSS. and Din. 'on His throne.' 



that of all the Gentiles, with some few For the history of this word and its 

exceptions, but only to die again, various meanings, see lxiii. 10. Hell, 

Eisenmenger, 908-10 ; Weber, 373. literally ' destruction,' airwKeia, is the 

We should observe that even imper- same as • Abaddon,' Job xxvi. 6 : cf. 

feet Israelites might attain to the Rev. ix. 11. With the whole verse cf. 

resurrection of life after purgation in IV Ezra vii. 32. The resurrection is 

Gehenna, Weber, 372. [Observe that a resurrection of the body : cf. lxii. 14. 

in the Didache it is taught as a So also in i-xxxvi ; lxxxiii-xc ; in xci- 

Christian doctrine that only the right- civ it is only a resurrection of the 

eous are raised, xvi. 7.] (3) A resur- soul and spirit. In this respect the 

rection of all mankind, iv Ezra vii. Pss. Sol. probably agree with xci-civ. 

32 ; [vi. 2 ;] Test. xii. Patriarch. A resurrection of the body is taught 

Judae xxv ; Benjamin x. In both in 11 Mace; Apoc. Bar.; iv Ezra, 

cases the doctrine is probably due 2. The day of their redemption 

to Christian influences. Concurrently has drawn nigh : cf. Luke xxi. 28. 

with the above forms of doctrine, As the Messiah in his judicial capacity 

other Jews believed only in the im- discriminates between men's deeds, 

mortality of the soul without a resur- xlv. 3, so he discriminates between 

rection : Wisdom of Sol. iii. 1 sqq. ; the righteous and the wicked. 3. 

iv. 7 ; v. 16 ; viii. 20, compared with The Messiah is the embodiment of 

ix. 15 ; xv. 8 ; Jubilees xxiv. 1. wisdom, xlix. 3 : and in this wisdom 

Sheol. This word is here used in its shall the members of his kingdom 

new sense of the Intermediate State, share, xlviii. 1; lxi. 7, 11. Cf. xlii. 



Sect. II.] 



Chapters LI. 2 — LII 2. 



141 



it to him and hath glorified him. 4. And in those days 
will the mountains leap like rams and the hills will skip like 
lambs satisfied with milk, and they will all become angels in 
heaven. 5. Their faces will be lighted up with joy because 
in those days the Elect One has appeared, and the earth will 
rejoice and the righteous will dwell upon it, and the elect 
will go to and fro upon it. 

ML 1. And after those days, in that place where I had seen 
all the visions of that which is hidden — for I had been carried 
off in a whirlwind and borne towards the West — 2. There 
mine eyes saw all the hidden things of heaven that shall be, 
an iron mountain, and one of copper, and one of silver, and 



LII. 2. All the hidden things of heaven that shall be. So 
GM, omitting the OSd; ?°£:C of Din. and FHLNO. Din. 
gives ' The hidden things of the heaven, all things which shall be 



2 (note). 4. The mountains will 
leap, &c, i. e. witli joy : cf. Ps. cxiv. 
4, 6. All become angels in heaven. 
This is not to be weakened down into 
a mere likeness to the angels. At 
the least it denotes an equality of the 
righteous with them. In an earlier 
section, xci-civ, there is the same 
idea. The righteous will be com- 
panions of the heavenly hosts, civ. 6, 
and rejoice as the angels in heaven, 
civ. 4. The idea is further developed 
in Apoc. Bar. ; the righteous will be 
transformed into the glory of the 
angels, li. 5, and be made like unto 
them, li. 10, and their surpassing 
splendour will exceed that of the 
angels, li. 12. This too is the teaching 
of the Talmud. 5. The earth re- 

joices, for it is transformed, xlv. 5, 
and has at last become the inheritance 
of the righteous as anciently promised : 
cf. Ps. xxxvii. 3, 9, 11, 29, 34. 

LII. This obscure chapter seems 
to symbolize the various future king- 
doms of the world, and to be founded 



on Dan. ii. 31-45. These kingdoms 
of material force, symbolized by iron 
and brass and silver and gold and 
clay, will be as the chaff of summer 
threshing-floors before the kingdom 
of the Messiah, Dan. ii. 35 : they will 
be broken to pieces and consumed, 
Dan. ii. 44. So here the various world 
powers represented by these moun- 
tains of iron and copper and silver 
and gold, &c, will melt as wax before 
the fire in the presence of the Messiah, 
lii. 6, and be destroyed from off the 
face of the earth, lii. 9, and no earthly 
might will avail in that day, lii. 7, 8. 
Observe that the idea of symbolizing 
the world powers by mountains is 
drawn from the same section of Daniel. 
In ii. 35 the Messianic kingdom is 
symbolized by a mountain. 1. In 

that place, i. e. in heaven, where he 
had seen all the preceding visions. 
It is idle to attempt to get an exact 
idea of Enoch's movements. In xxxix. 
3 he was carried off by a whirlwind 
to the ends of heaven : here he is 



142 The Book of Enoch, [Sect. II. 

one of gold, and one of soft metal, and one of lead. 3. 
And I asked the angel who went with me, saying, 'What 
things are these which I have seen in secret ? ' 4. And he 

said unto me, l All these things which thou hast seen serve the 
dominion of His Anointed that he may be potent and mighty 
on the earth/ 5. And that angel of peace answered me 
and said, ' Wait a little and there will be revealed to thee 
everything that is hidden, which the Lord of Spirits has 
established. 6. And those mountains which thine eyes 

have seen, the mountain of iron, and of copper, and of silver, 
and of gold, and of soft metal, and of lead, all those will 
in the presence of the Elect One be as wax before the fire, 
and like the water which streams down from above upon 
those mountains and will become powerless before his feet. 
7. And it will come to pass in those days that none shall 
be saved either by gold or by silver, and none shall be able 
to escape. 8. And there will be no iron for war nor 



on the earth.' 5. Wait a little and there will be revealed 

to thee everything. So G M. Other MSS. and Din. after Wait 
a little insert 'and thou wilt see.' For H1*hA=' which he has 
established,' G reads Hhrt A = ' which encompasses the Lord of 
Spirits.' 6. Which thine eyes have seen. So G M : HCX^S 
fiOj&Tfch. Other MSS. and Din. 'which thou hast seen.' 7. 
None shall be able to escape. So GM. Other MSS. and Din. 
read ' None shall be able to save himself or escape/ 8. There 



borne to the west. 2. Soft metal. tion of these verses see introductory 

The original word denotes an easily note to this chapter. The writer gives 

melted metal, and may also stand as a twofold significance to these metals : 

a general name for tin and lead : cf. that given above and that developed 

lii. 6 ; lxv. 7, 8 ; lxvii. 4, 6. 4. in vv. 7, 8. 6. As wax before 

These world powers will serve to show the fire : cf. i. 6 ; Ps. xcvii. 5 ; Micah 

forth the might of the Messiah by i. 4. Like water which, streams 

being destroyed before his face. This, down from above : cf. Micah i. 4. 

though not the natural sense of the Before his feet : cf. Micah i. 3. He 

verse, is the only one it can have in will tread down the mountains. 7. 

this connexion. The natural answer The phraseology is derived from Zeph. 

to the question in v. 3 appears in i. 18: cf. Is. xiii. 17. The more 

v. 5, and this verse may be a later precious metals will not redeem from 

insertion. 6-9. For the interpreta- danger and death. 8. The harder 



Sect. II.] Chapters LI I. 3 — LIII. 3. 143 

garment for a coat of mail. Bronze will be of no service, 
and tin will be of no service and will not be esteemed, and 
lead will not be desired. 9. And all these things will be 
disowned and destroyed from the surface of the earth when 
the Elect One will appear before the face of the Lord of 
Spirits.' 

LIII. 1. And there mine eyes saw a valley with open and 
deep mouths, and all who dwell on the earth and sea and 
islands will bring to him gifts and presents and tokens of 
homage, but that deep valley will not become full. %. For 
they commit crimes with their hands, and sinners as they are 
they criminously devour all the acquisitions (of the righteous) : 
accordingly as sinners they will perish before the face of the 
Lord of Spirits and will be removed from off the face of His 
earth, continually for ever and ever. 3. For I have seen 
the angels of punishment abiding (there) and preparing all the 



will be no iron for war nor garment for a coat of mail. 
This seems a better rendering than ' Es wird kein Eisen geben 
fur den Krieg noch das Kleid eines Panzers.' — Din. 

LIII. 1. A valley with open and deep mouths. So G: 4Uli 
0\<D\ (Dt}af>*$\ h&MXP(fl>*. Din. gives ' a deep valley, the mouths of 
which were open.' 2. Sinners as they are they criminously 

devour. So FHLMNO and Din. G reads rt^Tfil; J&(l2Uh 
3. Abiding (there) and preparing. SoAEHMO: KiUl Zl&bl 



metals will not prove a defence but earth bringing gifts to the Messiah is 

will disappear before him : cf. Hos. ii. a favourite one in the Talmud, Weber 

18 ; Is. ii. 4; ix. 5 ; Zech. ix. io ; Ps. (368-9). Dln.'s interpretation of the 

xlvi. 9. mountains and this valley is unin- 

LIII. 1. The deep valley here is telligible. 2. Kemoved from off 

that of Jehoshaphat, where, according the face of His earth: see xxxviii. 

to Joel iii. 2, 12, God was to assemble 1 (note). 3. Angels of punish- 

and judge the Gentiles. The Talmud ment : see xl. 7 (note). These angels 

teaches the same view (Weber, Die apparently prepare the chains and 

Lehren d* Talmud, 376). All those fetters for the kings and the mighty 

who dwell upon earth will bring gifts in the valley of Jehoshaphat, where 

and presents to the Messiah to win the kings are to be judged. The 

a favourable judgment : but these will chains for the fallen angels are forged 

be of no avail (cf. Iii. 7). The idea in Gehenna, liv. 3-5. The kings are 

of the nations and the rich men of the then taken and cast into Gehenna, 



1 44 The Book of Enoch. [Sect. II. 

instruments of Satan. 4. And I asked the angel of peace 

who went with me, ' These instruments, for whom are they 
preparing them ? ' 5. And he said unto me ( They are for 

the kings and the mighty of the earth, that they may thereby 
be destroyed. 6. And after this the Righteous and Elect 

One will cause the house of his congregation to appear : 
henceforth they will no more be hindered, in the name of the 
Lord of Spirits. 7. And these mountains will not stand 
fast as the earth before his righteousness, and the hills will 
be as a fountain of water, and the righteous will have rest 
from the oppression of sinners.' 

LIV. 1. And I looked and turned to another part of the 



©.Pftl^^VOT.. So also G, but with verbs in sing. The reading of 
BCD and also F L N adopted by Din. ' going and preparing ' 
KlHl M)fl*4« seems to be an attempted emendation of the text. 
5. They are for the kings. So GM. Other MSS. and Din. 
read 'They are preparing them for the kings.' The mighty 
of the earth. So G. Other MSS. give ■ The mighty of this 
earth.' 6. Henceforth. G omits ; M supports. 7. And these 
mountains will not stand. So all MSS. but B C which omit the 
negative. Din. follows B C. Before His righteousness. So 

G ftvG-*. Din. gives 7& < Before His face.' M (lhm>! 8\£"*. 



liv. 2. 6. House of his con- shall be as a fount of water : cf. lii. 6. 

gregation : see xxxviii. 1 (note). The The earth's great ones will become 

phrase here is in the singular : in liii. strengthless and vanish at thepresence 

6 it is in the plural. There is ap- of the Messiah. 

parently no significance in the dif- LIV. In liii the writer described 

ference. The houses of his congrega- the scene of the judgment and the 

tions are the synagogues : cf. Ps. fetters that were being prepared to 

lxxiv. 8. 7. The mountains . . . bind the kings on their condemnation, 

and hills: see Crit. Note. There is Here he speaks of Gehenna into which 

a return here to the figurative Ian- the kings are cast ; they are punished 

guage of lii. The mountains and the in the sight of the righteous : cf. lxii. 

hills are symbols of the world powers 12. The fallen angels are cast into 

as personated in the kings and the a furnace of fire. The idea of the 

mighty. Before the Messiah's right- fallen angels and the kings being 

eousness, the mountains (i.e. the judged together is to be traced to 

kings) will not be like the earth which Is. xxiv. 21, 22. 1. To another 

abidethforeverjPs.lxxviii.69; Eccles. part of the earth. The writer now 

i. 4 : and the hills (i. e. the mighty) turns from the valley of Jehoshaphat 



Sect. II.] Chapters LI II. 4 — LIV. 7. 145 

earth and saw there a deep valley with burning' fire. 2. 
And they brought the kings and the mighty and put them 
into this deep valley. 3. And then mine eyes saw how 

they made instruments for them, iron chains of immeasurable 
weight. 4. And I asked the angel of peace who was with 

me, saying : ' These chain instruments for whom are they 
prepared ?' 5. And he said unto me : ( These are prepared 
for the hosts of Azazel so that they may take them and cast 
them into the abyss of complete condemnation, and cover 
their jaws with rough stones as the Lord of Spirits com- 
manded. 6. Michael, Gabriel, Rufael and Fanuel will take 
hold of them on that great day and cast them on that day 
into a burning furnace, that the Lord of Spirits may take 
vengeance on them for their unrighteousness in becoming 
subject to Satan and leading astray those who dwell on the 
earth. [7. And in those days will punishment come from 



LIV. 2. Into this deep valley. SoGMTIfK Din. 'Into the 
deep valley/ 3. How they made instruments for them, iron 
chains. For Htn>aD4tlF<n>* G reads Hm>gvO&WaP\ 5. Cover 
their jaws. So G ^h^*J- in subj. as preceding verb. Other MSS. 
and Din. read £h.£J. 'they will cover/ 6. Will take hold 

of them on that great day and cast them on that day into 
a burning furnace. For 0"Hi M^l H&&& GM read 
0"M; H&i&& and omit 'cast them/ but wrongly, as their 
reading of (DCD-ftf instead of Clat-llt (Din.) implies a second verb. 
For a like possible confusion of (I and CO see next verse (Grit. 



on the north-east of Jerusalem to the who execute the first judgment upon 

valley of Hinnom lying to the south them. 6. The final judgment on 

of it. A deep valley : see xlviii. 9 the watchers. On that great day : 

(note). 3-5. The pre-Messianic see xlv. 2 (note). Observe that in the 

judgment of the watchers in ver. 5 Similitudes the guilt of the watchers 

is that described at length in x-xvi. originated in their becoming subjects 

The abyss of complete condemna- of Satan : see xl. 7 (note) ; Book of 

tion is not Gehenna but only the Jubilees x. Burning furnace : cf. 

preliminary place of punishment : cf. x. 6 ; xviii. 1 1 ; xxi. 7-10 ; xc. 24, 

x. 5, 12. We are not told by whom 25. This is to be distinguished from 

the chains are forged for the fallen Gehenna. 7-LV. 2. This digres- 

angels, nor yet who are the agents sion on the first world-judgment is 



146 



The Book of Enoch. 



[Sect. II. 



the Lord of Spirits, and all the chambers of waters which are 
above the heavens will be opened and of the fountains which 



Note). On them. Gr omits. 7. All the chambers . . . will be 
opened. So Din. and all MSS. but G, which gives $*Cdh\ H*ft°; 
fl»H7»(li\ And of the fountains. For the impossible wJid 

I read w\(L. Cf. next clause according to GM wXfc ftl^Ol*: 
OD^fbti 9°&C Otherwise for (D^Q read fl£Q « in addition to/ 



a Noachic fragment. A Book of Noah 
is mentioned in the Book of Jubilees 
x; xxi. These fragments, xxxix. 1, 
2 a ; liv. 7-lv. 2; lx; lxv-lxix. 25, 
deal mainly with the Deluge. They 
are to be regarded as interpolations 
on the following grounds out of many : 
(1) They always disturb the context 
in which they occur. (2) They pro- 
fess to be a revelation of Noah, lx. 
7-11,24,25; lxv-lxviii. 1. (3) They 
belong to a much later development 
of Jewish gnosis or kabbala : cf. liv. 
8; lx. 7 sqq. ; lxv. 7, 8 ; lxvii. 6. 

(4) Such a definite date as is given 
in lx. 1 is unknown in the Similitudes. 

(5) The second judgment of the angels 
is declared an absolute secret in lxviii. 
2-5 in contradiction with liv. 4-6 ; 
lv. 3, 4. (6) The demonology is dif- 
ferent : the Satans and the fallen angels 
who are carefully distinguished in 
the Similitudes are confused in the 
additions, lxix. The chief, moreover, 
of the fallen angels in the Similitudes 
is Azazel : in the additions, Semjaza. 
(7) The interpolator seeks to adapt 
his additions to their new contexts, 
and accordingly incorporates in them 
many terms and phrases from the 
Similitudes, such as ' Angel of peace,' 
lx. 24, see xl. 2 (note); 'no lying 
word can be spoken before Him,' 
xlix. 4 (note) ; ' denied the Lord of 
Spirits,' lxvii. 8, 10, see xxxviii. 2 
(note) ; ' the angel who went with me 
and showed me what was hidden,' 



xlvi. 2 ; lx. 11 (note); but observe that 
in such borrowing she misuses technical 
terms and phrases, either through 
ignorance or of set purpose. Cf. ' Lord 
of Spirits,' see xxxvii. 2 (note) ; 
'Head of Days,' lv. 1, see xlvi. 1 
(note); 'Angels of punishment,' xl. 
7 ; lxvi. 1 (note) ; ' Son of Man,' lx. 
10 (note); 'those who dwell on the 
earth,' liv. 9 ; xxxvii. 5 (note). (8) 
The interpolator misunderstands the 
Similitudes, and combines absolutely 
alien elements : cf. ' the burning 
valley in the metal mountains in the 
west ' — an illegitimate combination of 
lii. 1, 2 and liv. 1. (9) Finally, the 
Similitudes follow the LXX. chrono- 
logy : the Interpolations follow the 
Samaritan. Thus in Ixi. 12 Enoch 
speaks of the elect as being already in 
Paradise, and in lxx. 4 on his translation 
he finds his forefathers already there. 
This could be the case only according 
to the LXX. reckoning ; for according 
to the Samaritan all his forefathers 
survived him, and, according to the 
Hebrew, all except Adam. The Inter- 
polations follow the Samaritan reckon- 
ing : see lxv. 2 (note). The object of 
the interpolator is clear. Although 
the final world- judgment is treated at 
length, there are only the briefest 
references to the first. It was to 
supply this defect in the Simili- 
tudes that an existing Apocalypse 
of Noah was laid under contribu- 
tion. 



Sect. II.] Chapters LIV. 8 — LV. 3. 147 

are below the heavens and beneath the earth. 8. And all 
the waters will be joined with the waters : that which is 
above the heavens is the masculine and the water which is 
beneath the earth is the feminine. 9. And all who dwell on 
the earth will be destroyed and those who dwell under the 
ends of the heaven. 10. And they will thereby recognise 
their unrighteousness which they have committed on the earth, 
and owing to this will they be destroyed.' 

LV. 1. And after that the Head of Days repented and 
said : ' In vain have I destroyed all who dwell on the earth/ 
2. And He swore by His great name : ■ Henceforth I will 
not do so (again) to all who dwell on the earth, and I will 
set a sign in the heavens : this will be a pledge of good faith 
between Me and them for ever, so long as heaven is above 
the earth.] 3. And this will be according to My com- 
mand : when I desire to take hold of them by the hand 
of the angels on the day of tribulation and pain, before this 



Din. emends by reading ȣA"H. 8. All the waters will be 

joined with the waters : that which is above the heavens is 
the masculine. So G M, but omitting with B the H which they 
read before ?°li(l. Other MSS. and Din. give: 'And all the 
waters will be joined with the waters which are above in the 
heavens : the water indeed which is above in the heaven is mas- 
culine.' 9. G omits who dwell on the earth, and. 10. 
Owing to this will they be destroyed. So M &&&*£ and G J&X1T. 
Dln/s MSS. and K L N O fDftXlfH — clearly an emendation. 

LV. 1. For fth G reads flhffD. 2. Will not do so. GM 

omits ' so/ 3. And this will be. So G M reading (D*H 

instead of (DKy°Jl =< after this it will be/ For Vi&C G reads 



8. The distinguishing of the waters illustration of the method by which 

into masculine and feminine is quite in the interpolator seeks to assimilate 

keeping with the other kabbalistic his additions by incorporating technical 

ideas of these Interpolations: cf. lx. terms from the main text. Repented: 

7, 8, 16. 9. All who dwell on cf. Gen. viii. 21. 3. Here the 

the earth: see xxxvii. 5 (note). original text of liv. 6 is resumed. 

LV. 1. The Head of Days : see Day of tribulation and pain : see 

xlvi. 1 (note). We have here a good xlv. 2 (note). Before this Mine 

L 2 



148 The Book of Enoch. [Sect. II. 

I will cause Mine anger and My punishment, Mine anger and 
My punishment to abide upon them, saith God, the Lord of 
Spirits. 4. Ye mighty kings who will dwell on the earth, 
ye shall have to behold Mine Elect, how he sits on the throne 
of glory and judges Azazel, and all his associates, and all his 
hosts in the name of the Lord of Spirits.' 

LVI. 1 . And I saw there the hosts of the angel of punish- 
ment going with scourges and chains of iron and bronze. 

2. And I asked the angel of peace who went with me, and 
said : ( To whom are these angels with the scourges going ? ' 

3. And he said unto me : ' Each one to his elect and beloved 
ones that they may be cast into the chasm of the abyss of 
the valley. 4. And then that valley will be filled with 
their elect and beloved, and the days of their lives will be at 
an end, and the days of their being led astray will from 
that time on no longer be reckoned. [5. And in those 

f&AC (sic), and this I have followed above. 4. Mighty 

kings. See xxxviii. 5 (note). Throne of glory. So G M : 

other MSS. and Din. ' Throne of My glory.' All his hosts. G 
omits ' his hosts.' 

LVI. 1. "With scourges and chains of iron and bronze. 
So G a)£Xfh\*i aDtyw&ri a) . . (sic). Other MSS. omit 
' scourges and.' 2. With the scourges. So G reading 

ao^v^-f after Art: JE.X'W. Other MSS. omit e scourges.' 5. 



anger, i. e. ' before this manifestation The terra ' beloved ' is specially used 

of Mine anger ' : cf . a similar expres- of the demons in regard to their 

sion in 1. 4. 4. The kings have parents in i-xxxvi : see x. 12 ; xiv. 6. 

to witness the judgment passed on Moreover, it would be possible to 

the angels : if Azazel and his hosts translate, ' the days of their leading 

are judged and condemned by the astray.' 4. Wo longer be reckoned, 

Messiah, how much more likely will i. e. be at an end. 5-LVII. 3 ft . 

they ! The text should almost cer- We have here another addition to 

tainly be ' Ye kings and mighty ' : see the text. It depicts the last struggle 

xxxviii. 5 (note) ; lxii. 6 (Crit. Note). of the heathen powers against the 

LVI. 1-4. There is here finally Messianic kingdom established in 

the judgment of the remaining theo- Jerusalem. Such a conception is quite 

cratic sinners and their condemnation in place in lxxxiii-xc, xci-civ, but is 

to Gehenna. It is possible, however, irreconcileable with the ruling ideas 

to interpret these verses of the watch- in xxxvii-lxx. A Messiah who was 

ers and their children the demons. only a man with his seat at Jerusalem 



Sect. II.] Chapters LV. \ — L VI. 7. 



149 



days will the angels return and hurl themselves upon the 
East, upon the Parthians and Medes, to stir up the kings 
and provoke in them a spirit of unrest, and rouse them from 
their thrones, that they may break forth from their resting- 
places as lions and as hungry wolves among their flocks. 
6. And they will march up to and tread under foot the land 
of His elect ones, and the land of His elect ones will be 
before them a threshing-floor and a path. 7. But the 



Will return. So G £7*lfr, for JE^-Ofr of Din. « Will gather 
together.' M supports Din., but is written over an erasion. 
Hurl themselves. This translation of hCKtVtWav*, cf. cviii. 10, 
seems better than Dln/s ' Hire Haupter . . . richten.' For J^W^:^ 
G reads JB-CD^-*. 6. His elect ones. So G Rftlh Other 



might well be conceived of as assailed 
by the Gentile powers. But this is 
impossible in the case of a super- 
human Messiah, who, possessing uni- 
versal dominion and attended by- 
legions of angels, holds universal 
assize, and, supported by the actual 
presence of the Almighty, destroys 
all his enemies with the breath of 
his mouth. Besides, (i) this section 
forms a harsh break in the context. 
(2) The Similitudes deal only in 
general terms : no names are men- 
tioned as here, nor is any definite 
information given as a means of 
determining their date or the persons 
against whom they are directed. (3) 
And finally the seat of the kingdom 
on the Advent of the Messiah will 
not be Jerusalem merely as is here 
implied, but a transformed heaven 
and earth. This section though inter- 
polated is important as furnishing 
a lower limit for the date of the 
Similitudes. The description is pro- 
phetical, and is merely a reproduction 
of the coming strife of Gog and 
Magog against Israel. The latter 
names are replaced by those of the 
Medes and Parthians, who are the 



only great world powers from whom 
the interpolator believes great danger 
may be apprehended. Syria had 
ceased to be formidable from 100 B.C. 
onward, and Rome was practically 
unknown till 64 b. c. The date there- 
fore of this section must be earlier 
than 64 b. c. Further, we found (pp. 
107-8) on independent grounds that 
the Similitudes should be referred 
either to 94-79 or 70-64. If, 
then, this addition was written and 
added before 64 b. c, the Similitudes 
should probably be referred to 94-79 
B. C. We ought to have remarked 
above that lvi. 5— lvii. 3 a exhibits no 
sign of having been an independent 
writing before its appearance in its 
present context. 5. In Ezek. xxxviii. 
4-7 it is said that God will stir 
up the Gentiles ; but here in keeping 
with the views of a later time this 
business is assigned to the angels: 
cf. Dan. x. 13, 20, 21; xii. 1. The 
Parthians and Medes. These are 
the chief nations in the league against 
Israel. 6. The land of His 

elect ones, i. e. Palestine. Thresh- 
ing-floor : cf. Is. xxi. 10. 7. But 
the attack on Jerusalem will fail, 



1 50 The Book of Enoch. [Sect, 11. 

city of My righteous will be a hindrance to their horses, and 
they will begin to fight amongst themselves, and their right 
hand will be strong against themselves, and a man will not 
know his brother, nor a son his father or his mother, till the 
number of corpses through their slaughter is beyond count, 
and their punishment be no idle one. 8. And in those days 
Sheol will open its jaws, and they will be swallowed up 
therein, and their destruction will be at an end ; Sheol will 
devour the sinners in the presence of the elect/ 

LVII. 1. And it came to pass after this that I saw again 
a host of waggons, whereon men were riding, and they came 
on the wings of the wind from the East, and from the West 
to the South. 2. And the noise of their waggons was 



MSS. and Din. 'their elect ones.' 7. A man will not know 
his brother. So GM omitting the A*l£Vfr; (D of Din. Other 
MSS. and Dlrr. give : ' A man will not know his neighbour or his 
brother.' Through their slaughter. G omits : M KT'OV*, a 
corruption. Is beyond count. Following Dln/s suggestion 

I have emended J&hfl>l into tL&h(Jh*i. Their punishment be no 
idle one. So GM reading hsVibii (Mi;. Din. gives (D?Lfih(D< > ii 
(Ml which he translates: 'Das Strafgericht iiber sie — es wird 
nicht vergeblich sein.' 8. They will be swallowed up. G 

reads j&U*my D . Their destruction will be at an end. So G 
dip-Ira*'. TiAV. M reads dif-Hpa^i tu"Pm>; a&fi&i. Other 
MSS. and Din. give : ' Their destruction . . . Sheol will devour the 
sinners, &c/ ' Their destruction ' in the text means ' the destruc- 
tion wrought by them.' 

LVII. 1. Whereon men were riding, and they came on the 
wings of the wind. So Din. and F H N 0. For JtfblPav*: 
a)£aDXh>i £tt: i«?ft G reads a>ltt;?i (DfaDftfa £Q; jlfftt. So 



Zech. xii. 2, 3; and civil strife will jaws: cf. Num. xvi. 31-3; Is. 

break out amongst the invading v. 14. See lxiii. 10 (note). 
nations, Ezek. xxxviii. 2 1 ; Zech. xiv. LVII. On the destruction of the 

13 ; Hag. ii. 22, and they will involve Gentile invaders, the dispersed of 

each other in common destruction : Israel return to Jerusalem from the 

cf. xc. 4 ; c. 1-3, to which section East and from the West : cf. Is. 

these ideas rightly belong. 8. On xxvii. 13; xliii. 5,6; xlix. 12, 22, 23. 

this and the preceding verses, see 1. Came on the wings of the wind. 

Crit. Notes. Sheol will open its A figure expressing the swiftness of 



Sect. IT.] Chapters LVI.S — L VIII. 5. 151 

heard, and when this turmoil took place the holy ones from 
the heaven remarked it, and the pillars of the earth were moved 
from their place, and (the sound thereof) was heard from 
the one extremity of heaven to the other in one day. 3. 

And they will all fall down and worship the Lord of Spirits.] 
And this is the end of the second similitude. 

LVIII. 1. And I began to speak the third similitude con- 
cerning the righteous and the elect. 2. Blessed are ye, ye 
righteous and elect, for glorious will be your lot. 3. And 

the righteous will be in the light of the sun, and the elect in 
the light of eternal life : there will be no end to the days of 
their life, and the days of the holy will be without number. 
4. And they will seek the light and find righteousness with 
the Lord of Spirits : there will be peace to the righteous in 
the name of the Lord of the world. 5. And after that it 



M but with the correction of f^Al* into \MPt. 2. From the 
one extremity of heaven to the other. So GM &7 hR i t&.'. 
rt"7£; Xfth: fiB-C^. Other MSS. 'from the extremity of earth 
to the extremity of heaven.' 

LVIII. 1. G omits this verse, but leaves space for it. 4. In 
the name of the Lord of the world. So G flften>. Other MSS. 
and Din. give (Mft ' with the Lord of the world.' 



their return. 2. The pillars of all created beings, but especially over 
the earth were moved : cf. Hag. ii. the great ones of the earth and the 
6, 7 ; Joel iii. 16. final blessedness of the righteous and 
LVIII. Here begins the third elect.' 2. Glorious will be your 
similitude. It is probable that a lot. This lot is preserved for them 
large part of it has been lost, being by the Messiah, xlviii. 7. 3. Light 
displaced to make room for the of the sun : see xxxviii. 4 (note). 
Noachic fragments. As it stands, it Eternal life : see xxxvii. 4 (note) : 
embraces lviii ; lxi-lxiv ; lxix. 26-29. °f- D an - x "- 2 > ^ 89 ' °^ ^ol. "*• l ^' 
The introductory words, ' Concerning 4. They will through a natural af- 
the righteous and the elect,' in this finity seek after light and righteous- 
similitude, as in the other two, are ness : cf. xxxviii. 4 (note). Lord, of 
but a very indifferent index to its the world. This title is found again 
contents. The similitude as it has in lxxxi. 10. For similar expressions 
reached us, might reasonably be de- cf. i. 3 ; xii. 3 ; lxxxi. 3 ; lxxxii. 7 ; 
scribed as 'Concerning the final judg- lxxxiv. 2. 5. They will be bidden 
ment held by the Son of Man over to seek and make their own the 



152 The Book of Enoch. [Sect. 11. 

will be said to the holy that they should seek in heaven the 
secrets of righteousness, the heritage of faith ; for it has 
become bright as the sun upon earth, and the darkness is 
past. 6. And there will be unceasing light and on a 

reckoning of the days they will not enter; for the former 
darkness will be destroyed, and the light will be established 
before the Lord of Spirits, and the light of uprightness will 
be established for ever before the Lord of Spirits. 

[LIX. 1. And in those days mine eyes saw the secrets of 
the lightnings, and of the luminaries, and the judgments 
they execute (lit. ' their judgment ') ; and they lighten for a 
blessing or a curse as the Lord of Spirits willeth. 2. And 

then I saw the secrets of the thunder, and how when it re- 
sounds above in the heaven, the peal thereof is heard; and 
they caused me to see the dwelling-places of the earth, and 
the pealing of the thunder how it ministers unto well-being 
and blessing, or serves for a curse before the Lord of Spirits. 
3. And after that all the secrets of the luminaries and 
lightnings were shown to me, how they lighten to give 
blessing and satisfy (the thirsty soil).] 

[LX. 1. In the year five hundred, in the seventh month, on 



LIX. 1 . Of the luminaries. So G •flCiWr and rightly : cf. ver. 3. 
Din. gives this word in the ace. and translates : ' die Lichtmassen.' 
2. Before. So G Ob&aD. Other MSS. 'According to the word of.' 

hidden recompense of righteousness statements of the writer rest on Job 

(cf. xxxviii. 3), the glorious heritage xxxvi. 31 ; xxxvii. 5, 13; xxxviii. 24- 

which has been ordained for them 27. He wishes to bring out the 

in heaven and preserved for them by ethical ends of the thunder and the 

the Messiah, xlviii. 7. This will not lightning. For a blessing or a 

be achieved once and for all ; but this curse : cf. Job xxxvi. 31 ; xxxvii. 13. 

will be a progress from light to light 2. Of. lx. 13-15. 'Lord of spirits' 

and from righteousness to righteous- incorporated from the adjoining con- 

ness. Heritage of faith : cf. xxxix. text. 3. Job xxxviii. 24-27. 

6; lxi. 4, 11. Bright as the sun, LX. This chapter is one of the 

&c. : cf. 1 John i. 9. Noachic fragments. For the grounds 

LIX. This chapter is an intrusion, on which these are regarded as inter- 

and belongs to the same class as xli. polations, see liv. 7 (note) : also the 

3-8; xliii; xliv. It is probably drawn following notes on lx. 1, 2, 6, 10, 11, 

from a Noah-Apocalypse. 1. The &c. 1. The year five hundred. 



Sect. II.] Chapters L VIII. 6 — LX. 4. 153 

the fourteenth day of the month in the life of Enoch. In 
that similitude I saw how the heaven of heavens quaked with 
a mighty earthquake, and the host of the Most High, and 
the angels, a thousand thousands and ten thousand times ten 
thousand, were thrown into an exceeding great disquiet. 
2. And the Head of Days sat on the throne of His glory 
and the angels and the righteous stood around Him. 3. 
And a great trembling seized me, and fear took hold of me : 
my loins became relaxed and my whole being melted away, 
and I fell upon my face. 4. Then Michael sent another 

angel from among the holy ones and he raised me up (and) 



LX. 2. The Head of Days sat, &c. So G M. Other MSS. 
insert fifbYi CfLlb 'then I saw the Head of Days sit/ 3. My 

lo^ns became relaxed. So G M. Din. reads ' my loins bent and 
were relaxed.' For 1*Oi>ft(D ' melted away ' G reads a)£$i : M 
omits. 4. Then Michael sent another angel from among the 
holy ones. So G M omitting fr&ft and reading Xy°tyM*i in- 
stead of fa&rtg XT"}'. cn>4X*rh fr&<n in Dln.'s text : ' then the 
holy Michael sent another holy angel, one of the holy angels.' 
And he raised me up. After these words all MSS. but G M 



This date is drawn from Gen. v. 32, xl. 1 ; lxxi. 8, 13. 2. Head of 
and is a date in the life of Noah and Days : see xlvi. I (note) ; liv. 7 
not of Enoch as it stands in our text. (note). The angels and the right- 
For Enoch we should read Noah. eous. According to this we are to 
In the seventh month, on the regard God as accompanied by angels 
fourteenth day of the month. and saints. The righteous here can 
This according to Levitical law have no other meaning. Such a con- 
was the eve of the Feast of Taber- ception of the final Messianic judg 
nacles. In that similitude. This ment is difficult though possible; 
phrase marks a clumsy attempt to but in the case of the first judgment 
connect this chapter with the main (i. e. the Flood) it is not possible 
context, but betrays the hand of the except through misconception. Here 
interpolator. A similitude in Enoch's again the hand of an ignorant inter- 
sense is an account of a vision; but polator is disclosed. 3. Of. xiv. 
the text requires here the word 14,24. Loins became relaxed. Ps. 
' vision'; for the writer says, 'I saw lxix. 23; Is. xlv. 1. 4. Cf. Dan. 
the heaven quaking.' The heaven viii. 17; x. 9, 10. Michael sent 
quaked. This was a token of the another angel. Michael is the chief 
manifestation of divine judgment : archangel : cf. xl. 4, 9. The other 
cf. i. 6, 7. Host of the Most High angel is appointed to a like duty with 
... a thousand thousands : cf. i. 9 ; the angel of peace in the Similitude?, 



154 The Book of Enoch. [Sect. II. 

my spirit returned; for I had not been able to endure the 
look of this host, and the commotion and the quaking of the 
heaven. 5. And Michael said unto me : ' What vision 

has so disquieted thee ? Until this day lasted the day of 
His mercy ; for He was merciful and long-suffering towards 
those who dwell on the earth. 6. But when the day, and 

the power, and the punishment, and the judgment have 
come which the Lord of Spirits has prepared for those who 
serve not the righteous law and for those who deny the 



insert ' and when he had raised me up.' 5. And Michael. 

So GM. Other MSS. and Din. insert fr&ft 'the holy Michael.' 
For similar insertions of this epithet cf. xl. 9 (twice) and lx. 4 
(twice). For dXiTi fttl t&£\ HhffDH; tUaMi What vision 
has so disquieted thee ? G reads ^Its £X?I Hhcn>"Hj +U<DH. 
6. Who serve not the righteous law. I have here sup- 
posed a loss of the negative before &ft7&. Such an omission 
is of constant occurrence : cf. in MS. G alone v. 2 ; lxvii. 8 ; 
lxxxix. 3; xcv. 4; c. 11, &c. ; Book of Jubilees Dln.'s text 
chs. xii (twice) ; xv ; xvi. This conjecture is further confirmed 
by iv Ezra vi. 2 : ' Behold and see him, (1) whom ye have denied ; 
(2) whom ye have not served (so Ethiopic version); (3) whose 
commands ye have despised.' Here clause (2) corresponds to clause 
(1) in Enoch; clause (1) to clause (2) in Enoch; and clause (3) 
vaguely to clause (3) in Enoch. See General Introduction (p. 37), 
where we have shown several points of connexion between Third 
Vision of iv Ezra and Enoch. Dln/s text gives ' Those who bow 
to the righteous judgment'; but to class these with the sceptics 
and perjurers as alike threatened by the coming judgment is 
impossible. Hallevi (Journal Asiat. 367-9; 1867) first pointed 
out this difficulty and sought the explanation in the translators 
reading PJJ BBBto ^v) instead of "* "& *$$?. Thus we should 
have 'who have transgressed the righteous law.' In this verse 
I have followed Hallevi in translating lti% first as ' law ' and then 



xl. 2, and is actually so named in lx. The Deluge or first world-judgment 
24. 5. Merciful and long-suffer- is here described with features belong- 
ing : cf. ver. 25 ; 1. 3, 5 ; lxi. 13. Cf. ing properly to the Messianic judg- 
1 Pet. iii. 20 ; iv Ezra [vi. 47;] vii. 33. ment of the Similitudes. The Lord 
6. See Crit. Note : cf. ivEzra [vi. 2]. of Spirits: see xxxviii. 2 (note). 



Sect. II.] 



Chapter LX. 5-10. 



155 



righteous judgment and for those who take His name in 
vain — that day is prepared, for the elect a covenant, but for 
sinners an inquisition. 7. And on that day will two 

monsters be parted, a female monster named Leviathan, 
to dwell in the depths of the ocean over the fountains of 
the waters. 8. But the male is called Behemoth, who 

occupies with his breast a waste wilderness named Dendain, 
on the east of the garden where the elect and righteous dwell, 
where my grandfather was taken up, the seventh from Adam, 
the first man whom the Lord of Spirits created/ 9. And 
I besought that other angel that he should show me the 
might of those monsters, how they were parted on one day, 
and the one was placed in the depth of the sea and the other 
in the mainland of the wilderness. 10. And he spake to 



as 'judgment/ as B3^D has both meanings. For flP'k G M read 
&>»&. 8. For ttXfri G reads S1M&\. 



7. This strange fancy about Behemoth 
and Leviathan which are first men- 
tioned in Job xl, xli, is found by 
Jewish expounders also in Gen. i. 21 ; 
Pp. 1. 10; Is. xxvii. I (Din.). For 
later allusions see IV Ezra vi. 49-52 ; 
Apoc. Bar. xxix. 4. Here they are 
represented as huge monsters created 
on the fifth day of Creation to be the 
food of the righteous in Messianic 
times. This doctrine does not appear 
in Enoch. For further information 
see Drummond, Jewish Messiah, 352- 
55; Weber, Lehren d. Talmud, 156, 
J 95» 37,°> 384. The Talmudic view 
agrees with that of iv Ezra and Apoc. 
Bar. so far as to make Behemoth 
food for the righteous. Fountains 
of the waters : cf. Gen. vii. 11 ; Job 
xxxviii. 16; En. lxxxix. 7. 8. 

Dendain from J*"!) Pi, an unknown 
locality. On the east of the garden, 
i. e. the garden of Eden. The locality 
of Eden varies in the different sections : 



in xxxii. 2, 3 it lies in the East : in 
Ixx. 2-4 between the West and North : 
in lxxvii. 3 in the North. The ac- 
count as to those who dwell in it 
varies also. It is apparently empty 
in Enoch's time in xxxii. 3-6, and 
the righteous dead are in the West, 
xxii : it is the abode of the righteous 
and the elect in Enoch's and Noah's 
times in lxi. 12 ; lx. 8, 23 : the abode 
of the earliest fathers in Enoch's 
time, lxx. 2-4 : the abode of Enoch 
and Elijah in Elijah's time, lxxxix. 
52 : seelxv. 2 (note). This passage and 
the LXX. are the oldest testimonies 
for the translation of Enoch unto 
Paradise : later this idea made its 
way into the Latin version of Ecclus. 
xliv. 16 and the Efchiopic version of 
Gen. v. 24 : eight others shared this 
honour with Enoch according to the 
Talmud, Weber, 242. Seventh from 
Adam : cf. xciii. 3 ; Jude 14 ; Book 
of Jubilees vii. 9. That other 



1 56 The Book of Enoch. [Sect. II. 

me : ' Thou son of man, thou dost seek here to know what 
is hidden/ 11. Then spake unto me the other angel who 

went with me and showed me what was hidden, what is first 
and last, in the heaven in the height, and beneath the earth in 
the depth, and at the ends of the heaven, and on the founda- 
tion of the heaven, and in the chambers of the winds : 12. 
And how the spirits are parted, and how the weighing is 
done, and how the fountains of the spirits are reckoned 
each according to the power of the spirit, and the power of 
the lights of the moon, and how it is a power of righteous- 
ness; and how the divisions of the stars according to their 



11. Spake unto me. G reads J&ftAp ■ spake unto him/ Beneath 
the earth. So G M (UftM*: WlA . Other MSS. and Din. 'on earth.' 
Chambers of the winds. G gives ODW]*ftf\ cn>*j£/H\ 12. How 
the fountains of the spirits are reckoned each according to 
the power. So GM fr%ti&~ t filfrOtl cfi>l£<lt: (UViMl 
Dln.'s text runs : ' How the fountains and the winds are 
reckoned according to the power.'* I have taken JB.'J^V^ above 



angel: see vv. 4, 11. 10. Thou clumsiness should not cause any sur- 
son of man. This use of the phrase prise in interpolations like the present, 
after the manner of Ezekiel is found The angel who went with me and 
again in lxxi. 14. In both instances showed me, &e. Borrowed from 
it is borrowed like other technical xlvi. 2 ; cf. xliii. 3. Chambers of the 
phrases (cf. xxxvii. 2 note; lv. i,&c.) winds: cf. xviii. 1 ; xli. 4. 12. 
from the Similitudes and misused as Spirits or angels are appointed to 
they are. As the main conception of control the various phenomena of 
the Son of Man is unmistakeable in nature. This is peculiar to these 
the Similitudes, xlvi. 1-3 (notes), this interpolations, as in other parts of the 
misuse of the phrase is due either book the powers of nature are either 
to ignorance or to a deliberate per- personified or are regarded as con- 
version of its meaning. The presence scious intelligences : cf. xviii. 14-16. 
of this phrase in the Interpolations The view taken by the interpolator 
is in itself an answer to Drummond's is followed by the Book of Jubilees ii, 
theory that all references to the Son where we find ' angels of the spirit 
of Man are Christian interpolations. of fire,' ' angels of hail,' ' angels of 
See Gen. Introduction, pp. 15, 16. hoar-frost,' 'angels of thunder,' &c, 
11. We should expect the answer to Bev. vii. 1, 2 ; xiv. 18 (angel of fire); 
the question in ver. 9 to follow here, xix. 1 7 (angel of the sun) ; Asc. Is. 
but it is not given till ver. 24, and iv. 1 8. How the weighing is done : 
a long account (11-23) dealing with cf. xli. 1; xliii. 2; Job xxviii. 25. 
physical secrets intervenes. Such Lights of the moon. Its various 



Sect. II.] Chapter LX. 11-17. 157 

names, and all the divisions are divided. 13. And the 
thunders according to the places where they fall, and all 
the divisions which are made among the lightnings that it 
may lighten, and that their hosts may at once obey. 14. 

For the thunder has places of rest : there it must wait till it 
may peal; and the thunder and lightning are inseparable, 
and, although not one and undivided, they both go together 
through the spirit and separate not. 15. For when the 

lightning lightens, the thunder utters its voice, and the 
spirit enforces a pause during the peal, and divides equally 
between them ; for the treasury of their peals is inexhaust- 
ible (lit. ( like the sand '), and each one of them as it peals 
is held in with a bridle, and turned back by the power of the 
spirit, and pushed forward according to the number of the 
quarters of the earth. 16. And the spirit of the sea is 
masculine and strong, and according to the might of his 
strength he draws it back with a rein, and in like manner it 
is driven forward and dispersed amid all the mountains of the 
earth. 17. And the spirit of the hoar-frost is his own 



as used impersonally. All the divisions are divided. G reads 
H*ft°l il¥£V; ^fal^V. 14. Dln/s interpretation of the text is 

here followed, but it does not seem satisfactory. Hallevi's dis- 
cussion of this passage (Joum. Asiat. 369-72; 1867) is worth 
consulting. He arrives at the following translation : ' For the 
thunder has fixed laws in reference to the duration of its peal 
which is assigned to it : the thunder and the lightning are not 
separated in a single instance : they both proceed with one accord 
and separate not. For when the lightning lightens, the thunder 
utters its voice, and the spirit during its peal makes its arrange- 
ments, and divides the time equally between them/ 15. Each 
one of them as it peals. G M omit ' as it peals/ According 
to the number of the quarters. For »fl*Hf G reads »flH"V. 



phases. 13. Cf. Job xxxvii. 1-5. With the flow of the sea is connected 

14. See Crit. Note. 16. The ebb its subterranean advance into the 

and flow of the sea explained. Dis- mountains to nourish the springs. So 

persed amid all the mountains. Din. 17. Is his own angel, 



158 The Book of Enoch* [Sect. 11. 

angel, and the spirit of the hail is a good angel. 18. And 

the spirit of the snow he has let go, on account of his 
strength — it has a special spirit, and that which ascends from 
it is like smoke, and its name is frost. 19. And the spirit 

of the mist is not united with them in their chambers, but it 
has a special chamber ; for its course is in clearness and in 
light, and in darkness, and in winter, and in summer, and its 
chamber is light, and it (i.e. the spirit) is its own angel. 
20. And the spirit of the dew has its dwelling at the ends of 
the heaven and is connected with the chambers of the rain, 
and its course is in winter and summer ; and its clouds and 
the clouds of the mist are connected, and the one passes over 
into the other (lit. 'gives to the other '). 91. And when the 
spirit of the rain goes forth from its chamber, the angels 
come and open the chamber and lead it out, and (likewise) 
when it is diffused over the whole earth, and as often as it 
unites with the water on the earth. %%. For the waters 
are for those who dwell on the earth ; for they are nourish- 
ment for the earth from the Most High who is in heaven : 
therefore there is a measure for the rain and the angels take 
it in charge. 23. And all these things I saw towards the 
garden of the righteous. 24. And the angel of peace who 

was with me spake to me : ■ These two monsters are pre- 



1 9. Its chamber is light and it is its own angel. For >QGY*il 
WOD&Ify Q M read cn>£vftfr; 'its chamber is an angel/ 21. And 
as often as it unites. Before these words GM make the following 
addition to Dln.'s text, &?$({& ^flA; ^J&J H£Q; Wlft ' it unites 



i. e. the hoarfrost has a special angel the heaven : this would agree with 

of its own. Is a good angel. Though xxxiv-xxxvi and lxxv. 5 . 21. As 

hail is often hurtful, it is not in the rain is of such importance alike 

charge of a demon but of a good for the ethical and material well-being 

angel. 19. The mist is to be dis- of man, Job xxxvii. 12, 13, its spirit 

tinguished from the foregoing phe- is not independent but subordinated 

nomena ; for it appears in all seasons to the angels : cf. Job xxviii. 26 ; 

and by night and day. 20. The xxxviii. 25-28. 23. The garden 

dew has its dwelling at the ends of of the righteous : see ver. 8 (note). 



Sect. II.] Chapters LX. 18 — LXI. 2. 159 

pared to be fed conformably to the greatness of God, that the 
punishment of the Lord of Spirits may cause lamentation, 
and slay the sons with their mothers, and the children with 
their fathers. 25. When the punishment of the Lord of 

Spirits shall rest upon them, it will rest in order that the 
punishment of the Lord of Spirits may not come in vain 
upon them : afterwards the judgment will take place according* 
to His mercy and His patience/] 

LXI. 1. And I saw in those days how long cords were 
given to those angels, and they took to themselves wings and 
flew, and they went towards the North. 2. And I asked 

the angel, saying : ( Why have these angels taken the cords 
and gone off ? 3 And he said unto me : ' They have gone to 



with the water on the earth.' 24. That the punishment of 

the Lord of Spirits. So G M. Other MSS. give 'that the 
punishment of the Lord.' May cause lamentation and slay 
the sons. This rendering rests on an emendation of G's text 
hm> : aD$»>W t rtXmfc ao^fi-ti (sic) Mil wfrttAi &%$ into 
ham ffD^uiCT; AXmft: m>l£<Vfr MIls a>t#*av; .£*#. Din. 
follows B C in inserting fifitbi, which is wanting in all other MSS. 
E hazards hj^9°^\, borrowing from ver. 25. Din. gives ' that the 
punishment of the Lord may not be in vain and the sons will be 
slain,' &c. 

LXI. 1. Took to themselves wings. G reads h£A instead 
of Xi\&*. 2. Cords. So G M. Other MSS. and Din. give '* long 



24. See Crit. Note: cf. ver. 7 (note). some preceding part now lost. Din. 

25. When the punishment . . . shall takes it as merely a general reference 
rest upon them : cf. lxii. 12. After- to the angels that have hitherto ap- 
wards the judgment will take peared in the Similitudes. "Wings, 
place according to His mercy. In the O.T. the angels are not repre- 
Gen. viii. 31, 22; En. lx. 5 (note). sented as winged, unless in its latest 
God's mercy will be manifested after books: cf. 1 Chron. xxi. 16. Towards 
the first judgment, but not till then. the North, i. e. the North- West : cf. 

LXI. 1. Here the true text of the lxx. 3. Paradise is the destination 
Similitudes is resumed, but the open- of the angels: cf. lx. 8 (note). 2. 
ing verses are very difficult. Those The cords which the angels take 
angels. The angels here referred to with them are for measuring Para- 
may have been definitely named in dise. See the reference to this in 



1 60 The Book of Enoch. [Sect. 11. 

measure/ 3. And the angel who went with me said unto 

me : ' These are bringing to the righteous the measures of the 
righteous, and the ropes of the righteous, that they may stay 
themselves on the name of the Lord of Spirits for ever and ever. 

4. The elect will begin to dwell with the elect, and those measures 
will be given to faith and will strengthen righteousness. 

5. And these measures will reveal everything that is hidden 
in the depths of the earth, and those who have been destroyed 
by the desert, and those who have been devoured by the fish 
of the sea and by the beasts, that they may return, and stay 
themselves on the day of the Elect One ; for no one will be 
destroyed before the Lord of Spirits, and none can be destroyed. 

6. And all the powers who dwell above in the heaven received 



ccrds.' 3. To the righteous. So GN M&PTi. Other 

MSS. omit. 4. Will strengthen righteousness. So GM 

iOTOT; (SR&ty. Other MSS. 'will strengthen the word of 
righteousness/ 5. Those who have been devoured by the 

fish of the sea and by the beasts. GM read XA: 1*flA.(h 
XcnW-Ot: wMi *(UV(h >0»V>1\ dfhC 6. So M (DiJ»fc 
*XHH: XA; fhn>&02vt; bPHU ltfira*i $fi&\ mpfc 0; w-dCYi: 
0; h<n>; M*V. Also G, but that it inserts W before $£$L and 
omits before \\av\ Din. with BC against ADEGM inserts 
"frlMJft; fcav after VW"; and so we have 'and all who dwell 



lxx. 3. 3-5. The measures perished; they are alive unto the 

of the righteous, are according Lord of Spirits, and will return and 

to Din. the measures wherewith stay themselves on the day of his 

the inheritance of the righteous is Elect One : these measures are given 

measured. But even though these to faith and strengthen the righteous, 

might be a staff whereon the right- 4. Sinners will be driven from off the 

eous might stay themselves, how could face of the earth : cf. xxxviii. 1 (note), 

it be said of such \ measures ' that 5. Only the resurrection of the right- 

they will reveal everything that is eous is here spoken of. In li. 1, 2 

hidden, and all that have perished ? I there is an account of the resurrection 

cannot give a satisfactory explanation. of all Israel : see note. After the 

In some way, however, these 'mea- resurrection follows the judgment, 

sures of the righteous ' are an ideal 6. All who dwell above in the 

representation of the community of heaven, i.e. the angels : cf.vv. 10, 12; 

the righteous, living and departed, xlvii. 2. In ix. 3 they are called < the 

and reveal especially the latter; for holy ones of the heaven.' The angels 

it matters not by what death these were commanded to sing praises, and 



Sect. II,] Chapter LXI. 3-10. 161 

a command, and one voice, and one light like unto fire. 7. 
And that One above all they blessed, and extolled and lauded 
with wisdom, and showed themselves wise in utterance and in 
the spirit of life. 8. And the Lord of Spirits placed the 

Elect One on the throne of glory, and he will judge all the 
works of the holy in the heaven, and weigh their deeds in the 
balance. 9. And when he shall lift his countenance to 

judge their secret ways according to the word of the name of 
the Lord of Spirits, and their path according to the way of 
the righteous judgment of the Lord of Spirits, then will they 
all with one voice speak and bless, and glorify and extol and 
laud the name of the Lord of Spirits. 10. And He will 

call on all the host of the heavens and all the holy ones above, 



above in the heaven received a command, and one power and one 
voice and one light like unto fire were given unto them.' ' Power,' 
* voice/ and ' light ' are in the nom. in Dln/s text. 8. On the 

throne of glory. So GM. Din. gives ' on the throne of His glory.' 
9. The Lord of Spirits. So G M. Other MSS. and Din. read 
' Most High God.' 10, n. And He will call on all the host of 
the heavens . . . and they will raise one voice. Din. translates 
'and all the host of heaven will cry out/ &c. To arrive at this 
translation he is obliged to alter tf*ft° in his text twice into ffrt*, 
and to give an intransitive meaning to %OhO, which it never seems 
to have. The reason he gives for such extreme measures is : 
' There is no conceivable reason for God calling together the host 
of heaven, seeing they are already assembled around Him ' (p. 194). 



for that purpose one power and one utterance.' 8. See xlv. 3 (note) : 

voice are given to them. 7. That cf. Ps. ex. i. The holy in the 

One, i. e. the Messiah : cp. ver. 5. So heaven, i.e. the angels: cf. lxi. 6 

Din. But this is questionable: the (note). "Weigh their deeds: see 

pronoun may just as reasonably be xli. 1 (note). 9. According to 

referred to the Lord of Spirits before the word of the name of the Lord 

whom nothing can perish, ver. 5 ; and of Spirits. This clause is evidently 

it is very doubtful, if it is possible, parallel with the next, ' according to 

to translate maqedma qal, * before all.' the way of the righteous judgment 

We should perhaps render them 'the of the Lord of Spirits.' We might 

first or opening words.' Hence, ' And therefore translate nagara ' com- 

the opening words (of the angels' song) mand': 'according to the commands 

blessed Him . . . and were wise in of the name of the Lord of Spirits.' 



i62 The Book of Enoch. [Sect. II. 

and the host of God, the Cherubim, Seraphim, and Ophanim, 
and all the angels of power, and all the angels of principalities, 
and the Elect One, and the other powers on the earth, over 
the water, on that day; II. And they will raise one 

voice and bless and glorify in the spirit of faith, and in 
the spirit of wisdom, and of patience, and in the spirit of 
mercy, and in the spirit of judgment, and of peace, and in the 
spirit of goodness, and will all say with one voice, " Blessed is 
He and may the name of the Lord of Spirits be blessed for 
ever and ever." 1 2. And all who sleep not above in heaven 
will bless Him : all the holy ones who are in heaven will 
bless Him, and all the elect who dwell in the garden of life, 
and every spirit of light who is able to bless, and glorify, and 
extol, and hallow Thy blessed name, and all flesh which will 
beyond measure glorify and bless Thy name for ever and ever. 



But &<D*0 does not mean * convocare ' here, but rather ' invitare ad 
suscipiendum aliquid/ See his Lexicon, col. 1301. II. Glorify. 

So GM. Din. adds 'laud and extol/ 12. All the holy ones. 

So G M. Din. ' all His holy ones.' For *^"W G reads k£"?!+. 
Blessed name. So GM. Other MSS. and Din. give 'holy.' 



10. Cherubim, Seraphim, and Opha- Theol. (606-622). Angels of power 

nim: cf. xiv. 11, 18; xx. 7; lxxi. 7. and angels of principalities. These 

The Cherubim and Seraphim appear are exactly St. Paul's 4 principalities 

in the O.T. but are carefully dis- and powers ' : cf. Kom. viii. 38 ; Eph. 

tinguished. Schulz, A. Tliche. Theol. i. 21 ; Col. i. 16. The other powers 

p. 617, says that in no instance are on the earth, &c., i.e. the lower 

the Cherubim to be regarded as angel-powers over nature. 11. In 

angels, but as symbolic figures : they the spirit of faith, &c. These words 

form God's chariot, and are the means express the virtues which animate the 

of revealing or concealing His pre- angels who give praise. The virtues are 

sence. The Seraphim are beings seven in number : cf. xlix. 3. Blessed 

whose special duty was to serve in is He, &c. : cf. xxxix. 10. 12. All 

God's immediate presence. On the who sleep not: see i. 5 (note), 

nature of these see also Delitzsch on Is. Garden of life: see lx. 8 (note), 

vi. 2. The Ophanim (i. e. wheels) are The LXX. chronology is followed here 

derived from Ezek. i. 15. In the as in the Similitudes generally : cf. liv. 

Talmud as here they are classed with 7 (note). Spirit of light. A phrase 

the Cherubim and Seraphim, Weber, embracing good spirits, human and an- 

pp. 163, 198, 259. On the angelology gelic. This thought (cf.cviii. 11, 'genera- 

A. Tliche. tion of light ') is more fully developed 



Sect. II.] Chapters LXI. n — LXIL 2. 163 

13. For great is the mercy of the Lord of Spirits, and He is 
long-suffering, and all His work and all the extent of His 
work He has revealed to the righteous and elect in the name 
of the Lord of Spirits/ 

LXIL 1. And thus the Lord commanded the kings and 
the mighty and the exalted, and those who dwell on the 
earth, and said : ' Open your eyes and lift up your horns 
if ye are able to recognise the Elect One/ 2. And the 
Lord of Spirits seated him (i. e. the Messiah) on the throne 
of His glory and the spirit of righteousness was poured out 
upon him, and the word of his mouth slew all the sinners, 
and all the unrighteous were destroyed before his face. 



13. All the extent of His work. So M Itfci K^mil 7»fl4« and 

G, but that it omits the pron. suffix, itfc must be changed into 
tf-ft . Other MSS. give, 'All His power in all that He has created.' 
LXIL 2. The Lord of Spirits seated him (i. e. the Messiah) 
on the throne of His glory. This translation rests on a necessary 
emendation of the text suggested by Din. — (DKidC instead of 
(Didd . For the following words ' the spirit of righteousness was 
poured out upon him ' cannot be referred to God but only to the 
Messiah (cf. Isaiah xi. 4), and in verses 3 and 5 the Messiah 
is represented as sitting on the throne. Dln.'s text gives 'the 
Lord of Spirits sat on the throne,' &c. And all the unright- 

eous were destroyed. So G, which for H*A° reads ff/rW; and 



in the N.T., ' children of light,' Luke lot of the righteous is then dwelt 
xvi. 8. 13. Mercy : seelx. 5 (note). upon in contrast with the fate of the 
LXII. Here we have a lengthened wicked. 1. The kings and 
account of the judgment, particularly the mighty: see xxxviii. 5. Lift 
of the kings and of the mighty. This up your horns : cf. Ps. lxxv. 4. 
subject has already been handled Kecognise, i. e. recognise him to be 
shortly, xlvi. 4-8 ; xlviii. 8-10 ; liii- what he is — the Messiah. The word 
liv. 3; but here the actual scene is translated 'recognise' could also be 
portrayed. The kings and the mighty rendered ' comprehend,' ' understand.' 
will be filled with anguish when they 2. Seated him. See Crit. Note : cf. 
behold the Messiah, and will fall Is. xi. 4. The word of his mouth, 
down and worship, and pray for The judgment is forensic. All the 
mercy at his hands. But their prayers sinners, and all the unrighteous, 
will be of no avail and they will Though the writer is chiefly con- 
be carried off by the angels of cerned with the judgment of the 
punishment. The blessedness of the kings, the condemnation of the sinners 

M 2 



1 64 The Book of Enoch. [Sect. II. 

3. And there will stand up in that day all the kings and the 
mighty, and the exalted, and those who hold the earth, and 
they will see and recognise him how he sits on the throne 
of his glory, and righteousness is judged before him and no 
lying word is spoken before him. 4. Then shall pain come 
upon them as on a woman in travail, who finds it grievous 
to bring forth when her son enters the mouth of the womb 
and she has pain in bringing forth. 5. And one portion of 
them will look on the other, and they will be terrified, and 
their countenance will fall, and pain will seize them when 
they see that Son of Man sitting on the throne of his glory. 
6. And the kings and the mighty and all who possess the 



for (DXyift. reads Xy°7&. Dln.'s text gives 'and all the un- 
righteous and they were destroyed.' M omits the (D but otherwise 
agrees with Din. 3. Righteousness is judged. So GM. NO 
give ' the righteous are judged/ ABCDEFHIL'the righteous 
are judged in righteousness/ 5. That Son of Man. So G : all 
later MSS. read ' that Son of the Woman,' *aKM: instead of -OXA.. 
Before I had consulted G, I felt convinced that the reading ' Son 
of the Woman ' had arisen through the mistake of an Ethiopic scribe 
influenced unconsciously through Christian doctrine and possibly 
through the occurrence of the word a few lines before. For the 
same corruption see lxix. 29 (Grit. Note). We should observe also 
that there is only a difference of one letter between the two words. 
The implication underlying the Similitudes is that the Son of Man 
is not of human descent. It is otherwise with the Messiah of the 
Dream-vision. 6. And the kings and the mighty. So G M. 
This is the correct text, as we see by comparing lxiii. 2, 12; lxvii. 8. 
Other MSS. and Din. give ' the mighty kings ' ; but this phrase 
does not occur in Enoch except in lv. 4, if the text there is right. 



and godless and unrighteous is fre- 4. Cf. Is. xiii. 8; xxi. 3; xxvi. 17, &c. 

quently referred to : cf. xxxviii. 1, 2, 5. One portion of them will look 

3; xli. 2 ; xlv. 2, 4, 5, 6; [1. 2 ;] liii. on the other. This shows that Is. 

2, 7; lxii. 13; lxix. 27. 3. The fact xiii. 8 was in the mind of the writer, 

that even the righteous are judged Son of Man. See Crit. Note and 

opens up a terrible prospect for the xlvi. 2 (note). 6. The kings are 

kings and the mighty: cf. 1 Pet. iv. 18. now ready to acknowledge and wor- 

No lying word: see xlix. 4 (note). ship the Son of Man, but it is too 



Sect. II.] Chapter LXII. 3-12. 165 

earth will glorify and bless and extol him who rules over all, 
who was hidden. 7. For the Son of Man was hidden 

before Him and the Most High preserved him in the presence 
of His might and revealed him to the elect. 8. And the 
congregation of the holy and elect will be sown, and all the 
elect will stand before him on that day. 9. And all 

the kings and the mighty and the exalted and those who rule 
the earth will fall down on their faces before him and worship 
and set their hope upon that Son of Man, and will petition 
him and supplicate for mercy at his hands. 10. Neverthe- 
less that Lord of Spirits will (so) press them that they will 
hastily go forth from His presence and their faces will be 
filled with shame, and darkness will be piled upon their faces. 
11. And the angels of punishment will take them in charge 
to execute vengeance on them because they have oppressed 
His children and His elect. 12. And they will be a 

spectacle for the righteous and for His elect : they will 
rejoice over them because the wrath of the Lord of Spirits 
resteth upon them, and His sword is drunk with their blood 



7. Before Him. So G "k9°<1?£:av*. Din. gives ' formerly.' 9. 

The kings and the mighty. So GKM. F I L O and Bin. 
give 'the mighty kings/ 10. Nevertheless that Lord of 

Spirits will (so) press them. So G M. Dln/s text inserts &1h 
1 and accordingly that Lord of Spirits will press them/ 1 1 . 

The angels of punishment will take them in charge. So all 
MSS. but G, which gives ^frum*; ([av'tfiirVi Clav'PiP&V. 12. 

His sword. SoGM. FHILO and Din. give 'the sword of 



late. Hules over all : cf. Dan. vii. munity that is ' sown ' is called the 
14. 7,8. Hidden: cf. xlviii. 6. 'plant of righteousness': cf. x. 16 
This word occasions a digression and (note). Congregation : cf. xxxviii. 
an explanation. Before he appeared 1 (note). 9, 10. The description 
to judge he was preserved by the of the judgment of the kings re- 
Lord of Spirits and revealed to the sumed: they implore mercy, but in 
elect through the spirit of prophecy, vain. Shame and darkness : of. 
xlviii. 7. By this means the com- xlvi. 6; IV Ezra vii. 55. 11. 
munity of the elect was founded (lit. Angels of punishment : see xl. 7 
1 sown '), but was not to behold him (note). Cf. liii. 3-liv. 2. 12. Spec- 
till the final judgment. The com- tacle : see xlviii. 9 (note). Sword. 



1 66 The Book of Enoch. [Sect. IT. 

(lit. l from them '). 13. And the righteous and elect will be 
saved on that day and will never again from thenceforth see the 
face of the sinners and unrighteous. 14. And the Lord of 

Spirits will abide over them, and with that Son of Man will 
they eat and lie down and rise up for ever and ever. 15. 

And the righteous and elect will have risen from the earth, 
and ceased to be of downcast countenance, and will have 
been clothed with garments of glory. 16. And these shall 
be your garments, garments of life before the Lord of Spirits ; 
and your garments will not grow old, and your glory will 
not pass away before the Lord of Spirits. 

LXIII. 1. In those days will the mighty and the kings 



the Lord of Spirits.' 14. Will they eat. So G M. FHILO 
and Din. read 'will they abide and eat/ also N (sec. hand). 
15, 16. Clothed with garments of glory. And these shall 
be your garments, garments of life. So G M, which read (l>(\Chl 
4W!A: rt-flrfit:: wahMi ^M- &*ti\Xia»\ 2W1A; <frj&a>t. So also 
I N, but that they omit £t>flftlicn>«. K reads as Dln.'s text : the 
other MSS. vary. The concluding words of lxii. 16, 'your gar- 
ments will not grow old, and your glory will not pass away/ con- 
firm the reading of GM. The fact that all these variations are 
absent from Dln/s MSS. points to their being due to a late 
recension. 

LXIII. 1. The mighty and the kings. So GM: cf. note on 



Used figuratively here : cf. lxiii. 11. 45 ; Herm. Sim. viii. 2. See also En. 

Drunk: cf.Is. xxxiv.6. 13. Saved: cviii. 12. Will not grow old: cf. 

cf. xlviii. 7. 14. The kingdom is Deut. viii. 4 ; xxix. 5. 

at last established and God Himself LXIII. The writer again returns 

dwells amongst them: cf. Is. lx. 19,20; to the kings and the mighty in order 

Zeph. iii. 15-17: and the Messiah to describe their bitter and unavail- 

will dwell with them : cf. xlv. 4 ; ing repentance. The description is 

xxx viii. 2. The kingdom lasts for not an amplification of lxii. 5-12, but 

ever. 15. This verse does not refer takes up the history at a later stage 

to the resurrection but signifies that after that the kings have appealed in 

all the humiliations of the righteous vain to the Messiah and are already 

are at an end. 16. Garments of in the custody of the angels of 

life: see Crit. Notes on vv. 15, 16. punishment. As their appeal to the 

On the garments of the blessed, cf. Messiah has failed, they entreat the 

11 Cor. v. 3, 4 ; Kev. iii. 4, 5, 18 ; iv. 4 ; angels of punishment, to whom they 

vi. 11 ; vii. 9, 13, 14; iv Ezra ii. 39, are delivered, to grant them a respite 



Sect. II.] Chapters LX1I. 1 3 — LXIII. 8. 167 

who possess the earth implore His angels of punishment to 
whom they were delivered to grant them a little respite, that 
they might fall down before the Lord of Spirits, and worship, 
and confess their sins before Him. 2. And they will bless 

and glorify the Lord of Spirits, and say : ' Blessed is the Lord 
of Spirits, the Lord of kings, the Lord of the mighty and the 
Lord of the rulers, the Lord of glory and the Lord of wisdom, 
(before whom) every secret is clear. 3. And Thy power is from 
generation to generation and Thy glory for ever and ever : 
deep are all Thy secrets and innumerable, and Thy righteous- 
ness is beyond reckoning. 4. We have now learnt that we 
should glorify and bless the Lord of kings and Him who is 
King over all kings.' 5. And they will say : ' Would that 
we had rest to glorify and thank Him and confess our faith 
before His glory ! 6. And now we long for a little rest 

but find it not : we are driven away and obtain it not : light 
has vanished from before us, and darkness is our dwelling- 
place for ever and ever ; 7. For we have not believed 
before Him nor glorified the name of the Lord of Spirits, nor 
glorified our Lord, but our hope was in the sceptre of our 
kingdom and in our glory. 8. And in the day of our 
suffering and tribulation He saves us not, and we find no 



lxii. 6. F I L and Din. < the mighty kings/ H K N omit ' the 
mighty.' 2. (Before whom) every secret is clear. G points 
to a different meaning J&ttCT: atirfc 'MbA. M gives J&nCU: 
(iitfcl *HMfri $£6til. 5. Glorify and thank Him. So G M. 
Other MSS. give, ' Glorify, and thank, and bless Him.' His 
glory. G reads 'Thy glory.' 7. Lord of Spirits. So GF: 

H I L N O give ' Lord of kings ' : M ' Lord of Lords.' Glorified 
our Lord. So G M. Other MSS. ' glorified the Lord for all His 



to worship the Lord of Spirits and con- passage, cf. Wisdom v. 3-8. 2. 

fess their sins before Him. This in Their confession acknowledges all 

fact forms an indirect and last despair- that they formerly denied : cf. xlvi. 

ing appeal to the Lord of Spirits. At 5. 3. Cf. xlix. 2. 6. Dark- 

the same time it is a justification of ness is our dwelling-place : cf. xlvi. 

God's justice. For a somewhat similar 6. 8. There is no place of repent- 



1 68 



The Book of Enoch. 



[Sect. II. 



respite wherein to confess our faith that our Lord is true in 
all His works and in His judgments and His righteousness, 
and His judgments have no respect of persons. 9. And we 
shall pass away from before His face on account of our 
works, and all our sins are reckoned up in righteousness/ 
10. Now they will say to them : ' Our souls are satisfied with 
the mammon of unrighteousness, but this does not prevent 
us from descending into the flame of the pain of Sheol/ 



works.' 8. In His judgments. So GM. Din. 'in all His 
judgments.' 10. Into the flame. So all MSS. but G, which 



ance when the final judgment has 
come. 10. Riches avail not to 

their salvation : cf. lii. 7 ; liii • Ps. 
xlix. 7-12. Mammon of unright- 
eousness : cf. Luke xvi. 9, 11; Ecclus. 
v. 8. Sheol. This word has borne 
different meanings at different periods 
and also different meanings during 
the same period, owing to the co- 
existence of different stages in the 
development of thought. As these 
different meanings are to be found 
in Enoch, a short history of the con- 
ception will be the best means of 
explanation. (1) Sheol in the O.T. 
is the place appointed for all living, 
Job xxx. 23: from its grasp there is 
never any possibility of escape, Job 
vii. 9. It is situated beneath the 
earth, Num. xvi. 30 : it is the land of 
darkness and confusion, Job x. 21, 
22 : of destruction, forgetfulness, and 
silence, Pss. lxxxviii. 12; xciv. 17; 
cxv. 17. Nevertheless the identity 
of the individual is in some measure 
preserved, Is. xiv. 10; Ezek. xxxii. 
21; 1 Sam. xxviii. 15 sqq. : but the 
existence is joyless and has no point 
of contact with God or human in- 
terests, Pss. vi. 5 ; xxx. 9 ; Is. xxxviii. 
11, 18. In the conception of Sheol 
there is no moral or religious element 
involved: no moral distinctions are 



observed in it: good and bad fare 
alike. But the family, national and 
social distinctions of the world above 
are still reproduced, and men are 
gathered to their fathers or people, 
Gen. xxv. 8, 9 ; xxxv. 29 ; Ezek. xxxii. 
17-32 : kings are seated on their 
thrones even there, Is. xiv. 9, 10; 
Ezek. xxxii. 21, 24. Thus the O.T. 
Sheol does not differ essentially from 
the Homeric Hades, Odyss. xi. 488, 
9. This view of Sheol was the ortho- 
dox and prevailing one till the second 
century b. c. : cf. Ecclus. xiv. 16 ; xvii. 
22, 23; xxx. 17; Bar. iii. 11; Tob.iii. 
1 o ; xvii. 2 ; Enoch cii. 1 1 (i. e. where 
Sadducees are introduced as speak- 
ing). Individual voices indeed had 
been raised against it in favour of 
a religious conception of Sheol, and 
finally through their advocacy this 
higher conception gradually won its 
way into acceptance. (2) This second 
and higher conception of Sheol was the 
product of the same religious thought 
that gave birth to the doctrine of the 
Resurrection — the thought that found 
the answer to its difficulties by carry- 
ing the idea of retribution into the 
life beyond the grave. The old con- 
ception thus underwent a double 
change. Firstly, it became essentially 
a place where men were treated ac- 



Sect. II.] Chapters LXIIL 9 — LX V. 1. 



169 



11. And after that their countenance will be filled with 
darkness before that Son of Man, and they will be banished 
from his presence and the sword will dwell among them 
before his face. 12. And thus spake the Lord of Spirits : 

' This is the ordinance and judgment of the mighty and the 
kings and the exalted and those who possess the earth before 
the Lord of Spirits/ 

LXIV. 1. And other forms I saw in that place in secret. 
2. I heard the voice of the angel saying: ' These are the 
angels who descended to the earth, and revealed what was 
hidden to the children of men and seduced the children of 
men into committing sin/ 

[LXV. 1. And in those days Noah saw the earth that 



gives Xy°£VQ. 11. Darkness. So G. Din. adds ' and shame.' 
12. For CDhcn)"H G reads h«n>. 

LXIV. 2. Descended to the earth. So GM. Other MSS. 
1 descended from heaven to the earth/ 

LXV. 1. For h&WV G reads URift with the same meaning. 



cording to their deserts with a division 
for the righteous, and a division for the 
wicked. And, secondly, from being 
the unending abode of the departed, it 
came to be only an intermediate state : 
cf. En. xxii ; li. i ; cii. 5 (?) ; Luke 
xvi. 22 (?). (3) The conception under- 
went a further change, and no longer 
signified the intermediate state of the 
righteous and of the wicked, but came 
to be used of the abode of the wicked 
only, either as their preliminary 
abode, cf. Rev. i. 18 ; vi. 8 ; xx. 13, 
14, or as their final one, En. lxiii. 10 ; 
xcix. 1 1 ; ciii. 7. This was probably due 
to the fact that the Resurrection was 
limited to the righteous, and thus the 
souls of the wicked simply remained 
in Sheol, which thus practically be- 
came hell or Gehenna : cf. Pss. Sol. 
xiv. 6; xv. 11. That this conception 
of Sheol appeared in isolated cases in 
the Persian period, see Cheyne, Origin 



of the Psalter, 381-41 2. Cf. on 
the question generally, Oehler, Theol. 
des A. T. i. 253-66; Schulz, A. 
Tliche. Theol. 697-708 ; Schenkel, 
Bibel-Lex. ii. 565-71 . In the Talmud 
Sheol has become synonymous with 
Gehenna, Weber, L. d. T. 326, 7. 
11. "With darkness : cf. xlvi. 6 ; Ixii. 
10. Sword. Used figuratively here : 
cf. Ixii. 12. 

LXIV. A brief digression on the 
fallen angels whose judgment has 
already been described in the second 
similitude, liv. 3 sqq.; lv. 3, 4. 

LXV-LXIX. 25. These chapters 
professedly and in fact belong to a 
Noah Apocalypse, and have no right 
to form a part of the text of Enoch. 
The main reasons for this conclusion 
are to be found in the note on liv. 7. 
Like the other Noachic interpolations, 
this interpolation is of a fragmentary 
nature : it deals mainly with three 



1 70 The Book of Enoch. [Sect. IT. 

it was sinking down and its destruction was nigh. 2. And 
he arose from thence and went to the ends of the earth, and 
cried aloud to his grandfather Enoch ; and Noah said three 
times with vehement utterance, 'Hear me, hear me, hear me/ 
3. And I said unto him : ( Tell me what it is that is falling 
out on the earth that the earth is so fatigued and shaken ? 
May I not perish with it ! ' 4. And thereupon there was a 
great commotion on the earth and a voice was heard from 
heaven, and I fell on my face. 5. And Enoch my grand- 

father came and stood by me and said unto me : ' Why hast 
thou cried to me with a cry so vehement and sorrowful? 6. 
A command has gone forth from the presence of the Lord con- 
cerning those who dwell on the earth that their end should be 
brought about because they know all the secrets of the angels 
and all the violence of the Satan s and all their hidden power 
and all the power of those who practise sorcery, and the power 
of witchcraft, and the power of those who make molten images 



3. I said unto him. So GM Xftft\ Other MSS. 'he said unto 
him/ 6. For the whole earth. These words are in the sreni- 



»^ 



subjects : (1) lxv. I -lxvii. 3, the before Noah was born, whereas the 

impending Flood and the deliverance Samaritan makes them contemporaries 

of Noah; (2) lxvii. 4-lxix. I, the for 140 years. Thus this vision must 

punishment of the fallen angels, with be regarded as not later than the 

a digression on the kings and the 140th year of Noah's life. In lx. 8, 

mighty; (3) lxix. 2-25, the fall of 23, on the other hand, a later date is 

the angels and the secrets they dis- supposed, the 500th year of Noah's 

dosed. life ( c f. lx. 1), and Paradise is con- 

LXV. 1. Observe that the vision sistently represented as the abode of 

is Noah's. The vision opens here Enoch and the elect, as this date is 

with a subsidence of the earth, as in 360 years after Enoch's translation into 

lx. 1 with a quaking of the heavens. Paradise. Grandfather. In reality 

2. The ends of the earth. The great-grandfather : cf. lx. 8. 4. A 

entrance to heaven is at the ends of voice. This is the command in ver. 6. 

the earth. Enoch is still supposed to Fell on my face. As in lx. 3. 6. 

be alive and to be engaged with the Those who dwell on the earth, 

angels: compare this verse with lxvii i. This phrase is borrowed from the 

1. Thus it is the Samaritan chronology Similitudes: cf. xxxviii. 5 (note). 

which is followed here ; for according Because they know all the secrets 

to the LXX. and Hebrew reckonings of the angels, &c. : cf. vii ; viii ; lxix. 

Enoch was translated many years The power of witchcraft : cf. vii. I. 



Sect. II.] Chapter LX V. 2-1 1 . 171 

for the whole earth : 7. And how silver is produced from 

the dust of the earth, and how soft metal originates on the 
earth. 8. For lead and tin are not produced from the earth 
like the first : it is a fountain which produces them, and an 
angel stands therein, and that angel is an eminent one/ 
9. And after that my grandfather took hold of me with his 
hand and raised me up, and said unto me : ' Go, for I have 
asked the Lord of Spirits as touching this commotion on the 
earth. 10. And He said unto me : " Because of their 

unrighteousness their judgment has been finally decided and 
will be executed speedily (lit. ' it will no longer be reckoned 
before me J ) because of the months which they have searched 
out, and through which they know that the earth and those 
who dwell upon it will be destroyed." 1 1 . And for these 



tive ; but the context requires this rendering. 7. Xrth- wanting 

in G. 8. An angel stands therein. So GM, omitting H 

before &$ah9°. Other MSS. and Din. ' There is an angel which 
stands therein.' And that angel is an eminent one. Hallevi 
(Joum. Asiat. 373 ; 1867) reproduces this in Hebrew "»KM Nin Dlpl. 
He supposes *7 was read by mistake for "l in EHp\ Hence we get 
B"!|?.^ Hiph. from "tip with 3rd pi. masc. suffix. Then comparing 
Jer. vi. 7 he translates, ' the angel who stands therein and makes 
them to cool is the chief.' But the Hiph. more likely means ' to 
cause to spring up.' Hence 'the angel who . . . causes them to spring 
up is the chief.' 9. With his hand. So all MSS. but G, which 
gives 'by my hand.' 10. Because of the months which they 

have searched out, and through which they know that, &c. 
Hallevi (Joum. Asiat. 374-5; 1867) objects that hahC-'h signifies 
months, and never astrology, and that the knowledge of the future 
could hardly be regarded as criminal by the writers of Enoch, and 
that the Deluge was generally regarded as a secret : cf. x. 2 ; 
lxxxix. 1. He thinks that the corruption arose through reading 
D^in (= sorceries, Is. iii. 3) as D^PI = ' months,' and ^ more- 
over = on or yap. Hence he would translate, ' Because of the sor- 
ceries which they have searched out and know ; for the earth,' &c. 



Observe that the destruction of the wrought through the angels. 10. 

earth is ascribed to the corruption See Crit. Note. 11. Enoch here 



172 The Book of Enoch. [Sect. II. 

there will be no place of refuge for ever because they have 
shown them what was hidden, and (none) for those who are 
condemned; but as for thee, my son, the Lord of Spirits 
knows that thou art pure and guiltless of this reproach con- 
cerning the secrets. 12. And He has destined thy name to 
be among the holy, and will preserve thee from those who 
dwell on the earth, and has destined thy seed in righteousness 
to kingship and great honours, and from thy seed will proceed 
a fountain of the righteous and holy without number for ever/ 

LXVI. 1. And after that he showed me the angels of 
punishment who are prepared to come and let loose all the 
powers of the waters which are beneath in the earth in order 
to bring judgment and destruction on all who live and dwell 
on the earth. 2. And the Lord of Spirits gave command- 

ment to the angels who went forth, that they should not 
raise their hands but should wait; for those angels were 
over the powers of the waters. 3. And I went away 

from the presence of Enoch. 

LXVII. 1. And in those days the word of God came unto 
me, and He said unto me: 'Noah, thy lot has come up 
before Me, a lot without blame, a lot of love and uprightness. 
2. And now the angels are making a wooden building, and 



11. For those who. The syntax requires A to be supplied before 
Kii, as in rtXrt* in preceding line. Din. wrongly takes Art to be 
Arts and so translates 'they.' As for thee. So G. Din. 
inserts a negative. 

LXVII. 1. Noah, thy lot. So GM. Other MSS. and Din. 
1 Noah, behold thy lot.' A lot without blame. Wanting in G. 



addresses Noah. 12. Noah is to a misconception as the agents of the 

be the founder of a new and righteous Deluge or first judgment, and as 

generation. Fountain: cf. Deut. angels over the waters: cf. xl. 7 

xxxiii. 28 ; Ps. lxviii. 26. (note) ; liv. 7. 2. Angels over 

LXVI. 1. He, i. e. Enoch. Angels the powers of the waters : cf. Eev. 

of punishment. We have here an xvi. 5. 

illegitimate use of this phrase. These LXVII. 1. The character of Noah 

angels have to do solely with the here is based on Gen. vi. 9. 2. 

second judgment in the Similitudes, This account differs from lxxxix. 1, 

and are employed here only through where it is said that Noah himself 



Sect. II.] Chapters LX K12 — LX VII 4. 1 73 

when they have completed that task, I will place My hand 
upon it and preserve it, and there will come forth from it a 
seed of life, and the earth will undergo a change so that it 
will not remain without inhabitant. 3. And I will make 

fast thy seed before Me for ever and ever, and I will disperse 
those who dwell with thee over the face of the earth lest they 
tempt (thy seed), and (thy seed) will be blessed and will 
multiply on the earth in the name of the Lord/ 4. And 



2. Completed that task. So G W&K. M (D^, which should 
evidently be read (D&K: This is clearly the right text as against 
Dln.'s fl00fe ' have gone forth to this task.' This latter reading 
is out of harmony both with the words before and after. For 
fcOfrl G reads 0*1. 3. All the best MSS. ACEFGHIKMN 
read Aj£m>*lC after 9°ltftfl or Win. We cannot, therefore, 
simply omit it as Din. As it stands, it is unmeaning. It is 
perhaps best to emend it into \\&o\ AJPm>Ji4« 'lest they should 
tempt ' or ■ lead astray,' and render XHCfrd * ' I will disperse/ 
Thus we should have a reference to the dispersion of mankind : 
cf. Gen. xi. Dln.'s text runs, 'and I will spread abroad those 



makes the ark. Completed : see tudes which are absolutely distinct : 

Crit. Note. Dln.'s corrupt reading i. e. the burning valley of Gehenna 

obliges him to make the angels of is placed among the metal mountains, 

punishment build the ark and then lxvii. 4, though it is definitely said to 

go to let loose the waters ! It is evi- lie in another direction, liv. 1, in the 

dently a class of good angels we have Similitudes. It is obvious, therefore, 

here. 3. Cf. lxv. 12. 4-LXIX. that no weight is to be attached to 

1. This section deals with the punish- phrases denoting locality in this section, 

ment of the fallen angels and its 4. After treating of the judgment of 

significance in regard to the kings mankind through the Deluge, the 

and the mighty. It is very confused. writer proceeds to describe the judg- 

Part of the confusion is owing to an ment of the angels, who were the 

original confusion of thought on the real cause of man's corruption. In 

part of the writer, and much to the contradiction with x, the fallen angels 

corruptness of the text. The latter are cast into a burning valley — really 

is largely obviated by the ascertain- the Gehenna valley of liv. There is 

ment of a better text : see Crit. Notes a twofold confusion here. It is not 

on vv. 8, 11, 13. As for the former, said that the angels in liv. were 

it has been caused by the writer cast into the valley of Gehenna, but 

describing the first judgment in fea- into a ' burning furnace ' ; and, in 

tures characteristic of the final, and the second place, this was the final 

in identifying localities in the Simili- place of punishment, not the pre- 



1 74 The Book of Enoch. [Sect. II. 

He will imprison those angels who have shown unrighteous- 
ness in that burning valley which my grandfather Enoch had 
formerly shown to me in the west among the mountains 
of gold and silver and iron and soft metal and tin. 5. 

And I saw that valley in which there was a great convulsion 
and a swelling of the waters. 6. And when all this took 

place, there was produced from that fiery molten metal and 
from the convulsion wherewith they were convulsed in that 
place, a smell of sulphur, and it was connected with those 
waters, and that valley of the angels who had seduced (man- 
kind) burned continually under the earth there. 7. And 
through the valleys of that land proceed streams of fire, where 
those angels are punished who had led astray those who dwell 
upon the earth. 8. But these waters will in those days 
serve for the kings and the mighty and the exalted and 
those who dwell on the earth for the healing of the body, and 



who dwell with thee over the face of the earth/ 4. He will 
imprison. So FGM. Other MSS. 'they will imprison.' 5. 
For "YVa^Yi G reads Vwfi (sic) j M UoMi. 6. For CDl/aMiffi*; 
HWwfraD* G reads WtYdhYiav* ; M W\iao\ Va>hai>*. 8. For 
the healing of the body. So G : and this reading is obviously 



liminary. But, again, the burning excursion to Vesuvius in search of a 

valley is said to be amongst the metal burning valley in the west is a bootless 

mountains in the west. This, as we and uncalled-for errand. 5, 6. 

have shown above, is a misleading These verses combine features of the 

combination of utterly disparate ideas, Deluge and of volcanic disturbances, 

and should prove a warning against The latter are connected with the 

falling into the error of Hilgenfeld punishment of the angels. Burned 

and Drummond, and basing con- under the earth there. Not merely 

elusions on such equivocal or rather the immediate neighbourhood of the 

demonstrably groundless statements Gehenna valley is here designated, 

as appear in this verse. In the west. but, as Din. points out, the adjacent 

Borrowed from lii. 1, as other phrases country down to and beyond the Dead 

from the adjoining context, and with Sea. A subterranean fire was believed 

just as little real significance. The to exist under the Gehenna valley: 

phrase is no real note of locality but cf. xxvii. I (note). 8. In those 

only another meaningless plagiarism days. Those of the writer. Those 

of this interpolator. For others see waters will serve . . . for the heal- 

pp. 15, 16; lx. 10 (note). Hilgenfeld's ing of the body. The hot springs 



Sect. II.] Chapter LXVII. 5-1 1. 175 

for the punishment of the spirit, because their spirit is full of 
lust, that they may be punished in their body ; for they have 
denied the Lord of Spirits and see their punishment daily, 
and yet believe not in His name. 9. And in proportion as 

the burning of their bodies becomes severe, a corresponding 
change will take place in their spirit for ever and ever ; for 
before the Lord of Spirits there will be none to utter a lying 
word. 10. For the judgment will come upon them, because 
they believe in the lust of their body and have denied the 
Spirit of the Lord. 11. And those same waters will undergo a 
change in those days ; for when those angels are punished in 
these waters, these water-springs will change their temperature, 



right ; for the office of the sulphur springs is medicinal in this 
world, but punitive in the next. Other MSS. ' for the healing of 
the soul and body/ Believe not. G omits the negative. 9. A 
corresponding change will take place. G reads \\.ao\ HO<n>«; 
•fauAm. ii. Are punished in these waters. So GM, read- 

ing a 7^ ! V. Other MSS. ' in those days/ These water-springs 

will change their temperature : lit. ' will be changed as to their 
temperature/ So GM, reading fiffBda* instead of j£^r??AT 



resulted from the meeting of the no need to go to the west for an 
water and fire underground by which explanation. For the punishment 
the angels were punished. As an of the spirit, i. e. in the final judg- 
instance of such a hot spring Din. ment. Punished in their body, 
mentions Kallirrhoe to the east of In Gehenna they will suffer in the 
the Dead Sea, to which Herod the body as well as in the spirit. Denied 
Great resorted, Jos. Ant. xvii. 6. 5 ; the Lord of Spirits : cf. xxxviii. 2 
Bell. Jud. i. 33. 5. It has been (note); liv. 7 (note). See their pun- 
objected that according to the latter ishment daily. The hot springs are 
passage these waters were sweet and a testimony to the present punishment 
not sulphurous. So far as this objec- of the angels : a testimony likewise 
tion is valid, it cannot hold against to the punishment that will befall 
the hot springs of Machaerus, Bell. the kings and the mighty. 9. The 
Jud. vii. 6. 3, which were bitter, and punishment will work repentance in 
in the neighbourhood of which there the kings, but it will be unavailing. 
were sulphur mines. Holtzmann A lying word: cf. xlix. 4 (note). 
{Jdhrb.f. D. T. xii. 391) refers to the 10. Denied the Spirit of the Lord, 
eruptions of Mount Epomeo in Ischia This expression is unique in Enoch, 
in 46 and 35 B.C. (quoted by Schodde), 11. The removal of the angels to 
but, as we have seen above, there is another place of punishment is fol- 



1 76 The Book of Enoch. [Sect. II. 

and when the angels ascend, this water of the springs will 
change and become cold. 12. And I heard Michael answer- 
ing and saying \ ' This judgment wherewith the angels are 
judged is a testimony for the kings and the mighty and for 
those who possess the earth. 13. Because these waters of 

judgment minister to the healing of the body of the kings 
and to the lust of their body ; therefore they will not see and 
will not believe that those waters will change and become a 
fire which burns for ever/ 

LXVIII. 1. And after that my grandfather Enoch gave 



and X2Vft- instead of (iXtiilVp. Other MSS. give 'the tempera- 
ture of these water-springs will change/ 12. Michael. So G M. 
Other MSS. read 'the holy Michael.' 13. Minister to the 
healing of the body of the kings and to the lust of their body ; 
therefore they will not see, &c. So G M, reading A&£P<A; 
J»2\Pa*\ AffD/lXfct: (DAti^it; f^Wa*, save that I have sub- 
stituted the word ' kings ' for ' angels.' This change is absolutely 
necessary, as Hallevi (Journ. Asiat. 366-7; 1867) has pointed out ; 
for it would be absurd to suppose that the angels were healed by 
the chemical action of the waters. The mistake arose through the 
confusion of &*3£jft? ' angels ' with D^?*? ' kings.' Hallevi thinks 
that ' angels ' in verse 1 1 should similarly be changed into ' kings/ 
but wrongly. The reading of G is evidently the right one ; it is 
supported throughout by H, and in the first clause ' to the healing 
of the body ' by all MSS. but B C : the text of its second clause 
' to the lust of their body ' could readily be corrupted into the 
unintelligible reading of the remaining MSS. ' to the death of their 
body,' Al*a*fc*t* into Aft" through the influence of verses 9 and 10. 
Dln.'s ' for the healing of the angels ' has all MSS. but B C against 
it : his reading ' for the death of the body ' has the support of 
F H I K L N. His text gives, ' For these waters of judgment 
minister to the healing of the angels and to the death of their 
body ; but they will not see/ &c. 



lowed by a cooling of the waters. verse the Similitudes already exist as 

13. See Crit. Note. Dln.'s text is un- a complete work in the hands of the 

intelligible, but the text of G as interpolator. The meaning of this 

followed above is quite clear. chapter is difficult to determine. It 

LXVIII. 1. According to this has probably to do with the Satans or 



Sect, ii.] Chapters LX VI L 1 2 —LX VIII. 4. 177 

the signs of all the secrets in a book and the Similitudes 
which had been given to him, and he put them together for 
me in the words of the book of the Similitudes. 2. And 

in those days Michael answered Rufael and said : ' The power 
of the spirit transports and provokes me : yet as regards the 
rigour of the judgment of the secrets, the judgment over the 
angels, who can endure the rigorous judgment which is 
passed, before which they melt away V 3. And Michael 

answered again and spake to Rufael: 'Who is he whose heart 
is not softened concerning it, and whose reins are not troubled 
by this word of judgment that has been passed upon them — 
upon those whom they have thus led out?' 4. And it 

came to pass when he stood before the Lord of Spirits, 
Michael spake thus to Rufael : ' I will not take their part 
under the eye of the Lord, for the Lord of Spirits is angry 
with them because they do as if they were like the Lord. 



LXVIII. 2. Michael. So G M. Din. 'the holy Michael/ 
The power of the spirit transports and provokes me. Can this 
mean 'the spirit of God provokes my wrath against the fallen 
angels ' ) It would perhaps be better to read f £*fc\ Aai>*i&M : 
the ? might have fallen out before the initial £ in ^cn>ftmi.. We 
should thus have : ' the vehemence of my feelings transports 
rae . . . for as regards/ &c. Is passed. So G M. Other MSS. 
and Din. add ' and abides.' 3. Michael. So G M. Din. ' the 
holy Michael/ So also in ver. 4; lxix. 14, 15. Heart is not 
softened. G M read kfliM* 2V(K Word of judgment. So G 
reading $*& instead of ^*£l as in Din. : ' who is he . . . whose reins 
are not troubled by this word? A judgment has been passed 



chiefs of the angels. 2. The dia- from the preliminary to the final place 

logue between Michael and Kufael of punishment. It might perhaps be 

is designed to set forth the severity of better to translate 'judgment which 

the judgment over the fallen angels. has been passed upon them because of 

Judgment of the secrets. This those whom they have thus led forth.' 

may mean the judgment on account In this case we should have the 

of the secrets divulged by the angels, judgment of the Satans who are 

3. Upon those whom they have rigorously punished because they se- 

thus led out. Din. thinks this may duced the angels into sin. The words 

mean those angels who are conducted ' They do as if they were like the Lord ' 

H 



178 The Book of Enoch. [Sect. 11. 

5. Therefore all that is hidden will come upon them for ever 
and ever ; for neither angel nor man will have his portion (in 
it), but alone they undergo their judgment for ever and ever/ 
LXIX. 1. And after this judgment they will inspire fear 
and anger in them because they have shown this to those who 
dwell on the earth. 2. And behold the names of those 
angels ! and these are their names : the first of them is Sem- 
jaza, the second Arestiqifa, the third Armen, the fourth 
Kokabael, the fifth Turel, the sixth Riimjal, the seventh 
Danel, the eighth Nuqael, the ninth Baraqel, the tenth 
Azazel, the eleventh Armers, the twelfth Batarjal, the thir- 
teenth Basasael, the fourteenth AnaneL, the fifteenth Turjal, 
the sixteenth Simapisiel, the seventeenth Jetarel, the eighteenth 
Tumael, the nineteenth Tarel, the twentieth Rumael, the 
twenty-first Izezeel. 3. And these are the chiefs of their 

angels and the names of their chief ones over a hundred and 
over fifty and over ten. 4. The name of the first, Jequn : 

that is the one who led astray all the children of the angels, 



upon them.' 5. All that is hidden. So GM. Other MSS. 
and Din. ' the judgment that is hidden.' 

LXIX. 1. Inspire fear and anger. As Din. remarks, there 
must be a corruption here. Hallevi (Joum. Asiat. p. 383 ; 1867) 
thinks hS?°00 is a translation of the Hiphil PTJTI which means 
(1) to cause to tremble, (2) to irritate. The Greek translator took 
the latter meaning, which is unsuitable to the context. Hence 
translate, 'inspire fear and trembling.' 2. G differs consider- 

ably from Dln.'s text in the spelling of the angels' names, but 
mainly in the matter of vowels. 4. The angels. So F G H M. 



favourthisinterpretation:cf.Is.xiv.ii- not so described. 4. It is to be 
13. 5. In this rigorous punishment in observed that in the Similitudes the 
store for them neither angel nor man Satans and the fallen angels are care- 
suffers but those Satans (?) only. fully distinguished : the latter fall in 
LXIX. 1. See Crit. Note. 2. The the days of Jared according to i- 
list of names here is essentially the xxxvi and xci-civ. In this chapter, 
same as in vi. 7, but that the thirteenth however, the functions of these two 
name is superfluous: see Din. on vi. 7. classes are confused. It is Azazel in 
In vi. 7 the names are said to be i-xxxvi who is the cause of all the 
those of the chiefs, but here they are corruption upon earth, and Semjaza 



Sect, ii.] Chapters LX VIII. 5 — LXIX. 12. 179 

and brought them down to the earth and led them astray 
through the daughters of men. 5. And the second is called 
Asbeel : he imparted to the children of the holy angels the 
evil counsel and led them astray so that they defiled their 
bodies with the daughters of men. 6. And the third is 

called Gadreel : he it is who has taught the children of men 
all the blows of death, and he led astray Eve, and showed to 
the sons of men the weapons of death and the coat of mail, 
and the shield, and the sword for battle, and all the weapons 
of death to the children of men. 7. And from his hand 
they have proceeded over those who dwell on the earth from 
that hour for evermore. 8. And the fourth is called 

Penemue : he taught the children of men the bitter and the 
sweet, and taught them all the secrets of their wisdom. 
9. And he instructed mankind in writing with ink and paper, 
and thereby many sinned from eternity to eternity and until 
this day. 10. For it was not intended when man was 

created (lit. ' men are not created to the end ') that he should 
give confirmation to his good faith with pen and ink in such 
wise. it. For man was created exactly like the angels to 
the intent that he should continue righteous and pure, and 
death which destroys everything could not have taken hold of 
him, but through this their knowledge they are perishing and 
through this power (of knowledge) it (death) is consuming 
me. 12. And the fifth is called Kasdeja : he has taught 

Other MSS. 'the holy angels.' 12. For WH-h&h G reads WthVk, 



in the interpolated passage vi. 3. exactly like the angels. Man was 

Jequn = < the inciter': Asbeel = ' the originally righteous and immortal: 

deserter from God.' 6. Gadreel cf. Book of Wisdom, i. 13, 14; ii. 23, 

is evidently a Satan as he led astray 24. This is also the doctrine of the 

Eve. In viii. 1 the making of weapons Talmud, Weber, L.d.T. 208, 214, 

of war is ascribed to Azazel. 9, 239. Man lost his uprightness and 

10. Though the invention of the art immortality through the envy of the 

of writing is ascribed to an evil spirit, devil, Wisdom ii. 24, through the evil 

the writer does not seem to condemn knowledge introduced by the Satans 

it save in so far as it is used as a or angels, En. lxix. II, through his 

safeguard against the bad faith of own evil act, xcviii. 4. 12. Cf. 

men. 11. Man was created Rosenmliller's Scholia on Ps. xci. 5, 6, 

N % 



1 80 The Book of Enoch. [Sect. II. 

the children of men all the wicked smitings of spirits and 
demons, and the smitings of the embryo and the babe, that it 
may pass away, and the smitings of the soul, the bites of the 
serpent, and the smitings which befall at noon, the son of the 
serpent named Taba't. 13. And this is the number of 

Kesbeel, who showed the head of the oath to the holy ones 
when he dwelt high above in glory, and its name is Beqa. 
14. And this (angel) requested Michael to show him the 
hidden name, that they might mention it in the oath, so that 
those who revealed all that was hidden to the children of 
men might quake before that name and oath. 15. And 

this is the power of that oath, for it is powerful and strong, 
and he placed this oath Akae in the hand of Michael. 1 6. 

And these are the secrets of this oath, and the heaven was 
made strong through the oath, and was suspended before 
the world was created and for ever : 17. And through it 

the earth was founded upon the water, and from the secret 
recesses of the mountains come beautiful waters from the 
creation of the world unto eternity. 18. And through that 



and this I have followed. 13. The number of Kesbeel. Halle vi 
(Journ. Asiat. p. 383; 1867) suggests that for *}*A4 M * there stood 
iTppB which means either ' number ' or • charge.' Hence, ' this 
is the charge of Kesbeel,' i. e. to remind the other angels of the 
oath by which they were bound. 14. Show him the hidden 

name. So G M. Other MSS. give ' show them the hidden name.' 
After these words Din. and all MSS. but G M insert ' that thus 
they might see that hidden name and/ I have followed G. M has a 
clause peculiar to itself. 16. Was made strong. So G 0J«0. Din. 
reads RlO* ' they were strong . . . and the heaven was suspended.' 
17. Beautiful waters. SoAEFGHIN and practically M. Din. 



which according to ancient Jewish Heaven was suspended : cf. Job 

interpretation treated of demonic dan- xxvi. 7 for a similar expi'ession regard- 

gers. The serpent named Tab&'t. ing the earth. 17. Earth was 

I know nothing about this name. founded upon the water: cf. Pss. 

13. See Crit. Note : cf. xli. 5. I do xxiv. 2; cxxxvi. 6. From the secret 

not pretend to interpret this and recesses of the mountains come 

many of the following verses. 16. beautiful waters : cf. Ps. civ. 10, 13, 



Sect. II.] Chapter LXIX. 13-26. 181 

oath the sea was created, and as its foundation He laid for it 
the sand against the time of (its) anger, and it dare not pass 
beyond it from the creation of the world unto eternity. 

19. And through that oath are the depths made fast, and 
abide and stir not from their place from eternity to eternity. 

20. And through that oath the sun and moon complete their 
course, and deviate not from the path prescribed to them from 
eternity to eternity. 21. And through that oath the stars 
complete their course, and He calls them by their names, 
and they answer Him from eternity to eternity. 22. And 
in like manner the spirits of the water, and of the winds, and 
of all zephyrs, and the paths of all the bands of the spirits. 
23. And in it are preserved the voices of the thunder and the 
light of the lightnings ; and in it are preserved the chambers 
of the hail and of the hoar-frost, and the chambers of the mist 
and the chambers of the rain and the dew. 24. And all 
these believe and give thanks before the Lord of Spirits and 
glorify (Him) with all their power, and their food is nothing 
save thanksgiving : they thank and glorify and extol the 
name of the Lord of Spirits for ever and ever. 25. And 
this oath is mighty over them and through it they are pre- 
served, and their paths are preserved, and their course is not 
destroyed.] 26. And there was great joy amongst them, 
and they blessed and glorified and extolled because the name 



gives 'beautiful waters for the living.' 20. To eternity: wanting 
in G. 22. For winds G gives wrongly ' souls/ by a change in one 
letter. 23. The voices of the thunder. So G M. Other MSS., 
' the chambers of the voices of the thunder.' 26. And extolled : 



18. As its foundation He laid for similar thought. 26-29. These 
it the sand, &c. : cf. Jer. v. 22; Job verses form the conclusion of the 
xxvi. 10 ; Ps. civ. 9, &c. 19. The third similitude. We have again re- 
depths made fast : cf. Prov. viii. 28. turned to the chief theme of the third 
21. Calls them by their names : cf. similitude. It is not improbable that 
xliii. 1 (note). 23. Cf. Crit. Note, the interpolator omitted part of this 
Chambers of the hail, &c. : cf. lx. similitude and replaced it with his 
11, 19-21. 24. Cf. xli. 7 for a own additions. 26. Because the 



i $2 The Book of Enoch. [Sect. II. 

of the Son of Man was revealed unto them: 27. And 
he sat on the throne of his glory, and the sum of judgment 
was committed unto him, the Son of Man, and he caused the 
sinners and those who have led the world astray to pass away 
and be destroyed from off the face of the earth. 28. With 
chains shall they be bound, and in their assemblage-place of 
destruction shall they be imprisoned, and all their works 
vanish from the face of the earth. 29. And from hence- 

forth there will be nothing that is corruptible ; for the Son of 
Man has appeared and sits on the throne of his glory, and all 
evil will pass away before his face and depart ; but the word 
of the Son of Man will be strong before the Lord of Spirits. 
This is the third Similitude of Enoch. 

LXX. 1. And it came to pass after this that his name was 
carried aloft during his lifetime to the Son of Man and to the 
Lord of Spirits from amongst those who dwell on the earth. 
2. And he was carried aloft on the chariots of the spirit and 



wanting in G. 27. For fatffti £T*f G wrongly J&^ftl 28. 
Imprisoned. Before ^OBCO* G M insert H. 29. The word. 

For i74« FGIMO and originally N read &?$<; and for J&JO0 
read w£XiO. For KlXrt. G reads *lXA.t 'Son of the Woman/ 
LXX. 1. And to the Lord. So G. Other MSS. omit 'and.' 



name of the Son of Man was re- LXX. This chapter forms the con- 

vealed. This is obscure. Cf. for a elusion as xxxvii forms the introduc- 

difFerent use of the phrase, xlviii. 7 ; tion of the Similitudes. There is 

lxii. 7. 27. He, i. e. the Messiah, certainly some awkwardness in the 

On the throne of his glory : see xlv. author making Enoch describe his own 

3 (note). The sum of judgment, i.e. translation; but this in itself forms 

all judgment: cf. St. John v. 22, 27. no valid reason for obelizing the 

The sinners. Though the Similitudes chapter, as in every other respect it 

are directed chiefly against the kings is quite in keeping with the thought 

and the mighty ones, the author re- of the Similitudes. 1. His name, 

turns repeatedly to the judgment of The name here stands for the person, 

sinners in general : cf. xxxviii. 1,2,3; The actual pre-existence of the Son of 

xli. 2 ; xlv. 2, 5, 6 ; [1. 2 ;] liii. 2, 7 ; Man is here supposed : cf. xlviii. 2 

lxii. 2, 13. From off the face of the (note). Son of Man : cf. xlvi. 2 

earth : cf. xxxviii. 1 (note). 28. Cf. (note). Those who dwell on the 

liii-vi. 29. This verse summarises earth : cf. xxxvii. 5 (note). 2. 

shortly such a chapter as xlix. Chariots of the spirit : cf. 2 Kings 



Sect. IL] Chapters LXIX. 2 7 — LXXI. 1 . 183 

the name vanished amongst men (lit. ' them'). 3. And from 
that day I was no longer numbered amongst them, and he set 
me between the two winds, between the North and the West, 
where the angels took the cords to measure for me the place 
for the elect and righteous. 4. And there I saw the first 
fathers and the righteous who from the beginning dwell in 
that place. 

[LXXI. 1. And it came to pass after this that my spirit 

3. Was no longer numbered amongst them. So G ^rflfrflfr- 
by a slip for •fdi(\<\h: This is obviously the right reading, of 
which 1ilA*(tfl- = 'I was drawn or dragged' (so Din.) is a cor- 
ruption. I M give the same text as Din., but by a later hand. 




ii. 11. This is an account of Enoch's 
translation: cf.lxxxvii. 3,4; lxxxix. 52. 
3. Numbered : see Crit. Note. Be- 
tween the North and the West. 
According to xxxii. 2-6 Paradise lay 
in the East : according to lxxvii. 3 in 
the North: see lx. 8 (note). The 
cords: cf. lxi. 4. Paradise is 

already peopled with his righteous 
forefathers. This agrees perfectly 
with lxi. 12, which speaks of the elect 
being already in Paradise. Thus in 
the Similitudes the chronology of the 
LXX.is followed,whereas in the Inter- 
polations it is the Samaritan reckon- 
ing that is adopted. Cp. liv. 7 (note). 
{ l LXXI. This chapter is most cer- 
tainly a later addition. It is alien 
alike in thought and phraseology to 
the Similitudes. Outwardly indeed 
there is a resemblance in phraseology 
but it is not real, for the technical 
terms of the Similitudes which are 
incorporated in this chapter are 
wrongly used in almost every in- 
stance. This chapter was probably 
added by the same hand that inter- 
polated the Noachic fragments. Some 
of the grounds for the above conclu- 
sion are: — (1) The transcendence of 
God, of which we have hardly any 



consciousness in the Similitudes, is 
here portrayed in the severest manner. 
The distance between God and even 
the righteous Enoch in this chapter 
is immeasurable, whereas in the 
Similitudes earth and heaven are 
made one community through the 
Messiah, and God and the Son of 
Man dwell with men. (2) The descrip- 
tion of the crystal palace of fire, lxxi. 
5, 6, is borrowed from xiv. 9-17, but 
in the hands of the interpolator this 
account of the theophany becomes an 
idle transformation scene, a mere 
tableau vivant — God utters not a 
word, it is only an angel that ad- 
dresses Enoch. (3) There is abso- 
lutely no evidence to show that the 
writer of the Similitudes was ac- 
quainted with i-xxxvi, though Din. 
has thrown out this supposition, 
Herzog, E. E. xii. 351, whereas the 
dependence of the writer of this 
chapter on i-xxxvi is demonstrable. 
(4) Enoch's guide is no longer the 
angel of peace as in the Similitudes, 
but Michael, lxxi. 3. (5) The title 
4 Son of Man ' is used in an absolutely 
different sense in this chapter — exactly 
indeed as it is in the Noachic frag- 
ments: see lx. 10 (note). We may 



1 84 



The Book of Enoch, 



[Sect. IT. 

was hidden and it ascended into the heavens : (there) I saw the 
sons of the holy angels stepping on flames of fire : their 
garments were white and their raiment and their faces shone 
like snow. %. And I saw two streams of fire, and the light 
of that fire shone like hyacinth, and I fell on my face before 
the Lord of Spirits. 3. And the angel Michael, one of the 
archangels, seized me by my right hand and lifted me up and 
introduced me to all the secrets of mercy and the secrets of 
righteousness. 4. And he showed me all the secrets of 

the ends of the heaven, and all the chambers of all the stars, 
and of the luminaries, whence they proceed into the presence 
of the holy ones. 5. And the spirit translated Enoch unto 



LXXI. 1. Sons of the holy angels. So AEFGHIMN. 
Other MSS. and Din. ' sons of the angels/ Their faces shone 
like snow. C G O and originally L *HVf\ Other MSS. and 
Din. « the light of their faces was like snow.' 5. For m>*i&X\\ 



indeed have here a deliberate per- 
version of this phrase as it appears 
in the Similitudes : see xlvi. 2, 3 
(notes), and this is possible for the 
following reason. (6) lxxi. 14, ' Thou 
art the Son of Man who art born unto 
righteousness and righteousness abides 
over thee,' is an application to Enoch 
of the words used of the Son of Man 
in xlvi. 3. (7) The writer of the 
Similitudes uses Daniel's phrase, 
'Head of Days,' most appositely in 
connexion with the question of judg- 
ment : cf. xlvi. 1 (note). Not so the 
interpolator ; he violates the technical 
sense of the phrase, and incorporates 
it merely to give verisimilitude to his 
additions. (8) lxxi. 17 betrays the 
hand of an interpolator who either 
did not know or else ignored the fact 
that eternal life was the lot of the 
righteous in the Similitudes: see 
xxxvii. 4 (note). This verse probably 
shows the writer's acquaintance with 
i- 5 5 x. 17; xxv. 6. (9) Finally, it 
is quite unfitting that Enoch should 



have visions such as are recounted in 
this chapter after his translation into 
Paradise. 1. The note of time 

here is meaningless with regard to 
the Similitudes. Sons of the holy 
angels. This is practically the same 
phrase as in lxix. 5: cf. lxix. 4 
'children of the angels,' and cvi. 5 
'children of the angels of heaven.' 
The expression is to be referred to 
B^JS *&• wner e the Elohim are 
interpreted as angels. 2. Streams 
of fire: cf. xiv. 19; Dan. vii. 10; 
also ver. 6 of this chapter. These 
streams really proceed from beneath 
the throne. 3. Secrets of mercy. 
The mercy of God is often referred 
to in the additions : cf. 1. 3-5 ; 
lx. 5, 25. 4. We have seen that 

it was necessary to regard the verses 
and chapters dealing with natural 
phenomena, such as xli. 3-8, xliii, 
xliv, as intrusions into the text. The 
reference here to physical secrets con- 
nects the writer of this chapter more or 
less directly with those just mentioned. 



Sect. II.] Chapter LXXI. 2-14. 185 

the heaven of heavens, and I saw there in the midst of that 
light a structure built of crystals, and between those crystals 
flames of living fire. 6. And my spirit saw how a fire girt 
that house around — on its four sides streams full of living 
fire, and how they encircled that house. 7. And round 

about were Seraphim, Cherubim, and Ophanim : these are 
they who sleep not and guard the throne of His glory. 8. 

And I saw angels who could not be counted, a thousand 
thousands, and ten thousand times ten thousand (and they) 
encircled that house, and Michael and Gabriel and Rufael and 
Fanuel and the holy angels who are above in the heavens go 
in and out of that house. 9. And there came forth from 

that house Michael and Gabriel, Rufael and Fanuel, and many 
holy angels without number. 10. And with them the 

Head of Days, His head white and pure as wool and His 
raiment indescribable. 11. And I fell on my face and my 

whole body melted away, but my spirit was transfigured ; 
and I cried with a loud \oice with the spirit of power and 
blessed and glorified and extolled. 1 2. And these blessings 
which went forth out of my mouth were well pleasing before 
that Head of Days. 13. And that Head of Days came 

with Michael and Gabriel, Rufael and Fanuel, and with 
thousands and ten thousand thousands — angels without 
number. 14. And he came to me and greeted me with his 
voice, and said unto me : l Thou art the son of man who art 



AZFtl G reads aff\lM\ aOTfc. 14. He. So G M. Other 

MSS. and Din. read 'that angel.' Who art born. Din. wrongly 



5, 6. Cf. xiv. 9-17. 7. Cheru- two clauses are practically word for 

bim, Seraphim, and Ophanim : cf. word the same as the last two clauses 

lxi. 10, 12; xxxix. 13; xl. 2. 8. oflx. 3. Spirit was transfigured. 

A thousand thousands, &c. : cf. xiv. Distinguish this from xxxix. 14, and 

22; xl. 1. Go in and out. This is cf. Asc. Is. vii. 25. Spirit of 

not so in xiv. 23. Michael, Gabriel, power : cf. lxi. 1.1. 14. And he, 

&o.: see xl. 4-7. 10. The Head i.e. 'Michael': see Crit. Note. It 

of Days: see (7) of the introductory is not God Himself who speaks : cf. 

criticism on this chapter, also xlvi. 1 ver. 15. Thou art the son of man: 

(note) ; Dan. vii. 9. 11. The first see (5) and (6) of the introductory 



1 86 The Book of Enoch. 

born unto righteousness, and righteousness abides over thee 
and the righteousness of the Head of Days forsakes thee not/ 
15. And he said unto me : 'His word for thee is (lit. ' He calls 
unto thee') peace in the name of the world to come ; for from 
thence proceeds peace since the creation of the world, and so 
will it be with thee for ever and ever and ever. 16. And 
all who in the time to come walk in thy ways — thou whom 
righteousness never forsaketh — their dwelling-places will be 
with thee and their heritage will be with thee, and they will 
not be separated from thee for ever and ever and ever. 
17. And so there will be length of days with that Son of 
Man and the righteous will have peace, and the righteous 
his path of uprightness in the name of the Lord of Spirits 
for ever and ever/] 



der . . . gehoren ist/ And righteousness : wanting in G. 



criticism on this chapter and the The world to come, i. e. the Olam 

references there given. 15. He habba, the Messianic kingdom. 17- 

calls unto thee peace. Quoted Length of days. See (8) of the 

in Test. Dan. 5 fio&v ifuv elpqvqv. introductory criticism on this chapter. 



SECTION III. 
(chapters LXXII — LXXXII.) 

THE BOOK OF CELESTIAL PHYSICS. INTRODUCTION. 

A. Its Critical Structure and Object. B. Its Independence of 
i-xxxvi. C. Its Calendar and the knowledge therein implied. 

A. Critical Structure and Object. Chapter lxxii intro- 
duces us to a scientific treatise. In this treatise the writer 
attempts to bring the many utterances regarding physical pheno- 
mena into one system, and puts this forward as the genuine and 
biblical one as opposed to all other systems. The paramount, 
and indeed the only aim of this book according to lxxii. i, is 
to give the laws of the heavenly bodies, and this object it pursues 
undeviatingly from its beginning to lxxix. i, where it is said that 
the treatise is finished and all the laws of the heavenly bodies 
set forth. Through all these chapters there is not a single ethical 
reference. The author has no other interest save a scientific 
one coloured by Jewish conceptions and beliefs. As a Jew he 
upholds the accuracy of the moon as a divider of time, lxxiv. 1 2 : 
1 The moon brings in all the years exactly, so that their position 
is not prematurely advanced or delayed by a single day unto 
eternity.' And this order is inflexible : there will be no change 
in it till the new creation, lxxii. 1. So far, then, we have to 
deal with a complete and purely scientific treatise, in which 
there is no breach of uniformity till the new creation. But the 
moment we have done with lxxix, we pass into a new atmosphere. 
The whole interest is ethical and nothing else: there is, indeed, 
such a thing as an order of nature, but, owing to the sin of men, 
this order is more conspicuous in its breach than in its observance, 
lxxx. 2-8, and even that infallible luminary the moon (lxxiv. 1 2) 
becomes a false guide and misleader of men, lxxx. 4. 



1 88 The Book of Enoch. [Sect. ill. 

Chapter lxxx, therefore, is manifestly an addition, made to give 
an ethical turn to a purely scientific treatise, and so furnish it 
with some fitness for its present collocation. Before passing on 
to lxxxi, we may remark that not only does the general tendency 
of lxxx. 1-6 conflict with the preceding chapters, but the only 
exact specification ventured on by the interpolator in lxxx. 5 
is in glaring contradiction with lxxvi. 13. Yet see notes on 
lxxx. 5. 

Nor, again, can lxxxi belong to this book. Before entering 
on this question, however, let us consider lxxxii. 1-8, which forms, 
according to most critics, the close of this treatise, vv. 9-20 being 
regarded as a Noachic interpolation, but wrongly : see lxxxii. 9 
(note). These verses lxxxii. 1-8 manifestly do belong to lxxii- 
lxxix. The same formula occurs in lxxxii. 1, 'my son Methuselah,' 
as in lxxvi. 14 and in lxxix. 1 (according to some MBS.). The 
wisdom dealt with in lxxxii. 1-8 is the same scientific lore as in 
lxxii-lxxix. And the blessing of the author of lxxxii. 1-8 is for 
the man who sins not in calculating the seasons, lxxxii. 4. 

lxxii-lxxix and lxxxii constitute the original book of Celestial 
Physics. But, whereas the blessing of the author of lxxii-lxxix, 
lxxxii is for the man who knows the right reckoning of the years, 
the blessing of lxxxi. 4 is for the man ' who dies in righteousness, 
concerning whom no book of unrighteousness is written.' These 
two blessings, in fact, give the keynote of their respective contents 
of the book of Celestial Physics and lxxxi, and disclose the motives 
of their respective authors. This chapter did not, any more than 
lxxx, belong to this treatise originally. In fact, we find on 
examination that it is of the nature of a mosaic, and came prob- 
ably from the editor of the complete Enoch. The phrase ' Those 
three angels/ in lxxxi. 5, points to some previous statement 
apparently ; but none such is to be found. The words are evi- 
dently drawn from lxxxvii. 3, where they occur exactly as here, 
hut with an explanation. The heavenly tables in lxxxi. 1, 2 come 
from xciii. 2, ciii. 2. The expression ' Lord of the world ' may 
be suggested by lxxxii. 7, ' Lord of the whole creation of the 
world.' The 'books of judgment' in lxxxi. 4 are drawn from 
lxxxix. 61, 64, &c. 

Again, we observe that lxxxi. 5, 6 are written with reference 
to lxxxii. 1, 2 and xci. 1. This latter verse introduces the section 
beginning in the present form of Enoch with xci. We shall see 
later that xci does not really form the beginning of the last book 



Sect. III.] Introduction. 189 

of Enoch, but that it has been dislocated from its right position 
by the author of lxxxi to serve his editorial purposes. 

Finally, with regard to Ixxxii, it is evident that it does not 
stand in its original position. The Book of Celestial Physics 
rightly concludes with lxxix, which closes thus : ' This is the 
picture and sketch of every luminary as they were shown to me 
by their leader, the great angel Uriel.' Ixxxii must have preceded 
this chapter originally, and probably immediately. After the 
long disquisition on the stars in Ixxxii, the first words of lxxix 
would come in most appropriately: 'And now, my son, I have 
shown thee everything, and the law of all the stars of tlue heaven 
is completed.' If Ixxxii does not precede, these words have prac- 
tically no justification in lxxii-lxxviii. The final editor of the 
whole book was fond of such dislocations. There has been a like 
rearrangement of xci-xciii. 

B. Its Independence of i-xxxvi. (1) In i. 2 % the revela- 
tion of Enoch is not for the present, but for remote generations : 
in xciii. 10 it is to remain a secret till the seventh week of the 
world : in civ. 12 it is one day to be disclosed. But in Ixxxii. 1 
the revelations are entrusted to Methuselah to be transmitted 
to the generations of the world. (2) In xxxiii. 3 Uriel writes 
down everything for Enoch, but in lxxii. 1, lxxiv. 2, Ixxv. 3, 
lxxix. 2-6 Uriel only shows the celestial phenomena to Enoch, 
and Enoch himself writes them down, Ixxxii. 1. (3) The descrip- 
tion of the winds coming from different quarters in xxxiv-xxxvi 
differs from that in lxxvi. (4) The heavenly bodies are partly 
conscious in i-xxxvi: cf. xviii. 12-16, xxi. 1-6; but not so 
in lxxii-lxxxii. (5) The portals of the stars in xxxvi. 2 are 
described as small portals above the portals of the winds. As in 
lxxii-lxxxii these portals are also those of the sun and moon, they 
can hardly be called ■ small,' being each equal to thirty degrees in 
width. Besides, though described at great length in lxxii-lxxxii, 
they are never said to be ' above ' those of the winds. (6) The 
river of fire in xxiii, in which the luminaries set and recruit their 
exhausted fires, has no point of connexion with lxxii-lxxxii. 
(7) In xxxii. 2, 3 the Garden of Eden lies in the east : in 
lxxvii. 3 in the north. There is undoubtedly some relationship 
between the later chapters of i-xxxvi and lxxii-lxxxii ; but it is 
not that of one and undivided authorship. 

C. Its Calendar and the knowledge therein implied. 
The chronological system of this book is most perplexing. It 



1 90 The Book of Enoch. [Sect. ill. 

does not in its present form present a consistent whole, and 
probably never did. "We are not to regard it as anything more 
than the attempt of an individual to establish an essentially 
Hebrew calendar over against the heathen calendars in vogue 
around. In itself this calendar cannot be said to have any 
value. It is useful, however, as giving us some knowledge of 
the chronological systems more or less known to the Palestinean 
Jews. For (1) the writer is acquainted with the signs of the 
zodiac, but carefully refrains from mentioning them, replacing 
them by his system of portals. (2) He is acquainted with the 
spring and autumn equinoxes and the summer and winter 
solstices. (3) He knows apparently the length of the synodic 
months (cf. lxxviii. 15, 16), which was not published till the time 
of Gamaliel II, 80-115 a.d. (4) His attempt to reconcile the 
lunar year and his peculiar year of 364 days by intercalations, in 
the third, fifth, and eighth years, furnishes strong presumption 
that he had the Greek eight-year cycle before him, and the pre- 
sumption becomes a certainty when we consider that, whereas 
every detail in the Greek cycle is absolutely necessary to the end 
desired, in the Enochian system, on the other hand, though these 
details are more or less reproduced, they are absolutely idle, as 
Enoch's system is really a one-year cycle, and the lunar year is 
reconciled to his solar year of 364 days by the addition of ten 
days each year: cf. lxxiv. 13-16. (5) He alludes to the seventy- 
six years' cycle of Calippus, lxxix. 5 (note). 

The writer puts forward a year of 364 days, but this he did 
only through sheer incapacity for appreciating anything better; 
for he must have been acquainted with the solar year of 365^ 
days. His acquaintance with the Greek cycles shows this. More- 
over, in the Slavonic Enoch the year of 365^ days is distinctly 
taught. It is surprising also that any writer under cloak of 
Enoch's name should fix upon a year of 364 days, as Enoch was 
early regarded as the teacher of the solar year of 365 days, owing 
to the significant duration of his life. And our surprise is not 
lessened when we consider that all the surrounding nations and 
peoples — the Egyptians, Persians, Arabs, Cappadocians, Lycians, 
Bithynians, the inhabitants of Gaza and Ascalon — observed a year 
of 365 days. But this year was generally a moveable year of 
365 days exactly, and consequently one in which New Year's day 
ran through all the days of the year in the course of 1461 such 
years, and the festivals continually changed their season. Now 



Sect. III.] Chapter LXXII. i, 2. 191 

the writer of Enoch recommends his year of 364 days especially 
on the ground that the position of the years is not prematurely 
advanced or delayed by a single day, lxxiv. 12. It was, therefore, 
nothing but his national prejudices, and possibly his stupidity, 
that prevented him, knowing as he did the Greek systems, from 
seeing that only a year of 365^ days could effect such a result. 
As for Wieseler's theory that the writer held to a year of 364 days 
with one intercalary day each year, and one every fourth year, 
there is no evidence for it in the text. The author's reckoning 
of the year at 364 days may be partly due to his opposition to 
heathen systems, and partly to the fact that 364 is divisible by 
seven, and amounts to fifty-two weeks exactly. 

TRANSLATION. 

LXXII. 1. The Book of the courses of the luminaries of 
the heaven and the relations of each, according to their 
classes, their dominion and their seasons, according to their 
names and places of origin, and according to their months, 
which the holy angel Uriel, who was with me, who was their 
leader, showed me ; and he showed me all their laws exactly 
as they are, and how it is with regard to all the years of the 
world and unto eternity till the new creation is accomplished 
which dureth till eternity. 2. And this is the first law of 

the luminaries : the luminary the Sun has its rising in the 
eastern portals of the heaven, and its setting in the western 



LXXII. 1. As in the Similitudes, days and nights thereby occasioned, 

the superscription of this book is far Portals. The subject of the portals 

from accurately describing its contents. has already to some extent appeared 

Dominion : cf. lxxv. 3 ; lxxxii. 8-20. in xxxiii-xxxvi. But observe that, 

Names : cf. lxxviii. 1,2. Places of though portals of the winds and 

origin. Probably their places of portals of the stars are there described, 

rising. The new creation : cf. xlv. there is no mention of portals of the 

4; xci. 15, 16 ; Is. lxv. 17; lxvi. 22 ; sun and moon. According to lxxii- 

II Peter iii. 13 ; Rev. xxi. 1. All lxxxii, the sun, moon, and stars pass 

the laws of the heavenly bodies given through the same portals : can this 

in this book are valid till the new hold true of xxxiii-xxxvi, where the 

creation. 2. This verse introduces portals of the stars are said to be 

an account of the sun in its progress small and situated above the portals 

through the signs of the zodiac and of the wind? Moreover, in lxxii. 6 

the increase and decrease of the one of the sun's portals is called 



192 The Book of Enoch. [Sect. in. 

portals of the heaven. 3. And I saw six portals out of 

which the sun rises, and six portals in which the sun sets : 
the moon also rises and sets through these portals, and the 
leaders of the stars and those led by them : six in the east 
and six in the west following each other in accurately cor- 
responding order : also many windows to the right and left of 
these portals. 4. And first there goes forth the great 

luminary, named the sun, and his circumference is like the 
circumference of the heaven, and he is quite filled with illu- 
minating and heating fire. 5. The chariots on which he 
ascends are driven by the wind, and the sun disappears from 
the heaven as he sets and returns through the north in order 
to reach the east, and is so guided that he comes to the 
appropriate (lit. 'that') portal and shines in the face of the 
heaven. 6. In this way he rises in the first month in 
the great portal, and indeed rises through the fourth of those 
six portals in the east. 7. And in that fourth portal 
through which the sun rises in the first month are twelve 
window-openings from which proceeds a flame when they are 
opened in their season. 8. When the sun rises in the 

'great.' 3. Leaders of the stars : a semi-conscious existence ; this is not 

see lxxv. 1 (note). "Windows : cf. so in lxxii-lxxxii. 6. In the 

ver. 7; lxxv. 7. Right and left, i.e. first month. The writer begins his 

south and north, according to the description of the sun's course with 

familiar Hebrew use. 4. Cf. xli. the first Hebrew month Abib (cf. 

5-7, where the conception seems to Exod. xiii. 4), the time of the spring 

be different. His circumference. equinox. This month, called generally 

The sun is clearly circular : cf. lxxiii. after the Captivity Nisan (cf. Neh. 

2 ; lxxviii. 3 ; also xviii. 4 ; lxxviii. 4. ii. 1), was the first month of the eccle- 

It is doubtful: whether he is conceived siastical year, and corresponds to our 

of as a sphere or merely as a disc. April. The civil year began with 

I have translated on the latter sup- Tishri, or October. The great 

position. 5. The sun, as also the portal. So called in contradistinction 

other heavenly bodies, traverses the from the ' window-openings ' in the 

heaven in a chariot, lxxiii. 2, lxxv. next verse. Yet these portals are 

3, 8, driven by the wind, xviii. 2, called 'small' in xxxvi. 2. 7. 

lxxiii. 2. Through the north : cf. Twelve window-openings. There 

xli. 5. Is guided. Possibly by an are twelve such at every portal : cf. 

angel. In the Slavonic Enoch several lxxii. 3 ; lxxv. 7. The flame is the 

angels precede the sun on his course. source of heat: cf. lxxv. 7. 8. The 

In i-xxxvi the heavenly bodies have author's system, whereby he seeks to 



Sect. III.] 



Chapter LXXIL 3-1 1. 



193 



heaven, he comes forth through that fourth portal thirty 
mornings in succession and sets directly opposite in the 
fourth portal in the west of the heaven. 9. And during 
this period day becomes longer than day and night shorter 
than night to the thirtieth morning. 10. And on that day the 
day is two parts longer than the night, and the day amounts 
exactly to ten parts and the night to eight parts. 11. And 



LXXII. 10. Two parts longer than the night. 
'Vh'ii'l &.£, i.e. 'two ninth parts longer than the night.' 



G 



adds 
The 



replace the heathen conception of the 
sun's revolution through the signs of 
the zodiac by a scheme founded as 
he believes on the O.T., is as follows. 
There are six portals in the east 
through which the sun rises in the 
course of the year, and six in the 
west in which he sets. The first 
portal forms the most southern point 
of the sun's journey, and the sixth 
portal the most northern. During the 
first six months, from the shortest 
day to the longest, the sun advances 
from the first portal to the sixth, and 
conversely, from the longest day to 
the shortest, he returns from the sixth 
portal to the first. In each portal 
the sun rises and sets one month in 
his journey northwards, and likewise 
rises and sets for one month in each 
portal on his return journey. Thus 
arises the division of the year into 
twelve months. Moreover, during 
each month on his journey north- 
wards, the day daily grows longer 
and the night daily shorter, and this 
is owing to a daily change of position 
on the part of the sun within each 
gate. Of these different positions or 
stations of the sun there are 364. In 
this way the author seeks to dispense 
with the signs of the zodiac. The 
sun's northward journey from the 



first to the sixth portal corresponds 
with his course through the signs 
Capricornus, Aquarius, Pisces, Aries, 
Taurus, and Gemini ; and the sun's 
return journey from the sixth to the 
first portal corresponds with his course 
through Cancer, Leo, Virgo, Libia, 
Scorpio, and Sagittarius. Though 
perfectly acquainted with a year of 
365^ days, as we shall see later, the 
author reckoned it as consisting of 
364 days, partly possibly on anti- 
heathen grounds, and partly for the 
attractive reason that the sum total is 
divisible by seven, and thus represents 
52 sabbaths of days. The author's 
solar year of 364 days is made up 
of eight months of 30 days each, and 
four months of 31 days each — these 
latter corresponding with the spring 
and autumn equinoxes and the 
summer and winter solstices, or ac- 
cording to the system of our author 
with the sun's position in the first, 
third, fourth, and sixth portals. These 
four months have each 31 days 'on 
account of the sign,' i.e. that of the 
equinoxes or the solstices : cf. lxxii. 
13, 19. The author's division of the 
day into eighteen parts is possibly 
his own device, yet it may rest on 
traditions derived from northern Asia 
of the latitude of 49 , asKrieger sup- 



I94 The Book of Enoch. [Sect. ill. 

the sun rises from that fourth portal, and sets in the fourth, 
and returns to the fifth portal of the east thirty mornings in 
succession, and rises from and sets in the fifth portal. 1 2. 

Then the day becomes longer by two parts and amounts 
to eleven parts, and the night becomes shorter and amounts 
to seven parts. 13. And the sun returns to the east and 
enters into the sixth portal, and rises and sets in the sixth 
portal one and thirty mornings in succession on account of its 
sign. 14. And on that day the day becomes longer than 

the night, so that it amounts to double the night, i. e. twelve 
parts, and the night becomes shorter and amounts to six 
parts. 15. And the sun mounts up to make the day 

shorter and the night longer, and the sun returns to the east 
and enters into the sixth portal, and rises from it and sets 
thirty mornings. 16. And when thirty mornings have 

elapsed, the day decreases by exactly one part, and amounts 
to eleven parts, and the night to seven parts. 17. And the 
sun goes forth from that sixth portal in the west, and goes to 
the east and rises^or thirty mornings in the fifth portal, and 
sets in the west again in the fifth western portal. 18. On 

that day the day decreases by two parts and amounts to ten 
parts and the night to eight parts. 19. And the sun rises 

from that fifth portal and sets in the fifth portal of the west, 
and rises for one and thirty mornings in the fourth portal 
on account of its sign and sets in the west. 20. On that 
day the day is equalised to the night and becomes of equal 
length, and the day amounts to nine parts and the night to 
nine parts. 31. And the sun rises from that portal and 



night to eight parts. G adds 'exactly,' Tl*#. II. Fifth 

portal. G repeats these words wrongly at beginning of next 
verse. 13. For B(h£i Afrflfh G reads frflrh. One and 

thirty. G reads 'thirty/ 19. Bises in the fourth portal on 

account of its sign. G M read : ' rises in the fourth portal on 



poses, where the longest day is twice our author states it. 13. On ac- 

as long as the shortest night, just as count of its sign, i. e. that of the 



Sect, ILL] Chapter LXXII. 12-30. 195 

sets in the west, and returns to the east and rises thirty 
mornings in the third portal and sets in the west in the third 
portal. 22. And on that day the night becomes longer 
than the day, and night becomes longer than night, and day 
shorter than day till the thirtieth morning, and the night 
amounts exactly to ten parts and the day to eight parts. 

23. And the sun rises from that third portal and sets in the 
third portal in the west and returns to the east, and for thirty 
mornings rises in the second portal of the east, and in like 
manner sets in the second portal in the west of the heaven. 

24. And on that day the night amounts to eleven parts and 
the day to seven parts. 25. And the sun rises on that day 
from that second portal and sets in the west in the second 
portal and returns to the east into the first portal for one and 
thirty mornings, and sets in the west in the first portal. 
26. And on that day the night becomes longer and amounts 
to double the day : the night amounts exactly to twelve 
parts and the day to six. 27. The sun has (therewith) 
traversed the divisions of his orbit and turns again on that 
his orbit and enters that portal thirty mornings and sets also 
in the west opposite to it. 28. And on that day the night 
decreases in length by one part, and it amounts to eleven 
parts and the day to seven parts. 29. And the sun returns 
and enters into the second portal in the east and returns on 
that his orbit for thirty mornings, rising and setting. 30. 
And on that day the night decreases in length, and the night 



account of its sign ... in the fourth portal in the east.' 22. And 
night becomes longer than night. So G : Wfo&ffi Xy°A>(l/Vi 
ftah'}. FHILNO and Din. give 'till the thirtieth morning.' 
Till the thirtieth morning. So G Rdfh. Din. ' till the thirtieth 
day.' 25. In the west in the first portal. G reads : ft£hrtl 

ahihti Otfft O^O^Oi A"7J&. M 'in the west in the sixth 
portal/ 2 7 V Enters that portal. G reads: 'enters all the 

portals.' 28. On that day. F G read : ' on that night.' By 



summer solstice : cf. ver. 19 ; lxxv. 3 ; rises up to start on his return journey 
lxxviii. 7. 15. Mounts up or to the first portal. 22. See Crit. 

O 2 



196 The Book of Enoch. [Sect. Til. 

amounts to ten parts and the day to eight. 31. And on 

that day the sun rises from that second portal, and sets in the 
west, and returns to the east, and rises in the third portal for 
one and thirty mornings, and sets in the west of the heaven. 
32. On that day the night decreases and amounts to nine 
parts, and the day to nine parts, and the night is equal to the 
day, and the year amounts exactly to three hundred and sixty- 
four days. 33. And the length of the day and of the 
night, and the shortness of the day and of the night — through 
the course of the sun these distinctions arise (lit. ' they are 
separated '). 34. On that account its course by day becomes 
daily longer, and its course by night nightly shorter. 35. 
And this is the law and the course of the sun, and his return 
as often as he returns sixty times and rises, i.e. the great 
luminary which is named the sun, for ever and ever. 36. 
And that which thus rises is the great luminary, being so 
named according to its appearance, according to the command 
of the Lord. 37. As he rises so he sets and decreases not, 
and rests not, but runs day and night, and his light is 
sevenfold brighter than that of the moon ; but as regards 
size they are both equal. 

LXXIII. 1. And after this law I saw another law dealing 
with the smaller luminary, which is called the moon. 2. 



one part. G reads: 1*^t: XA "Ho*X*F; h$£Vg. 31. Second 
portal. ' Second ' wanting in G. 35. As often as he returns 

sixty times. So G, omitting the J&7»flX: AX11* of Dln/s text — 
1 As often as he returns : he returns sixty times.' The great 
luminary. So G M. Other MSS. and Din. * the great eternal 
luminary/ 37. As he rises, &c. So GM: (lh<n>; jB.tf>0X: 

(DhaDlli £ft(D-h. Night. After this word I omit with G M the 
phrase ' in the chariot ' (Din.). 



Note. 35. Sixty times. The being the extra day in the first, third, 

sun is one month in each portal on fourth, and sixth portals. 37. 

his northward journey, and one month Sevenfold brighter : cf. xci. 16 ; 

in each portal on his southward : Is. xxx. 26. As regards size . . . 

therefore two months in each portal. equal. So Lucretius believed. 

The author disregards for the time LXXIII. This and the following 



Sect. III.] Chapters LXXIL 31 — L XXIII. 5. 197 



Her circumference is like the circumference of the heaven, 
and her chariot in which she rides is driven by the wind and 
light is given to her in (definite) measure. 3. Her rising 

and setting changes every month : her days are like the days 
of the sun, and when her light is uniform (i. e. full) it amounts 
to the seventh part of the light of the sun. 4. And thus 

she rises. And her first phase in the east comes forth on the 
thirtieth morning : on that day she becomes visible, and con- 
stitutes for you the first phase of the moon on the thirtieth 
day together with the sun in the portal where the sun rises. 
5. And the one half of her projects by a seventh part, and 



LXXIII. 4. Thirtieth morning. G wrongly gives *?*?¥ 
portal/ Thirtieth day. So G M. Other MSS. and Din. 



chapter treat of the course of the 
moon. 3. Her rising and set- 
ting, i. e. the place of her rising 
and setting. Seventh, part of 

the light of the sun : cf. lxxii. 
37; lxxviii. 4. 4. Her first 

phase, lit. 'her beginning.' The moon 
on the first day of her reappearance 
is here the new moon in the popular 
sense, not the new moon strictly so 
called, which is invisible. Thirtieth 
morning, i. e. of the solar month. 
Together with the sun. The sun 
and moon are still in the same portal 
on the first day after conjunction, 
as each portal embraces an extent 
of 30 degrees, and the moon advances 
only 1 3 degrees daily. 5-8. The 

author's account of the phases of the 
moon is very hard to follow. His 
scheme seems to be as follows. The 
lunar month amounts to 30 days 
and 29 days alternately. It is divided 
into two parts : during the first part 
the moon waxes from new moon to 
full moon in 14 days when the month 
is 29 days, and in 15 when the month 
is 30 days. During the second part 
the moon wanes from full moon till 



she disappears, always, it would 
seem, in 15 days. Again, the author 
divides the moon into 14 parts, and 
explains the waxing of the moon by 
the successive lighting up of each 
one of the 14 parts by the sun, and 
the waning by the successive with- 
drawal of light from the 14 parts 
till it all disappears. But to proceed 
more exactly, where there are 15 
days from new moon to full moon, 
the author supposes an additional 
twenty-eighth part ; this part only is 
lighted up on the first day of such 
a month, whereas one fourteenth part 
is lighted up each day of the re- 
maining 14 days, till the moon be- 
comes full. The waning which ap- 
parently always takes 15 days is 
the reverse of this process. Again, 
where there are 14 days from new 
moon to full moon, the moon has 
at the end of the first day one four- 
teenth part + one twenty-eighth part, 
i.e. three twenty-eighths, and takes 
an additional fourteenth part of light 
each of the remaining 13 days. Ac- 
cording to the text above followed, 
vv. 5, 6 suppose the period from new to 



198 The Book of Enoch. [Sect. ill. 

her whole circumference is empty, without light, with the ex- 
ception of one seventh part of her and the fourteenth part of 
the half of her light. 6. And when she receives one seventh 
part of the half of her light, her light amounts to one seventh 



' thirtieth morning.' 5. With the exception of one seventh 

part of her and the fourteenth part of the half of her light. 
In this translation we have adopted the reading of G with two very- 
slight changes, the insertion of the conjunction (D and the trans- 
position of the words fn>*i&<fc X.£. The text of G is : HX1QA: 
fl-Cm-; X&fr; OwC-fi <MlOt: <n>"}£#; X£; -dCVl. This trans- 
position is supported by the fact that Dln.'s MSS. give X.£ 
immediately after the words of number and by the true reading 
in the next verse — rtil'JT; X.£; av*\&& 'seventh part of half.' 
Thus, ^th of it, i.e. of the half moon = xjth of whole moon, and 
Y^th of half moon = ^g-th of whole moon : thus, j^ ths of whole 
moon are lighted on the first day of new moon, when there are 
but fourteen days to the full moon. Dln.'s translation of his own 
text is, 'bis auf einen Siebentheil von seinen vierzehn Licht- 
theilen : ' i. e. ' one seventh part of her fourteen parts of light.' 
Din. says this is a clumsy expression, meaning ' one seventh of 
the half moon, which has seven parts, while the whole moon has 
fourteen parts.' But it is impossible to get such a meaning out 
of the German version, and, though the Ethiopic could also be 
rendered ' amongst her fourteen parts that could be lighted there 
is no light with the exception of its seventh part,' even so the 
sense is not good. Din., which is supported by F H L 0, is 
apparently an emendation of M, % X^": X^XOJgX^; •0C7'}, which 
gives a wrong sense. 6. And when she receives one seventh 

part of the half of her light, her light amounts to one seventh 
part and the half thereof. So G : <DflOA+; ^fc*"X: frdWi X.2: 



full moon to be 14 days, whereas ver. fourteenth part and one twenty-eighth, 

7 supposes this period to be 15 d;iys. but only the former: it seems, there- 

5. See Crit. Note. In this verse and fore, that the moon is supposed to 

the next the fractions are fractions have this one twenty-eighth to begin 

of half the moon. 6. Observe with. It is different in the case of 

when the period from new moon to the 15-day s' period. On the first day 

full moon is 14 days that it is not of such a period the moon receives 

said that the moon receives one one twenty-eighth part of light : see 



Sect. til] Chapters LXXIIL 6—LXXIV. i. 199 

part and the half thereof. 7. She sets with the sun, and 

when the sun rises the moon rises with him and receives the 
half of one part of light, and in that night in the beginning 
of her morning [in the beginning of her day] sets with the 
sun and is invisible that night with the entire fourteen parts 
and the half of one of them. 8. And she rises on that 

day with exactly a seventh part and comes forth and recedes 
from the rising of the sun, and in her remaining days she 
lightens up the (remaining) thirteen parts. 

LXXIV. 1. And I saw another course, and the law pre- 



So also M, but that it reads (D before ao~\&A>. There are here 
fourteen days to full moon. Other MSS. and Din. give, ' and when 
she receives one seventh part and the half of her light, her light 
amounts to one fourteenth part and the half thereof.' It is to be 
remarked here that in the first half of this sentence the parts are 
fractions of the half moon, whereas in the second half the parts 
are treated as fractions of the whole moon. But, granting this 
possible, the sense is idle. If A is B, then A is B, is all it states. 
7. In the beginning of her day. I have bracketed this as a 
gloss. With the entire fourteen parts. M reads, 'with the 
entire thirteen parts.' 8. The (remaining) thirteen parts. 

So GMN: H&M\ w(MVft\ X.2, but G omits the (D. In the 
beginning of this verse it is said that the moon rises with exactly 
a seventh part of half of her light : during the remaining days 
of her waxing, she lights up the remaining thirteen parts. 
FHILO and Din. give 'the remaining fourteen parts,' but 
this gives a wrong sense. 



ver. 7. 7, 8. Half of one part of to be invisible. On the second day 

light, i.e. one twenty-eighth. See she receives one fourteenth part of 

previous notes, and observe that in light, and becomes visible to that 

this verse the fractions are fractions extent. Thus the one twenty-eighth 

of the whole moon. These verses part is ignored as being practically 

suppose the case when there are 15 invisible. During the remaining 13 

days from new to full moon. On the days the moon receives daily one 

first day the moon receives one fourteenth part of light, 

twenty-eighth part of light, and has LXXIV. In this chapter the writer 

advanced to some slight degree out deals shortly with the waxing and 

of conjunction, but still practically waning of the moon, her monthly 

sets with the sun, and may be said change of position with regard to the 



200 The Book of Enoch. [Sect. in. 

scribed to her as she performed her monthly revolution accord- 
ing to that law. 2. And Uriel, the holy angel who is the 
leader of them all, showed everything to me, and I wrote 
down their positions as he showed them to me, and I wrote 
down their months (exactly) as they were and the appearance 
of their lights till fifteen days are expired. 3. In single 
seventh parts she waxes till her light is full in the east (lit. 
1 completes her entire light'') and wanes in single seventh parts 
till she is completely invisible in the west (lit. ' completes her 
entire darkness '). 4. And in certain months she alters her 
settings, and in certain months she pursues her own peculiar 
course. 5. And in two the moon sets with the sun, in those 
two middle portals the third and the fourth. 6. (That is) 
for seven days she goes forth and turns about and returns again 
through the portal where the sun rises; and in that portal 
her light is full and she recedes from the sun and in eight 
days enters the sixth portal from which the sun goes forth. 
7. And when the sun goes forth from the fourth portal she 
goes forth seven days, so that she goes forth from the fifth 
and turns back again in seven days into the fourth portal and 
her light becomes full, and she recedes and enters into the first 



LXXIV. 3. G reads : A % MWi K& V^RiT*! itfc -aCYVi 
&V>C<Pl (L?°0£*fl. Wanes in single seventh parts till she 



signs and the sun, and the difference forth as it waxes from the third portal 

between lunar and solar years. 2. through the signs to the first portal 

Of them all, i. e. the various phases in seven days, turns about, and re- 

of the moon. Fifteen days, i. e. from turns to the portal where the sun 

a conjunction till full moon or from rises, i. e. the third, in seven or eight 

full moon till a conjunction. 3. days, and there becomes full moon, 

Cf. lxxiii and lxxviii. 4. Her and proceeds thence through the 

own peculiar course, i. e. a course fourth and fifth to the sixth portal, 

independent of that of the sun. 5, where she arrives after eight days. 

6. During two months the moon sets Thence the moon returns to the third 

with the sun as new moon and as portal in seven days. 7, 8. The 

full moon. When the sun is in Aries scheme with regard to the fourth 

and Libra, the new moon and the full portal and the new moon. The 

moon are in the third and fourth moon proceeds to the sixth portal 

portals. In verse 6 the moon goes and returns to the fourth in 14 days, 



Sect. III.] Chapter LXXIV. 2-13. 201 

portal in eight days. 8. And she returns again in seven 

days into the fourth portal from which the sun goes forth. 
9. Thus I saw their positions, the sun rising and setting 
according to the order of their months. 10. And in those 

days the sun has an overplus of thirty days in five years 
taken together, and all the days which belong to one of those 
five full years amount to three hundred and sixty-four days. 
1 1 . And the overplus of the sun and of the stars amounts to six 
days : in five years, six days every year come to thirty days ; 
and the moon falls behind the sun and stars to the number of 
thirty days. 12. And the moon brings in all the years 

exactly, so that their position is not prematurely advanced or 
delayed by a single day unto eternity ; but (the moons) com- 
plete the changing years with perfect justice in three hundred 
and sixty-four days. 13. In three years there are one 



is completely invisible. Wanting in G M. 9. The sun rising 
and setting according to the order of their months. G M read : 
flhcn>; J&iPCfc Hat-Mi wWC-Ql Rffl£. 11. In five years, 

six days every year. G reads: A g *}cn>;H*; lift. 12. For 



and thence to the first portal and curacy of the moon as a time-divider 

back in 15 days. 10, 11. The against those who put forward the 

difference between the lunar and the solar year only. The Book of Jubilees 

solar year. According to lxxviii. 15, vi. protests against the use of the 

16, in a lunar year there are six lunar year. 13-16. We have here 

months of 30 days, and six months clearly a reference to the eight-year 

of 29 days each — in all 354 days. cycle or octaeteris. In this cycle an 

In a solar year there are 12 intercalary month of 30 days was 

months of 30 days each and four inserted in the third, fifth, and eighth 

intercalary days in the equinoxes and years of the cycle in order to recon- 

solstices — in all 364 days (cf. lxxiv. cile the lunar and solar years, which 

10, 12 ; lxxv. 2). Thus the difference were reckoned respectively at 354 and 

between the lunar and the solar year 365 } days. As our author, however, 

amounts to 10 days. But in ver. io a does not reckon the solar year at 

and 11 no account is taken of the 365^ days, but at 364, he proceeds 

intercalary days in the solar year, so to reconcile this solar year of 364 

that the solar year is reckoned at days with the lunar year of 354. 

360 days. Thus the difference in this Thus (ver. 1 3) in three such solar 

case is six days. 12. There is years there are 1092 days; in five, 

manifestly a polemical tone in this 1820 days; in eight, 2912 days; 

verse. The writer asserts the ac- whereas (ver. 14, 15) in three lunar 



LIBRARY 
KNOX COLLEGE 



202 The Book of Enoch, [Sect. III. 

thousand and ninety-two days, and in five years eighteen 
hundred and twenty days, so that in eight years there are two 
thousand nine hundred and twelve days. 14. In three 

years there accrue to the moon herself one thousand and 
sixty-two days, and in five years she falls fifty days behind : 
i. e. at the close of these an addition is made to the (one 
thousand and) sixty- two days. 15. And in five years there 

are seventeen hundred and seventy days, so that the days 
in eight lunar years amount to two thousand eight hundred 
and thirty -two. 16. Thus in eight years she falls behind 

to the amount of eighty days, and the sum total of the days 
she falls behind in eight years is eighty. 17. And the 

year is accurately completed in conformity with their stations 
and the stations of the sun, as they (i. e. the sun and moon) 



A£>"!4« G gives wrongly JE»^4«- 14. Sixty-two days. G gives Si. 
An addition is made to the sixty-two days. G reads 'sixty- 
two days are added/ omitting 4tO. 15. Again here G gives 
unintelligible readings : for so that the days amount to two 
thousand eight hundred and thirty-two, G reads A 5? ctd«pOA.1 

years there are 1062 days; in five, merely say over and over again that 

1 770 days; in eight, 2832 days. Thus the difference between 364 and 354 

there is a difference of 80 days be- days is 10 days. 14. In five 

tween eight solar years of 364 days years she falls fifty days behind, 

and eight lunar years. As all these We should, as Wieseler suggests, 

calculations merely amount to saying read here : ' in three years she falls 

that his solar year has 10 days thirty days behind.' This would give 

more than the lunar, the writer had a good sense to the following words : 

obviously the eight-year cycle before ' at the close of these (i. e. three years) 

him ; for only thus can we explain an addition (of 30 days) is made to 

the external resemblance of his system the (one thousand and) sixty-two 

to the Greek cycle : cf. Special Introd. days.' That is, the addition of 30 

(pp. 189-90). Unless the author had days to the sum of three lunar years 

the Greek eight-year cycle before makes them equal to three solar 

him and wished to give his own work years. Dln.'s rendering and explana- 

some semblance of likeness thereto, tion of these last words are unsatis- 

there was no need to go through all factory : ' Namlich mit der Summe 

these periods of three, five, and eight davon addirt man zu zwei und sechzig 

years ; for they do not in fact con- Tagen.' 17. With their stations, 

tribute a single additional fact, but i. e. the stations of the moons. 



Sect, ill.] Chapters LXXIV. 14 — LXXV. 4. 203 

rise from the portals through which it (the sun) rises and sets 
thirty days. 

LXXV. 1. And the leaders of the heads of the thousands, 
who are placed over the whole creation and over all the stars, 
have also to do with the four intercalary days, which cannot be 
separated from their function, according to the reckoning of 
the year, and those render service on the four days which are 
not reckoned in the reckoning of the year. 2. And owing 

to them men go wrong therein, for those luminaries truly 
render service on the world-stations, one in the first, one in the 
third, one in the fourth, and one in the sixth portal, and the 
harmony of the course of the world is brought about through 
its separate three hundred and sixty-four world-stations. 
3. For the signs and the times and the years and the days 
were shown to me by the angel Uriel, whom the eternal 
Lord of glory sets over all the luminaries of the heaven, 
in the heaven and in the world, that they should rule on the 
surface of the heaven and be seen on the earth, and be leaders 
for the day and the night, i.e. the sun, moon, and stars, 
and all the ministering creatures which make their revolu- 
tion in all the chariots of the heaven. 4. In like manner 



LXXV. 1. From their function. So M: h7°il S^VdCd^*. 

Also G, but with sing, suffix. Other MSS. 'from their place/ 
Reckoning. So G M. Other MSS. and Din. ' entire reckoning.' 



LXXV. This chapter deals with days: cf. lxxxii. 5. 2. Men do 

the intercalary days, the stars, and not know of these intercalary days, 

the sun. 1. The four intercalary and so reckon wrongly: cf. lxxxii. 

days are under the charge of the 4-6. 3. Yet these intercalary 

highest stars, the leaders of the heads days are a reality ; for Uriel showed 

often thousands. These are not the them to Enoch: cf. lxxii. 1. Signs, 

chiliarchs, as Din. supposes (p. 248), i.e. of the zodiac: cf. lxxii. 13, 19. 

but the leaders of the chiliarchs. Eternal Lord of glory. Here only : 

For further development of this sub- seelxxxiv. 2 (note). Chariots of the 

ject see lxxxii. 11, 12. These leaders heaven : cf. lxxii. 5. 4. The varia- 

are not angels, as might be supposed, tion in the amount of heat given 

but simply ' luminaries ' : cf. ver. 2. by the sun is explained by twelve 

Are not reckoned in the reokon- openings in the disk of the sun 

ing of the year. Apparently the through which heat is given forth in 

year was popularly reckoned at 360 proportion to the number of windows 



204 The Book of Enoch. [Sect. ill. 

Uriel showed me in the circumference of the sun's chariot in 
the heaven twelve door-openings through which the rays of 
the sun break forth ; and from them is warmth diffused over 
the earth, when they are opened at appointed seasons. 5. 

[There are also such openings for the winds and the spirit 
of the dew when they are opened, standing open in the 
heavens at the ends (thereof).] 6. Twelve portals I saw in 
the heaven, at the ends of the earth, out of which go forth 
the sun, moon, and stars, and all the works of heaven in the 
east and in the west. 7. And many window-openings are 

to the left and right of them, and one window at its (ap- 
pointed) season produces warmth, corresponding (as these do) 
to those doors from which the stars come forth according as 
He has commanded them, and wherein they set, corresponding 
to their number. 8. And I saw chariots in the heaven, 

running in the world, above those portals, in which revolve the 
stars that never set. 9. And one is larger than all the 

rest and makes its course through the entire world. 

LXXVI. 1. And at the ends of the earth I saw twelve 
portals opened for all the winds, from which the winds 



4. Uriel showed me. Wanting in G. Through which the 
rays of the sun break forth and. Wanting in G. 5. When 
they are opened, standing open. So G M N. Other MSS. add 
' in their seasons/ G repeats ' when they are opened ' at the end 
of this verse. 8. Above those portals. So A E G H I M N. Cf. xiv. 
17. Other MSS. and Din. give : ' above and below those portals.' 
LXXVI. 1. Opened for all the winds. Hallevi thinks that we 



opened. 5. The portals of the a t a time, and all differing in degree of 

winds : cf. xxxiii-vi ; lxxvi. Din. heating power. 9. One is larger, 

thinks this verse is an interpolation This may be the Great Bear, 

on the ground of its inappropriateness LXXVI. This chapter gives a 

here, and of the phrase, < spirit of the detailed account of the twelve portals 

dew,' which connects it with lx. 20. f the winds and the nature of the 

6, 7. Adjoining each one of these winds which issue therefrom. The short 

twelve portals of the sun are twelve account in xxxiii-xxxvi agrees with 

window-openings to the left and right it. This disquisition on the nature 

of them : cf. lxxii. 3, 7. These diffuse of the winds has as much relation 

warmth over the earth, one being open to reality as that on the year of 364 



Sect. Til.] Chapters LXXV. $— LXXVI. 9. 205 

proceed and blow over the earth. %. Three of them are 

opened on the face (i.e. the east) of the heavens, and three 
in the west, and three on the right (i.e. the south) of the 
heaven, and three on the left (i. e. the north). 3. And the 

first three are those towards the east, and three towards 
the north, and after those on the left three towards the 
south, and three in the west. 4. Through four of these 
come winds of blessing and prosperity, and from those eight 
come hurtful winds : when they are sent, they bring destruc- 
tion on all the earth and on the water upon it, and on all 
who dwell thereon, and on everything which is in the water 
and on the land. 5. And the first wind from those 

portals, called the east wind, comes forth through the first 
portal in the east, which inclines towards the south : from it 
come forth destruction, drought, heat, and rain. 6. And 

through the second portal in the middle comes a favourable 
(wind), and from it there come rain and fruitfulness and pros- 
perity and dew; and through the third portal which lies 
toward the north come cold and drought. 7. And after 

these come forth the south winds through three portals : in 
the first place through the first portal of those inclining to 
the east comes forth a hot wind. 8. And through the 
middle portal lying next to it there come forth fragrant 
smells and dew and rain and prosperity and health. 9. 
And through the third portal lying to the west come forth dew 



should here render 'open to all the quarters/ see lxxvii. i, Crit. Note. 
3. After those, &c. So Gr : (U£*W; Art*, for which Dln/s MSS. give 
d&'HCl Art. Is his rendering po&sible : Zur Linken entgegengesetzt 1 
6. Comes a favourable (wind). I have emended C^Ol £<DR"A in 
Dln/s text into C^fO^l jE-aJfrA, as this phrase occurs in lxxvi. II. 
We might also translate ' comes in a direct direction,' as in lxxvi. II. 



days. 2. This method of designat- the middle wind of the three in each 

ing the four quarters of the earth quarter: the rest are hurtful. 5. 

was usual among the Hebrews : cf. The E.S.E. wind. 6. The E. and 

lxxii. 3. 4. Through four of these E.N.E. winds. 7. TheS.E.S. 

portals come beneficial winds, i. e. wind. 8. The S. wind. 9. The 



206 The Book of Enoch. [Sect. III. 

and rain, locusts and destruction. 10. And after these the 

north winds : from the seventh portal towards the east come 
dew and rain, locusts and destruction. 1 1 . And from the 

middle portal come in a direct direction rain and dew, and 
health and prosperity; and through the third portal towards 
the west come cloud and hoar-frost, and snow and rain, and dew 
and locusts. 1 1. And after these the west winds : through 
the first portal adjoining the north come forth dew and rain, 
and hoar-frost and cold, and snow and frost. 13. And 

from the middle portal come forth dew and rain, prosperity 
and blessing ; and through the last portal which adjoins the 
south come forth drought and destruction, conflagration and 
death. 14. The twelve portals of the four quarters of the 

heaven are (therewith) completed, and all their laws and all 
their plagues and all their benefactions have I shown to thee, 
my son Methuselah. 

G I omit this phrase. 10. North winds. I have followed Din. 

in omitting the words Ulia^i (\fhC as a gloss. From the 
seventh portal towards the east. After these words the MSS. give 
the following phrase, H^ftll; <n>T7A; filWl, which I have omitted 
on the following grounds. KW\ ^ftll means 'inclining to' or 
' adjoining/ not ' opposite to.' In lxx. 5 the E.S.E. wind is de- 
scribed as the east wind, Ki'fl 2*RYl! AfilWl, ' which adjoins the 
south.' In lxxvi. 7 the S.E.S. wind is described as the south 
wind, Xlt; tftTl! fon>TM: 9 v > v 63p, < which adjoins the east/ 
In lxxvi. 12 the W.N/W. wind is described as the west wind, 
Kifl rffcYii Ao»l7rt; tn>ft0, ' which adjoins the north.' Hence in 
lxxvi. 10 HpKYii en>T7A; /S1M1 when spoken of a north wind 
is absurd. For the same reason we have omitted in our transla- 
tion the phrase Ki'Vi ;PRYi; A<n>ft0 in lxxvi. n, as it would 
be no less absurd in this context to speak of a north wind as 
adjoining the north. By the removal of these misapplied phrases 
the text becomes clear. 11. Prosperity. Wanting in G. 

12. Bain. Wanting in G. 14. All their benefactions. F I. 



S.W.S. wind. 10. See Crit. Note. W.N.W. wind. 13. The W. and 

The N.E.N, wind. 11. See Crit. W.S.W. winds. 14. My son 

Note on preceding verse. The N. Methuselah: cf. lxxxii. 1. 
and N.W.N, winds. 12. The 



Sect. III.] Chapters LXXVI. 10 — LXXVIL 4. 207 

LXXVII. 1. And the first quarter is called the east, because 
it is the first : and the second, the south, because the Most 
High descends there, and there in quite a special sense He 
who is blessed for ever comes down. 2. And the west is 

named the waning quarter, because there all the luminaries 
of the heaven wane and go down. 3. And the fourth 

quarter, called the north, is divided into three parts : the first 
of them is for the dwelling of men : the second for the seas of 
water, with the valleys and forests and rivers, and darkness and 
clouds ; and the third part with the garden of righteousness. 
4. I saw seven high mountains, higher than all the mountains 



GM give 'all benefactions,' (\([(H>i Zfft». Other MSS. and Din. 
' their benefactions.' 

LXXVII. 1-3. As Halle vi (Joum. Asiat. 384-5 ; 1867) remarks, 
the Greek translator erred in rendering TYH in these verses by 
' wind' instead of by ' quarter.' In Ezek. xlii. 20 the LXX. rightly 
renders it by '/xe'poy.' The writer had no intention of teaching 
the names of the winds. This is clear from his geographical 
division of the north, and also from his explanation of the Hebrew 
word 0^*3, which denotes the southern region, and not the south 
wind. I have therefore translated in ver. 1 ' and the first quarter 
is called the east, and the second the south ' ; and in ver. 2 ' and the 
west is named the waning quarter ' ; and in ver. 3 ' and the fourth 
quarter, called the north.' This rendering is absolutely necessary 
for the sense. 3. The third part. G gives, by a slip, 'the 



LXXVII. 1-3. These verses deal parts: one for men, the second for 

not with the ten winds but with the waters, cf. H22? = an overflowing : for 

four quarters : see Crit. Note. The darkness and cloud, from JD¥, to 

first quarter is the east, i.e. Dip, render invisible. The third encloses 

because it is in front or the first, Paradise, from f £1?, to reserve. Para- 

*0iD*1j5. The second the south, DVn dise is the recompense reserved for 

'because the Most High descends the righteous, Ps.xxxi. 19: cf. Halle'vi, 

there' from Ql TV*, or because the Journal Asiat. 1867. The garden of 

Most High abides there, D"l "VI righteousness : see lx. 8 (note) ; lxx. 

(Din.) : cf. xxv. 3. The west is called 3 (note). 4. The number seven 

the waning quarter, for which pro- plays a great r6le in this book, and 

bably there stood in the Hebrew generally in Jewish writers : cf. xviii. 

pinX, which the Greek translator 6; xxiv. 2 ; xxxii. 1 ; lxi. 11; lxxii. 

rendered by ixTrepuiv. So Din. The 37 ; xci. 16 ; xciii. 10. Seven high 

north pDif is divided into three mountains. These have nothing to 



2o8 The Book of Enoch. [Sect. III. 

which are on the earth: thence comes forth hoar-frost, and 
days, seasons, and years pass away and vanish. 5. I saw 

seven rivers on the earth larger than all the others : one of 
them coming from the west pours its waters into the Great 
Sea. 6. And two of them come from the north to the sea 

and pour their waters into the Erythraean Sea in the east. 
7. And the remaining four come forth on the side of the north 
to their own sea, (two of them) to the Erythraean Sea, and two 
flow into the Great Sea there, [according to others into the 
desert]. 8. Seven great islands I saw in the sea and on the 
mainland : two on the mainland and five in the Great Sea. 

LXXVIII. 1. The names of the sun are the following: the 
first Orjares, the second Tomas. 2. And the moon has four 
names : the first Asonja, the second Ebla, the third Benase, 



second part/ 5. Seven rivers. ' Seven ' wanting in Gr M. 

7. Two flow into the Great Sea. SoHMNO and Din. G reads 
1 four flow into the Great Sea.' 8. Two on the mainland and 

five in the Great Sea. So F I L M O and Din. G reads : rt«(Hh 

(Dti&hi MchCi hc-rt. 



do with those of xviii. 6 ; xxiv. 2 ; two seasons of the year in Palestine : 

xxxii. 1. 5. One coming from cf. iii ; iv ; lxviii. 15. Orjares from 

the west. This must be the Nile as Din "ttK is the sun when his power 

Din. takes it, but the description is diminished in the winter season ; 

1 from the west ' if genuine is difficult. for Din or bnn = ' potsherd ' as well 

The Great Sea, i.e. the Mediter- as 'sun.' The second name (112)11 in 

ranean : cf. Num. xxxiv. 6, 7. 6. our text altered into Tomas by change 

The Euphrates and Tigris. The of d\ and i* denotes the sun when 

Erythraean Sea. A general name the heat is powerful in the summer, 

for the Arabian, Persian, and Indian from DDJ1. 2. The four names 

seas (Din.). 7. The remaining of the moon are, as Hallevi shows, 

four, i. e. the Indus, Ganges, Oxus, connected with its various phases, 

and Jaxartes (Din.). According to Asonja from PP fivfrti; where [fe^M 

others into the desert. This is is a diminutive of K^tf and IT merely 

manifestly a gloss. Such a second an intensive termination. This is the 

view is impossible in a vision. name of the moon in connexion with 

LXXVIII, LXXIX. The rela- its likeness to the human face : cf. 

tions of the sun and moon are again ver. 1 7. Ebla, altered from H32p = 

described, as well as the waxing and the pale star, denotes the moon in 

the waning of the moon. 1. Halle'vi her waning period. Benase, from 

points out that the two names of nDD"P (i- e. i"ID3 to cover), is an ap- 

the sun given here correspond to the propriate name of the moon in the 



Sect, in.] Chapters LXX VII. $— LX XVIII. %. 209 

and the fourth Erae. 3. These are the two large luminaries : 
their circumference is like the circumference of the heaven, 
and in size they are both alike. 4. And in the circumfer- 

ence of the sun there is a seventh portion of light wherewith 
additions are made to the moon, and definite measures are 
transferred till the seventh portion of the sun is exhausted. 
5. And they set and enter the portals of the west, and make 
their revolution by the north, and come forth through the 
eastern portals on the face of the heaven. 6. And when 

the moon rises she is seen in the heaven with the fourteenth 
part of the light ; and in fourteen days she becomes full moon. 
7. Also fifteen parts of light are added to her so that on the 
fifteenth day her light is full, according to the sign of the 
year, and there arise fifteen parts, and the moon originates in 
the addition of fourteenth parts (lit. ' through the half of a 
seventh part'). 8. And in her waning the moon decreases 

on the first day to fourteen parts of her light, on the second 
to thirteen, on the third to twelve, on the fourth to eleven, 
on the fifth to ten, on the sixth to nine, on the seventh to 
eight, on the eighth to seven, on the ninth to six, on the 

LXXVIIL 3. In size they are both alike. G M read : hS^mh 
tlttfUnx; hoD; *Mfl: ti^fr (iXi&hXPao-i 0«, but this addition 
is only a repetition of the preceding line. 4. Definite measures. 



period of conjunction when she is 5. By the north: cf. lxxii. 5. 6-17. 

invisible. Erae from HTJJ (i.e. from These verses give a detailed descrip- 

JT^ to cast, dart) is suitable as a tion of the waxing and waning of 

designation of the waxing or full the moon, of the length of the 

moon. 3. Cf. lxxii. 4, 37 ; lxxiii. months, &c. 6. This case where 

2. 4. From lxxii. 37 and lxxiii. 3 there are fourteen days from new 

we have already learnt that the light moon to full moon has already been 

of the sun is sevenfold that of the treated of in lxxiii. 5, 6 (notes). 7. 

moon: from lxxiii. 2 that light is This case where there are fifteen 

added to the moon in due measure. days from new moon to fulPmoon 

Here we are further informed that has already been discussed : see lxxiii. 

one seventh of the light of the sun 7, 8 (note). 8. As the moon wanes, 

is gradually transferred to the moon, her light decreases each day by one 

and that this seventh part is wholly fourteenth part : on the fifteenth day 

transferred when the moon is full. the remainder, i.e. one twenty-eighth, 



210 The Book of Enoch. [Sect. ill. 

tenth to five, on the eleventh to four, on the twelfth to three, 
on the thirteenth to two, on the fourteenth to the half of a 
seventh of all her light, and all her remaining (light) disappears 
on the fifteenth. 9. And in certain months the month has 
twenty-nine days, and once twenty-eight. 10. And Uriel 

showed me another regulation (which determines) when light is 
added to the moon on which side it is added to her by the sun. 
11. During all the period in which the moon is growing in 
her light, she is opposite to the sun as she waxes (lit. ' she 
waxes opposite the sun') till the fourteenth day her light 
becomes 'full' in the heaven, and when she is illumined 
throughout, her light is f full ' in the heaven. 12. And on 
the first day she is called the new moon, for on that day the 
light rises upon her. 13. And she becomes full moon 

exactly on the day when the sun sets in the west, and she 
rises at night from the east, and shines the whole night 
through till the sun rises over against her and she is seen 
over against the sun. 14. On the side whence the light of 
the moon comes forth, there again she wanes till all her light 
vanishes and the days of the month are at an end, and her 
circumference is empty, void of light. 15. And three 



So G M. Other MSS., ' in definite measures it is added/ 8. Half, 
&c. So G : cn>l£#; W %"h&\ Ytfc *aCYi-, but that I omit (D. 9. 
Once twenty-eight. G reads QQg hav; wg, and M Wfc (Dhfil (D%. 



vanishes. 9. Twenty-nine days : teenth, nineteenth, and thus the dif- 

cf.lxxiv. 10-17; lxxviii. 15-17. Once ference between the solar and lunar 

twenty-eight. As we learnt from years at the end of this cycle was 

lxxiv. 13-16 that the author was about j\ hours. Calippus, recognis- 

acquainted with the eight-year cycle ing this difference, quadrupled the 

of the Greeks, so here, as Wieseler Metonic cycle and deducted one day 

has already pointed out, we find a from the last month of this period 

reference to the seventy-six year cycle of seventy-six years, and thus this 

of Calippus. The cycle of Calippus month had only twenty-eight days as 

is really an emended Metonic cycle. in our text. 11. The moon waxes 

According to the cycle of Meton, to over against the sun on the side 

which there is no allusion in Enoch, turned to the sun, i. e. the western 

seven lunar months were intercalated side. 13. This remark is quite 

in nineteen lunar years, in the third, true. 15. Each half-year has 

fifth, eighth, eleventh, thirteenth, six- three months of thirty days and three 



Sect, in.] Chapters LXX VIII. g—LXXIX. 3. 211 

months she makes of thirty days at her appointed time, and 
three months she makes of twenty-nine days each, in which 
she accomplishes her waning in the first period of time, and 
in the first portal in one hundred and seventy-seven days. 
16. And in the time of her going out she appears for three 
months (of) thirty days each, and she appears for three 
months (of) twenty-nine each. 17. At night she appears 

like a man for twenty days each time, and by day like 
the heaven, for there is nothing whatever in her save her 
light. 

LXXIX. 1. And now, my son, I have shown thee every- 
thing, and the law of all the stars of the heaven is completed. 
1. And he showed me all their laws for every day, for every 
season of bearing rule, for every year, and for its going 
forth and for the law prescribed in every month and every 
week: 3. And the waning of the moon which takes 

place in the sixth portal: i.e. in this sixth portal her light 
comes to an end, and after that there is the beginning of the 

15. Of thirty days at her appointed time. G reads : (Un>«p02V; 
wahWii HhYi 0ft ^SJMh RAfri J2-KIC. M resembles G 
with variations. All other MSS. support Din. Twenty-nine 
days each. G inserts flhm> before these words. 

LXXIX. 1. My son. So G M. Other MSS. and Din., < my 
son Methuselah.' The law of all the stars. So G M. Other 
MSS. and Din., ' all the law of the stars.' 2. Of bearing rule. 

So G: HQj *»&<&. Din. reads lUlltfc >»&<&, which he 
translates 'fur jede Herrschaft/ For the law prescribed 
in. G reads (l^XHH: <D. 3. Comes to an end. The 

translator uses this verb l&ao i n lxxviii. 11, 13 in the opposite 
sense, 'to become full moon.' Beginning of the month. 

of twenty-nine. In the first period i. e. in the second half of the year. 

of time, i. e. in the first half-year. 17. Cf. ver. 2 (note). 

The author recognises only two seasons LXXIX. 2. Every season of 

in the year : cf. iii, iv, lxxviii. 1 bearing rule : see Crit. Note. 3, 

(note). So often as the moon is in 4. As in lxxviii. 15 the writer showed 

the first portal during the first half- that in the first portal during the 

year, she is waning : cf. lxxix. 3, 4. first half of the year the moon always 

16. In the time of her going out, waned, so now he shows that in the 

P 3 



2 1 2 The Book of E?wch. [Sect. III. 

month : 4. And the waning which takes place in the first 
portal, in its season till one hundred and seventy-seven days 
have elapsed : reckoned according to weeks, twenty-five weeks 
and two days. 5. She falls behind the sun and in accord- 

ance with the order of the stars exactly five days in the course 
of one period, and when this place which thou seest has been 
traversed. 6. This is the picture and sketch of every 

luminary, as they were shown to me by their leader, the great 
angel Uriel. 

[LXXX. 1. And in those days the angel Uriel answered 
and said to me : ' Behold I have shown thee everything, Enoch, 
and I have revealed everything to thee that thou shouldest 
see this sun and this moon, and the leaders of the stars of the 
heaven and all those who turn them, their tasks and times 
and departures. 2. And in the days of the sinners the 
years will be shortened, and their seed will be tardy on their 
lands and fields, and all things on the earth will alter and not 
appear in their season : the rain will be kept back and the 
heaven will withhold it. 3. And in those times the fruits 



GMN omit ' month' and read CXfc FchZfcV . 5- She 

falls behind. So G M. N ' and she falls behind/ Other MSS. 
' and how she falls behind/ 

LXXX. 1. The angel Uriel. So GM. Other MSS. 'Uriel/ 
I have shown thee. G reads ACXftl. 2. Will alter. 

GM read £cn>je/i\ Will withhold. G reads ^ah9°. 



second half of the year the moon marked, that the moment we have 
always waxes in the first portal. done with lxxix we pass into a world 
5. Exactly five days. This, accord- of new conceptions, the whole interest 
ing to lxxiv. 10-17, ought to be six of which is ethical and nothing else, 
days. Wieseler may be right in There is absolutely no fixity in natural 
finding here another reference to the phenomena : their laws and uniform- 
shortening of the last month in the ities are always dependent on the 
seventy-six year period by one day : moral action of men : cf. iv Ezra v. 
see lxxviii. 9 (note). 1-13 (quoted by Schodde). This line 
LXXX. For the reasons for re- of thought is quite alien to lxxii- 
garding this chapter as an interpola- lxxix. 1. Leaders of the stars : cf. 
tion, see Introd. to this Book of lxxii. 3; lxxv. 2, 3. Those who turn 
Celestial Physics (pp. 187, 188). In them. These are probably the wind* : 
that introduction we have already re- cf. lxxii. 5 ; lxxiii. 2. 2. Cf. Jer. 



Sect, ill.] Chapters LXXIX. 4 — LXXXI. 1. 213 

of the earth will be backward and not grow in their season, 
and the fruits of the trees will be withheld in their season. 
4. And the moon will alter her order and not appear at her 
(appointed) time. 5. And in those days there will be seen 

in the heaven a great unfruitfulness coming on the outermost 
chariot to the west, and she (i.e. the moon) will shine more 
brightly than accords with (her) order of light. 6. And 

many chiefs of the superior stars will err, and these will alter 
their orbits and tasks, and will not appear at the seasons pre- 
scribed to them. 7. And the whole order of the stars will 
be concealed from the sinners, and the thoughts of those who 
dwell on the earth will err concerning them, and they will be 
estranged from all their ways, and will err and take them to 
be gods. 8. And evil will be multiplied upon them and 
punishment will come upon them to destroy everything/] 

[LXXXI. 1. And he said unto me : ' O Enoch, observe the 
writing of the heavenly tablets, and read what is written 



5. For ftPH?. G reads ttA^jE. over an erasion, and for fl^OtM! GM 

read Ay D 0<WI ; both of which readings I have accepted. Hallevi 
tries to show that the text is corrupt here, and that the original 
reference was to the sun. 8. To destroy everything. SoGM. 

Other MSS. ' to destroy them all.' 

LXXXI. 1. Writing of. G omits; but MN, though also 



iii. 3 ; v. 25. 4. Cf. for similar sistently with the author's scheme, 
ideas Joel ii. io; Amos viii. 9 ; iv 6. Chiefs of the superior stars: 
Ezra v. 4. 5. If the present text cf. ver. I (note). 7. "Will be con- 
is correct, we may safely regard the cealed from the sinners : cf. lxxv. 
words And in those days ... on 2 ; lxxxii. 4-6. Those who dwell 
the outermost chariot to the west on the earth. This phrase is used 
as an interpolation in this inter- here exactly in the sense in which 
polated chapter. If we omit these it appears in the interpolations in 
words the text runs smoothly and the Similitudes : see xxxvii. 5 (note), 
intelligibly : ' The moon will alter her Take them to be gods : cf. Acts 
order and not appear at her (ap- vii. 42. 

pointed) time, and will shine more LXXXI. For the reasons for re- 

brightly than accords with (her) garding this chapter as an interpola- 

order of light.' The words were tion, see Introd. to this Book of 

probably added to the text in con- Celestial Physics (p. 188). 1. The 

nexion with some recent event. It heavenly tablets. For a complete 

is not possible to explain them con- account of this and kindred expres- 



214 The Book of Enoch. [Sect. in. 

thereon, and mark every individual fact/ 2. And I observed 
everything on the heavenly tablets, and read everything which 
was written (thereon), and understood everything, and read 
the book of all the deeds of men and of all the children of 
flesh that will be upon the earth to the remotest generations. 
3. And forthwith after that I blessed the Lord, the King of 
the glory of the world, in that He has made all the works of 
the world, and I extolled the Lord because of His patience 
and blessed Him because of the children of men. 4. And 

after that I spake: 'Blessed is the man who dies in righteous- 
ness and goodness, concerning whom there is no book of 
unrighteousness written, and (against whom) no day of judg- 
ment is found/ 5. And those seven holy ones brought me 



omitting, imply its presence, and all other MSS. give it. 2. The 
book of all the deeds of men. So M : aoftthl.1 ttfc HoVaCa* 4 : 
AfrflX. So G, with one necessary grammatical change. Other 
MSS. : ' the hook and everything which was written therein and 
all the deeds of men.' Of all the children of flesh. So G M, 
reading lt(b instead of H*ft°. 3. The King of the glory of the 

world. So G M : Ybv>\ fMlrht; MCI? . Other MSS. and Din., 
HA^Ay° ' the eternal King of glory.' But some reference to the 
world in the divine title seems to be required ; for God's relation 
to the world is dwelt on in this verse : ' He has made all the 
things of the world/ At the close of this chapter He is called 
< the Lord of the world.' Children of men. So F G I L M O : 
(D*fc£i h&9°. This phrase occurs in Deut. xxxii. 8, and in the 
Book of Jubilees. Din.: 'children of the world/ 4. 

After that. So G M CDX^ilK Other MSS. 'at that hour/ 
(Against whom) no day of judgment is found. So G M : 0A1*; 
H"fi. Other MSS.: ' against whom no sin is found.' 5. Seven. 
So G M. Din. gives 'three/ Brought me. G M read faPdOrl. 



sions, see xlvii. 3 (note). 3. Cf. 3 (note). No day of judgment is 
xxii. 14 for a similar expression of found: see Crit. Note. If this clause 
praise : see Crit. Note. 4. See be taken strictly, it is here taught that 
Introd. (p. 188) on the contrast be- there is no judgment for the righteous, 
tween this blessing and that pro- 5. Those seven holy ones. These 
nounced by the writer of lxxii-lxxix. words have been taken by the inter- 
Book of unrighteousness : see xlvii. polator from xc. 21, 22 or xx. Later 



Sect, in.] Chapters LXXXL 2—LXXXII. 1 . 215 

and placed me on the earth before the door of my house and 
spake unto me : ' Declare everything to thy son Methuselah, 
and show to all thy children that no flesh is righteous in the 
sight of the Lord, for He is their Creator. 6. One year we 
will leave thee with thy children, till again a command 
(comes), that thou mayest teach thy children and record (it) 
for them, and testify to them (even) to all thy children ; and 
in the second year they will withdraw thee from their midst. 
7. Let thy heart be strong, for the good will announce 
righteousness to the good: with the righteous will they 
rejoice, and they will offer mutual congratulation. 8. But 

the sinners will die with the sinners, and the apostate go 
down with the apostate. 9. And those also who practise 

righteousness will die on account of the deeds of men, and be 
gathered together on account of the doings of the godless/ 
10. And in those days they ceased to speak to me, and 
I came to my people, blessing the Lord of the world.] 

LXXXII. 1. And now, my son Methuselah, all these things 



No flesh. GM omit the negative. 6. Till again a command 

(comes). So G: Xfth: 110(1; tfcHH. Other MSS.: Xflhi *lOQ: 

WITH 'till thou art strong again/ 7. With the righteous 

will they rejoice. So G M. Other MSS.: 'the righteous will 
rejoice with the righteous.' 10. Lord of the world. So G M. 
Din. gives, ' Lord of the worlds.' 



MSS. read 'three' — a change which because of the evil,' *|DN?. ^V]y} *3BO 

may be due to lxxxvii. 2, 3. Mo flesh P^^H : cf. 11 Kings xxii. 20; Book 

is righteous, &c: cf. Job ix. 2; Ps. of Wisdom i v. 7-14. The Hebrew verb 

xiv. 1. Creator : cf. xciv. 10. 6. is used of being 'gathered to one's 

Till again a command (comes) : see fathers,' Num. xx. 26. In Ps. civ. 29 

Oit. Note. These two verses, vv. 5, 6, God is said to 'gather' the spirit of 

are inserted to serve as an introduc- animals when they die. 10. Lord 

tion to xci-civ. 8. The apostate of the world : cf. i. 3 ; xii. 3 ; lviii. 4 ; 

will go down, i. e. into Gehenna. lxxxi. 3 ; lxxxii. 7 ; lxxxiv. 2, 3. 

9. The righteous die indeed, yet are LXXXII. The conclusion of the 

they 'gathered' unto the abodes of Book of Celestial Physics. 1. In 

the blessed. The phrase is borrowed xxxiii. 4 Uriel writes down every- 

directly from Is. lvii. I, where the thing for Enoch ; but in this book, 

literal translation runs, ' the righteous cf. lxxii. 1 ; lxxiv. 2 ; lxxv. 3 ; lxxix. 

is gathered out of the way of or 2-6; lxxxii. 1, Uriel only shows the 



2 1 6 The Book of Enoch. [Sect. III. 

I am recounting and writing down, and I have revealed to thee 
everything, and given thee books concerning all of them : (so) 
preserve, my son Methuselah, the books from thy father's 
hand and commit them to the generations of the world. 2. 
I have given wisdom to thee and wisdom to thy son, and 
to thy children that are yet to be, that they may give it to 
their children, generation unto generation for ever, this 
wisdom (namely) that passeth their thought. 3. And 

those who understand it will not sleep, but will listen with 
the ear that they may learn this wisdom and it will please 
those that eat (thereof) better than good food. 4. Blessed 
are all the righteous, blessed are all those who walk in the 
way of righteousness and sin not, as the sinners, in the 
reckoning of all their days in which the sun traverses the 
heaven, entering into and departing from the portals for 
thirty days at a time, together with the heads of thousands 
of this order of the stars, together with the four which are 
added and divided amongst the four portions of the year, 

LXXXII. 1. Writing down. So GI. Other MSS. and Din. 
add ' for thee.' Generations of the world. G reads : ah(t&\ 

"kd?" ' children of the world.' 2. "Wisdom to thy son. So G : 

Tflft; (Dh&Yl ; but A must be read before wh&h. Din. gives « to 
thy children/ For ever. Wanting in G M. 4. Blessed are all 
those. Wanting in G. Divided. So G M O &V A,A?« . Other 



hidden things to Enoch, and Enoch these revelations is a frequent theme 

writes them down. Commit them with the Enoch writers: of. xxxvii. 

to the generations of the world. 4; xcii. 1; xciii. 10-14. To thee 

These revelations of Enoch are for and ... to thy son : cf. Ps. lxxviii. 

all the world from the earliest genera- 5,6. As we must infer from these 

tions: those in i-xxxvi are only for words that Lamech is already born, 

the far distant generations : cf. i. 2. the writer has followed the Samaritan 

See Special Introd. (p. 189). It is or Masoretic reckoning : the former 

evidently this passage that Tertullian would allow of Noah being present, 

refers to in Be Cultu Fern. i. 3 j Cum 3. Better than good food : cf. Ps. 

Enoch filio suo Matusalae nihil aliud xix. 10. 4. The four intercalary 

mandaverit quani ut notitiam eorum days introduced by four leaders: cf. 

posteris suis traderit. 2. Wisdom. ver. 11 ; lxxv. 1,2. Heads of thou- 

The surpassing wisdom conveyed in sands, i. e. the chiliarchs which lead 



Sect, in.] Chapter LXXXIL 2-1 1. 217 

which lead them in and enter with them four days. 5. 
And owing to them men will be at fault and will not reckon 
them in the reckoning- of the whole course of the world : yea, 
men will be at fault, and not recognise them accurately. 6. 
For they belong to the reckoning of the year and are truly 
recorded (thereon) for ever, one in the first portal and one in 
the third, and one in the fourth, and one in the sixth, and the 
year is completed in three hundred and sixty-four days. 7. 

And the account thereof is accurate and the recorded reckon- 
ing thereof exact ; for the luminaries, and months, and festivals, 
and years, and days, have been shown and revealed to me by 
Uriel, to whom in my behoof the Lord of the whole creation 
of the world has given command over the host of heaven. 
8. And he has power over night and day in the heaven to 
cause the light to give light to men — sun, moon, and stars, 
and all the powers of the heaven which revolve in their 
circular chariots. 9. And these are the orders of the stars, 

which set in their places and in their seasons and festivals 
and months. 10. And these are the names of those which 

lead them, who watch that they enter at their appointed 
seasons, who lead them in their places, in their orders, times, 
months, periods of dominion, and in their positions. 11. 

Their four leaders who divide the four parts of the year enter 



MSS. and Din. ' divide.' 8. He has power over night and 

day. G reads : ^"£vm$; 0*F; fob/Vi Q«n>^]r. To cause ... to 
give light. G reads SCktL. 10. Who lead them in their 

places. So G M : XA: J^aoChPa^i flffDltfWtn*. Other MSS. 



these days. 5. Cf.lxxv. 2. 6. On the Physics. Moreover, lxxii. 1 promises 

four intercalary days and the portals an account of the stars, and lxxix. I 

to which they belong, see lxxv. 7. declares that the full account has 

Lord of the whole creation of the now been given. This would be im- 

world. Here only : cf. lxxxiv. 2. possible without lxxxii. 9-20. 11. 

9-20. Din. regards these verses as a See Crit. Note. Dln.'s text of this 

later addition to the book, but with- verse, even in the Crit. Note, is 

out adequate reason. They are quite practically unintelligible. There is no 

in harmony with all that rightly difficulty in the text of GM which 

belongs to the Book of Celestial we have followed here. The twelve 



2 1 8 The Book of Enoch. [Sect. ill. 

first; and after them the twelve leaders of the orders who 
divide the months ; and for the three hundred and sixty days 
there are the heads over thousands who divide the days ; and for 
the four intercalary days there are the leaders which sunder 
the four parts of the year. 12. And of those heads over 

thousands one is added between leader and leader, behind the 
position, but their leaders make the division. 13. And these 
are the names of the leaders who divide the four parts of the 
year which are ordained : Melkeel, and Helemmelek, and 
Melejal, and Narel. 14. And the names of those which 

they lead : Adnarel, and Ijasusael, and Ijelumiel — these 
three follow the leaders of the orders and one follows the 
three leaders of the orders which follow those leaders of 
positions that divide the four parts of the year. 15. In 
the beginning of the year Melkejal rises first and rules, 
who is named Tamaani and sun, and all the days of his 
dominion whilst he bears rule are ninety-one days. 16. 

And these are the signs of the days which are to be seen on 
earth in the days of his dominion : sweat, and heat, and 
anxiety ; all the trees bear fruit, and leaves are produced on 



omit. 11. Divide the months; and for the three hundred 

and sixty days there are the heads over thousands who divide 
the days. So G M: J&A>&£SPod«; dhahMi (D([£Z(D& ACXflt: %%. 
I have here emended X in G into Xt in conformity with M. M, 
by a slip, gives 300 instead of 360. This text is superior to Dln.'s 
in sense and clearness. Din. gives: J&AAj&JPcfl*; (f\ftflK#«'i; 
(DMaDfr EZmgwQfMi fiCXftt: XI— welche die Monate u. das 
Jahr in 364 Tage trennen nebst den Hauptern uber Tausend. 
12. Between leader and leader. So G M. Other MSS., 'be- 
tween the leader and the led/ 15. In the beginning of the 



leaders of the months divide the as Halle* vi has shown. Melejal and 

months : the chiliarchs divide the 360 Narel are transliterations of Hebrew 

days, and the four leaders which names. 14. This verse seems 

divide the year into four parts have unintelligible. 15-17. The period 

charge of the intercalary days. 12. from spring to summer = 91 days 

I do not understand this verse. 13. under the dominion of Melkejal or 

Melkeel from PN'oJjp is simply an Melkeel, ' who is named . . . sun.' 

inversion of Helemmel&c from ^E^K How this leader is named 'the sun' 



Sect, in.] Chapter LXXXII. 12-20. 219 

all the trees, and the harvest of wheat, and the rose flowers, 
and all the flowers bloom in the field, but the trees of the 
winter season become withered. 17. And these are the 

names of the leaders subordinated to them : Berkeel, Zalbesael, 
and another who is added a head, of a thousand called Heloja- 
seph : and the days of the dominion of this (leader) are at an 
end. 18. The other leader who is after them is Helem- 
melek, named the shining sun, and all the days of his light are 
ninety-one days. 19. And these are the signs of the days 
on the earth : glowing heat and dryness, and the trees bring 
their fruits to ripeness and ripen and mature all their fruits, 
and the sheep pair and become pregnant, and all the fruits of 
the earth are gathered in, and everything that is in the fields, 
and the wine-press : these things take place in the days of his 
dominion. 20. These are the names, and the orders, and the 
leaders of those heads of thousands : Gedael, and Keel, and 
Heel, and the name of the head of a thousand which is added 
to them, Asfael ; and the days of his dominion are at an end. 



year. 'Year' wanting in G. 16. All the flowers bloom. 

G reads HJ&C00X 'all the flowers which come forth/ M omits 
'bloom.' 17. Head of a thousand. G reads CXtll XS- 

19. Signs of the days. GM read 'days of his sign/ Ripen 
and mature all their fruits. So G M. Other MSS. give, ' to 
maturity and cause their fruits to become dry/ 20. The 

leaders. So G. Other MSS. ' the subordinate leaders/ 



does not appear. 16. Bose flowers. This verse is confused. The three 

Not known in the O.T., though the names are those of the leaders of 

word is found in the E. version in the three months. The fourth — 

Is. xxxv. i; Song of Solomon ii. I. Asfael from pNapV' ' God aids,' which 

The rose is mentioned in Ecclus. xxiv. is merely an inversion of Heldjaseph 

14; xxxix/13; Book of Wisdom ii. from FjOivN — is the chiliarch who 

8. But in the first two passages it is has to do with the intercalary day 

probably the oleander that is referred under one of the four chief leaders, 

to. 17. The leaders subordi- There is no account of the remaining 

nated to them, i. e. the leaders of six months. This may have been 

the three months. 18-20. The omitted by the final redactor, 

period from summer to autumn. 20. 



SECTION IV. 

(chapters lxxxiii-xc.) 

THE DREAM-VISIONS. INTRODUCTION. 

A. Critical Structure. B. Relation of this Section to (a) i-xxxvi ; 
(b) xci-civ. C. The Bate. D. TJte Problem arid its Solution. 

A. Critical Structure. There is no difficulty about the 
critical structure of this section. It is the most complete and 
self-consistent of all the sections, and has suffered least from the 
hand of the interpolator. There seems to be only one interpola- 
tion, i.e. xc. 15. Of dislocations of the text there are two: 
lxxxix. 48 b should be read after lxxxix. 49: see lxxxix. 48 
Grit. Note; and xc. 19 should be read before xc. 16 : see xc. 15 
(note). 

B. (a) Kelation of this Section to i-xxxvi. This question can 
only be determined by giving the points of likeness as well as of 
divergence. The points of likeness or identity in (1) phraseology, 
and (2) in ideas, are : — 

(1) 'Tongue of flesh,' lxxxiv. 1 ; xiv. 2 : ' make the earth with- 
out inhabitant,' lxxxiv. 5 ; ix. 2 : ' Holy and Great One/ lxxxiv. 1 ; 
x. 1: 'glorious land* (i.e. Jerusalem or Palestine), lxxxix. 40, 
compared with ' blessed land,' xxvii. 1 : ' God of the whole world,' 
lxxxiv. 2, compared with ' God of the world,' i. 3. The doxology 
in lxxxiv. 2 appears to be a more rhetorical form of that in ix. 4. 

(2) There is, in the main, the same doctrine of the fallen 
angels : the judgment in both is at the beginning of the Messianic 
kingdom: Gehenna is found in both, xc. 26; xxvii. 1 : the abyss 
of fire for the fallen angels, xc. 24; xxi. 7-10: the conversion of 
the Gentiles, xc. 30; x. 21. 

There is, practically, nothing that is distinctive in (2) — certainly 
nothing more than would refer the two sections to the same school 
of thought. But the evidence of (1) is of a different nature, and 



Introduction. 2 2 1 

points, when combined with the evidence of (2), to a close 
connexion between the two sections either in identity of author- 
ship, or in the acquaintance of one of the authors with the work 
of the other. That the latter alternative is the true one, we shall 
find on the following grounds: — (1) In lxxxiii. 11 the sun comes 
forth from the ' windows of the east ' ; this term is never used of 
the sun in i-xxxvi, nor in lxxii-lxxxii : see lxxxiii. 1 1 (note). 
' Windows ' has a different reference altogether : see lxxii. 3 (note). 
(2) In lxxxiv. 4 ' day of the great judgment ' = Deluge ; in i-xxxvi 
and xci-civ always = final judgment: see lxxxiv. 4 (note). (3) 
The account of the descent of the watchers in lxxxvi. 1-3 differs 
from that in vi. (4) In xc. 21, 22 seven archangels are men- 
tioned ; in ix. four — yet see xx. 7, Giz. Gk. (5) In xc. 19 the period 
of the Sword is an important feature ; yet it is not alluded to in 
i-xxxvi. (6) The throne of judgment is in Palestine in xc. 
20-26 ; on Sinai in i. 4 : whereas the throne on which God will 
sit when He comes to bless His people in xxv. 3 corresponds 
in locality to the throne of judgment in xc. 20. (7) Appearance 
of the Messiah emphasised in xc. 37, 38 ; not alluded to in 
i-xxxvi. (8) The scene of the kingdom in lxxxiii-xc is the New 
Jerusalem set up by God Himself ; in i-xxxvi it is Jerusalem and 
the entire earth unchanged though purified, x. 18, 20. (9) Life 
of the members of the Messianic kingdom apparently unending 
in xc. 33-39; but only finite in v. 9; x. 17; xxv. 6. Life is 
transfigured by the presence of the Messiah in xc. 38 in the New 
Jerusalem ; but in xxv. 5 by the external eating of the tree of 
life. (10) The picture on lxxxiii-xc is developed and spiritual ; 
that in i-xxxvi is naive, primitive, and sensuous. (11) lxxxiii-xc 
are only visions assigned to Enoch's earlier and unwedded life ; 
i-xxxvi are accounts of actual bodily translations and are assigned 
to his later life. If these two sections were from the same author 
and that an ascetic, exactly the converse would have been the case. 

On these grounds, therefore, identity of authorship is impossible ; 
but the similiarities in phraseology and idea prove that one of 
the authors had the work of the other before him. Of the two 
sections there is no room for doubt that lxxxiii-xc is the later. 

(b) Relation of lxxxiii-xc to xci-civ. See Special Introd. 
to xci-civ (pp. 262, 263). 

C. The Date. The fourth period began about 200 b. c. (see 
note on xc. 6-17, p. 249), and marks the transition of supremacy 
over Israel from the Graeco-Egyptians to the Graeco-Syrians, as 



222 The Book of Enoch, [Sect. IV. 

well as the rise of the Chasids. The Chasids, symbolised by the 
lambs that are born to the white sheep, xc. 6, are already an 
organised party in the Maccabean revolt, xc. 6 (note). The lambs 
that become horned are the Maccabean family, and the great 
horn is Judas Maccabaeus, xc. g (note). As this great horn 
is still warring at the close of the rule of the twelve shepherds, 
xc. 1 6, this section must have been written before the death 
of Judas, 161 B.C., possibly before his purification of the Temple. 

As the fourth period began about 200 b. c, the author of 
lxxxiii— xc, writing in the lifetime of Judas Maccabaeus, must have 
expected its close between 140 and 130 B.C.; for, on the analogy 
of the third period, each shepherd would rule between five and 
six years. This expectation in connexion with Judas Maccabaeus 
was not unnatural, as his eldest brother, Simon, did not die 
till 135 B.C. 

D. The Problem and its Solution. This section forms in 
short compass a philosophy of religion from the Jewish standpoint. 
It is divided into two visions, the former of which deals with the 
first world-judgment of the Deluge, and the latter with the entire 
history of the world till the final judgment. The writer does not 
attempt to account for the sin that showed itself in the first 
generation. In his view, it was not the sin of man, but the sin 
of the angels who fell (in the days of Jared), that corrupted the 
earth, lxxxiv. 4, lxxxvi-lxxxviii, and brought upon it the first 
world-judgment. 

In the second vision the interest centres mainly on the calamities 
that befall Israel from the exile onwards. Why has Israel become 
a by-word among the nations, and the servant of one gentile 
power after another *? Is there no recompense for the righteous 
nation and the righteous individual 1 That Israel, indeed, has 
sinned grievously and deserves to be punished, the author amply 
acknowledges, but not a punishment so unmeasurably transcending 
its guilt. But these undue severities have not come upon Israel 
from God's hand: they are the doing of the seventy shepherds 
into whose care God committed Israel, lxxxix. 59. These shep- 
herds or angels have proved faithless to their trust, and treach- 
erously destroyed those whom God willed not to destroy; but 
they have not therein done so with impunity. An account has 
been taken of all their deeds and of all whom they have wickedly 
destroyed, lxxxix. 61-64, an ^ for all their victims there is laid up 
a recompense of reward, xc. 33. Moreover, when the outlook 



Sect. IV.] Chapter LXXXIII. i, 2. 223 

is darkest, and the oppression at its worst, a righteous league 
will be established in Israel, xc. 6; and in it there will be a 
family from which will come forth the deliverer of Israel, i. e. 
Judas Maccabaeus, xc. 9-16. The Syrians and other enemies 
of Israel will put forth every effort to destroy him, but in vain ; 
for a great sword will be given to him wherewith to destroy 
his enemies, xc. 19. Then all the hostile Gentiles will assemble 
for their final struggle against Israel, still led by Judas Maccabaeus, 
xc. 16; but this, their crowning act of wickedness, will also be 
the final act in their history and serve as the signal for their 
immediate judgment. God will appear in person, and the earth 
open its mouth and swallow them up, xc. 18. The wicked shep- 
herds and the fallen watchers will then be judged, and cast into 
an abyss of fire, xc. 20-25. With the condemnation of the 
apostates to Gehenna the great assize will close. Then the New 
Jerusalem will be set up by God Himself, xc. 28, 29; and the 
surviving Gentiles will be converted and serve Israel, xc. 30 ; and 
all the Jews dispersed abroad will be gathered together, and 
all the righteous dead will be raised to take part in the kingdom. 
Then the Messiah will appear amongst them, xc. 37; and all the 
righteous will be gloriously transformed after his likeness, xc. 38 ; 
and God will rejoice over them. 

lxxxiii-xc were written by a Chasid in support of the Macca- 
bean movement. 

TRANSLATION. 

LXXXIII. i. f And now, my son Methuselah, I will show 
thee all my visions which. I have seen, recounting (them) before 
thee. a. Two visions I saw before I took a wife, and the 



LXXXIII. 1. My visions. So GM. Other MSS. and Din. 



The first Dream- vision, Ixxxiii, course with the angels, and is trans- 

lxxxiv, deals with the Deluge or first lated bodily and therein admitted 

world-judgment. to higher privileges than in mere 

LXXXIII. 2. Before I took a visions. Yet if lxxxiii-xc came from 

wife, i. e. before I was sixty-five : the same hand as the other sections, 

cf. Gen. v. 21. The name of this wife the converse should have been the case 

was Edna, lxxxv. 3 : cf. Book of on ascetic grounds, and Enoch should 

Jubilees iv. We should observe that have had his bodily translations to 

lxxxiii-xc are only dreams or dream- heaven and his intercourse with the 

visions ; whereas in the other sections angels during his unmarried years, and 

of the book Enoch has open inter- his dream- visions after he had taken a 



224 The Book of Enoch. [Sect. IV. 

one was quite unlike the other : on the first occasion when I 
was learning to write, on the second, before I took thy 
mother, I saw a terrible vision, and concerning them I prayed 
to the Lord. 3. I had laid me down in the house of my 

grandfather Malalel, when I saw in a vision how the heaven 
collapsed and was borne off and fell to the earth. 4. And 

when it fell to the earth I saw how the earth was swallowed 
up in a great abyss, and mountains hung suspended on moun- 
tains, and hills sank down on hills, and high trees were rent 
from their stems and hurled down and sunk in the abyss. 

5. And thereupon utterance came into my mouth, and I lifted 
up my voice to cry aloud, and said : " The earth is destroyed." 

6. And my grandfather Malalel waked me as I lay near him, 
and said unto me : " Why dost thou cry aloud, my son, and 
why dost thou thus make lamentation ? " 7. Then I 
recounted to him the whole vision which I had seen, and 
he said unto me : " What thou hast seen, my son, is terrible, 
and thy dream-vision is of grave moment as to the sin of all 
sin of the earth : it must sink into the abyss and be destroyed 
with a great destruction. 8. And now, my son, arise and 
make petition to the Lord of glory, since thou art a believer, 
that a remnant may remain on the earth. 9. My son, all 
this will come from heaven upon the earth, and there will be 
violent destruction upon earth/' 10. After that I arose and 



'the visions.' 5. Lifted up my voice to cry aloud. See 
Crit. Note, xxxviii. 2. G reads i*l I VXh« ' I arose to cry aloud.' 
7. Is of grave moment as to. So 1?A not = ' betrifft ' as in 
Dln.'s translation: see Lexicon, col. 607. G reads ^»j&A. Sin 

of. So G $aLlft, and virtually M. Other MSS. 'secrets 
of.' 8. Remain on the earth. So G M. Other MSS. 

and Din. add 'and that He may not destroy the whole earth.' 



wife. 5. Came into my mouth, lit. of glory. This title is found in xxv. 3, 

' fell into my mouth.' The phrase de- 7 ; xxvii. 3,5; xxxvi. 4 ; xl. 3 ; lxiii. 2 ; 

notes the spontaneous character of the and ' Eternal Lord of Glory' in lxxv. 3. 

cry. 7. See Crit. Note. 8. Lord 9. Prom heaven, i. e. ordained of God. 



sect, iv.] Chapters LXXXIII. i—LXXXI V.i. 225 

prayed and implored, and wrote down my prayer for the 
generations of the world, and I will show everything- to 
thee, my son Methuselah. n. And when I had gone 

down and forth and saw the heaven, and saw the sun rising 1 
in the east, and the moon setting in the west, and a few stars, 
and the whole earth, and everything as He had known it in 
the beginning, then I blessed the Lord of judgment and 
extolled Him because He made the sun to go forth from the 
windows of the east, so that he ascends and rises on the face 
of the heaven, and sets out and traverses the path shown unto 
him. 

LXXXIV. 1. And I uplifted my hands in righteousness 
and blessed the Holy and Great One, and spoke with the 
breath of my mouth, and with the tongue of flesh, which 
God has made for the children of the flesh of men, that 
they should speak therewith, and He gave them breath 
and a tongue and a mouth that they should speak therewith : 



10. My prayer. G reads instead: (DfthtMhi a?R AAf>; CD. M: 
(pftft&tH (D&trYt. n. And the whole earth. SoCDFGILMO. 
N and Din. omit. And everything as He had known it in the 
beginning. Din. has recognised the ineptness of this reading but 
has not suggested an emendation. Either, then, read HK&(n>Clb 
instead of FfiAcn>£ 'and everything as I had known it afore- 
time;' or, the reading of the MSS. may have been owing, as 
Professor Margoliouth has suggested to me, to the Greek translator 
confusing f^D and fV?n. In that case we should translate 'and 
everything as He had established it in the beginning.' Sets out. 
SoABCEFGHM KV»H : see Lexicon, col. 637. Other MSS. 
1-1^=^011 erhob/ 

LXXXIV. 1. The children of the flesh of men. So A B CFG 
HIMN: ah(t& J»?i M&. LO and Din. 'children of men.' 



10. My prayer. Found in lxxxiv. word invariably used in connexion 

11. See Crit. Note. Lord of judg- with the sun. For the word ' win- 
ment. Here only. "Windows. This dows,' see lxxii. 3 (note). 

term never used in i-xxxvi nor in LXXXIV. 1. The Holy and 

lxxii-lxxxii of the sun. Portal is the Great One : see i. 3 (note). Tongue 



226 The Book of Enoch. [Sect. IV. 

2. " Blessed be Thou, O Lord, King both great and mighty in 
Thy greatness, Lord of the whole creation of the heaven, King 
of Kings and God of the whole world, and Thy power and king- 
ship and greatness abide for ever and for ever and ever, and 
Thy dominion throughout all generations, and all the heavens 
are Thy throne for ever, and the whole earth Thy footstool for 
ever and for ever and ever. 3. For Thou hast created 

and rulest all things, and hast made all things fast and no 
manner of wisdom escapes Thee : she departs not from her 
throne — Thy throne, nor from Thy presence; and Thou 
knowest and seest and hearest everything, and there is 
nothing which is hidden from Thee for Thou seest everything. 
4. And now the angels of Thy heavens trespass (against 
Thee) and Thy wrath abideth upon the flesh of men until the 
day of the great judgment. 5. And now, O God and Lord 
and Great King, I implore and pray Thee that Thou mayest 
fulfil my prayer, to leave me a posterity on earth, and not to 
destroy all the flesh of man and make the earth without in- 
habitant, so that there should be an eternal destruction. 6. 
And now, my Lord, destroy from the earth the flesh which 



3. Hast made all things fast. So G : hKiOh: H*A°, which should 
be corrected into fiJWOh; ItfiP. Din. gives, ' nothing is too hard 
for Thee.' Departs not. G reads hsV(n>£n\h ' does not turn 

Thee away'; and M fi/^ffDfmh. 



of flesh : see xiv. 2. 2. Cf. ix. in both these passages as the assessor 

4 sqq. Lord of the whole creation or irapeSpos of God. The idea is to be 

of the heaven. Here only : cf. traced to Prov. viii. 30 in the LXX. 

lxxxii. 7 ; also lviii. 4 (note). King version, rjfirjv nap' avTa>\ cf.Ecclus.i. I, 

of Kings. Also in lx. 4. God of h*t avrov kortv els rbv alwva. 4. 

the whole world. Here only : cf. Upon the flesh of men : cf. vv. i, 5 ; 

1 God of the world,' i. 3 (note). All Job xii. 10. Day of the great judg- 

the heavens are Thy throne, &c. ment : seexlv. 2 (note). This phrase 

From Is. lxvi. 1. 3. She de- can refer here only to the Deluge. 

parts not from her throne — Thy In xix. 1 it refers to the final judg- 

throne : cf. Book of Wisdom ix. 4, ment, and so always in xci-civ : cf. 

'Wisdom that sitteth by Thee on xciv. 9; xcviii. 10; xcix. 15 ; civ. 5. 

Thy throne.' Wisdom is represented 5. Great King. Alsoinxci. 13. 6. 



Sect, iv.] Chapters LXXXIV. 2—LXXX V. 3. 227 



has aroused Thy wrath, but the flesh of righteousness and up- 
rightness establish as a plant of the seed for ever and hide not 
Thy face from the prayer of Thy servant, O Lord." 

LXXXY. 1. And after this I saw another dream, and I will 
show all the vision to thee, my son/ 3. And Enoch lifted 
up his voice and spake unto his son Methuselah : ' To thee, 
my son, will I speak: hear my words— incline thine ear to 
the dream-vision of thy father. 3. Before I took thy 

mother Edna, I saw in a vision of my bed, and behold a bull 
came forth from the earth, and that bull was white; and 
after it came forth a heifer, and along with this (latter) came 
forth two young bulls, one of them black and the other red. 



LXXXY. 1. After H-ft» G adds ch&aD. 2 . Lifted up hfe 

voice. See Crit. Note on xxxviii. 2. 3. In a vision of my 

bed. So G M. Other MSS. ' in a vision on my bed.' Came 
forth two young bulls. So GN : wQfc Xi&hft. Other MSS. give 



A plant of the seed for ever : see 
x. 16 (note). This idea was a very 
favourite one : cf. lxii. 8 ; xciii. 2, 5, 
10. 

LXXXV-XC. The second Dream- 
vision. In this second vision the 
writer gives a complete history of 
the world from Adam down to the 
final judgment and the establishment 
of the Messianic kingdom. After the 
example of Daniel men are symbolized 
by animals. The leaders of the chosen 
race are represented by domestic 
animals, the patriarchs by bulls, and 
the faithful of later times by sheep. 
This difference is intended to mark 
the later declension of Israel in faith 
and righteousness. The Gentiles are 
symbolized by wild beasts and birds 
of prey ; the fallen watchers by stars ; 
unfallen angels by men. At times 
the author is obliged to abandon his 
symbolism, and he is not always con- 
sistent in his use of it, as the same 
symbol varies in meaning. Even the 



divine name is adapted to the pre- 
vailing symbolism. In the main the 
narrative is based on the O.T., but 
at times mythical elements from later 
Jewish exegesis are incorporated. 

LXXXV. 2. Cf. Prov. v. 1. 3. 
Edna: cf. Ixxxiii. 2. Bull. The 
Ethiopic word is lahm. This word 
has various meanings in the following 
chapters. In the sing, it = bull or- 
heifer; in the plur. it = bulls, or 
cattle, or cows. The context must 
determine the sense. The author uses 
also the unequivocal word sor, which 
always means a bull. Ta'wa = vitulus 
or vitula in these chapters. Eve is so 
designated in this verse, i. e. a heifer, 
to denote her as a virgin. In ver. 6 
she is called ' a cow.' White is the 
colour that symbolizes righteousness 
throughout this vision : cf. lxxxv. 8 ; 
lxxxvii, 2, &c. Cf. Is. i. 18 ; Ps. li. 7 ; 
Eev. vii. 14. Two young bulls : see 
Crit. Note. Cain is black, as this colour 
symbolizes his sin : Abel is red— the 



Q3 



22 8 The Book of Enoch. [Sect. IV. 

4. And that black young bull gored the red one and pursued him 
over the earth, and thereupon I could no longer see that red 
young bull. 5. But that black young bull grew and a heifer 
joined him, and I saw that many oxen proceeded from him 
which resembled and followed him. 6. And that cow, that 
first one, went from the presence of that first bull in order to 
seek that red young bull, but found him not, and thereupon 
raised a great lamentation and (still) kept seeking him. 7. 
And I looked till that first bull came to her and quieted her, 
and from that hour onward she cried no more. 8. After 
that she bore another white bull, and after him she bare many 
bulls and black cows. 9. And in my sleep I saw that 
white bull likewise grow and become a great white bull, and 
from him proceeded many white oxen which resembled him. 
10. And they began to beget many white oxen which re- 
sembled them, one following the other (in due succession). 

LXXXVI. 1. And again I saw with mine eyes as I slept, 
and I saw the heaven above, and behold a star fell from 
heaven, and it arose and ate and pastured amongst those oxen. 
2. And after that I saw the large and black oxen, and behold 

(DRhl *!&X ■ came forth other young bulls.' 5. But that black. 
G omits ' but that.' Followed him. G M read ' followed them.' 
6. For fln>7 'thereupon' G reads ^ftlh. 8. Another white 

bull. For 'another' G reads Xl&h, 'a pair of white oxen': i.e. 
. Seth and a sister to be his wife. 

LXXXVI. 1. Pastured amongst those oxen. 2. And after 



colour emblematic of his martyrdom. to the ' bulls ' also. 9. Bull. 

4. Young bull. So I render ta'wa Rendering of s6r : see ver. 3. This 
when it=vitulus, as in vv. 4, 5, 6. bull is Seth. The descendants of Seth 

5. A heifer. The same word is used are likewise righteous like their pro- 
of Eve in ver. 3. This heifer is Cain's genitor. 

wife, and according to the Book of LXXXVI. 1. A star, i. e. Azazel 

Jubilees iv. his sister, by name Avan. or Semjaza ; for we cannot be sure 

Oxen. This is the rendering of the which of the two forms of the myth 

plural of lahm, and includes bulls is followed here, as it differs from 

and cows. 6. Eve seeks Abel. the account given in vi, where all 

8. Another white bull, i. e. Seth, descended together. In the Talmud 

but see Crit. Note. Black cows. (Weber, L. d. T. 244) these angels 

The adjective ' black * belongs probably descend together. 2. The result 



Sect. IV.] Chapters LXXXV. ^-LXXXVII. 2. 229 

they all changed their stalls and pastures and their cattle, and 
began to live with each other. 3. And again I saw in the 

vision, and looked towards the heaven, and behold I saw 
many stars descend and cast themselves down from heaven to 
that first star, and they became bulls amongst those cattle and 
(remained) with them, pasturing amongst them. 4. And I 
looked at them and saw, and behold they all let out their 
privy members, like horses, and began to cover the cows of 
the oxen, and they all became pregnant and bare elephants, 
camels, and asses. 5. And all the oxen feared them and 

were affrighted at them, and they began to bite with their 
teeth and to devour, and to gore with their horns. 6. And 
they began then to devour those oxen ; and behold all the 
children of the earth began to tremble and to quake before 
them and to flee. 

LXXXVII. 1. And again I saw how they began to gore 
each other and to devour each other, and the earth began to 
cry aloud. 2. And I again raised mine eyes to heaven, and 
I saw in the vision, and behold there came forth from heaven 



that I saw the large and black oxen. For this G reads shortly, 
1 pastured amongst those large black oxen/ 2. For (dX^°Hi 

CM* M gives (DhavWri ChZb\ X£VtTF. Began to live with each 
other. So G : /if tt; MiJ&fll.; QF>Ml *1&& . This alliules to the 
alliances between the Sethites and Cainites. Other MSS. 'began 
to lament one with another.' But the time for this had not yet 
come : it has come in verse 6. 3. Became bulls amongst 
those cattle and (remained) with them. So G M : ^XhA; X£V}K 
"lOT; htiiVyv-Ti W-; aJ^ftfUPtn* Other MSS.: 'were amongst 
those cattle and oxen. There they were with them.' 6. To 

flee. After these words GM add X^fclfOD*. 



of the fall of the angels was the inter- camels, and asses. Symbolizing the 

mingling of the Sethites and Cainites. three kinds of giants : see vii. 2 (note). 

The ' large ' oxen are probably the 6. The children of the earth, i. e. 

Sethites, and the ' black ' the Cainites. those of purely human descent as 

Began to live with each other : opposed to the watchers and their 

see Crit. Note. 3. Fall of the children, 

rest of the angels. 4. Elephants, LXXXVII. 1. The conflict of the 



230 The Book of Enoch. [Sect. IV. 

beings who were like white men : one of them came forth 
from that place and three with him. 3. And those three 

who had last come forth grasped me by my hand and took me 
up, away from the generations of the earth, and brought me 
up to a lofty place, and showed me a tower raised high above 
the earth, and all the hills were lower. 4. And they said 

unto me : " Remain here till thou seest everything that befalls 
those elephants and camels and asses, and the stars and the 
oxen, and all of them." 

LXXXVIIL 1. And I saw one of those four who had 
come forth before, and he seized that first star which had 
fallen from the heaven and bound it hand and foot and laid it 
in an abyss : now that abyss was narrow and deep, and 
horrible and dark. 2. And one of them drew his sword 

and gave it to those elephants and camels and asses : then 
they began to smite each other, and the whole earth quaked 
because of them. 3. And as I was beholding in the vision, 
lo then one of those four who had come forth cast (them) 



LXXXYII. 3. AU the hills were lower. G reads : rhj-ft; IHfc 
hWbC. M: <foj.& Itfc ha*VC. Other MSS. support Din. 
4. And the oxen and all of them. So G M. Other MSS. ' and 
oil the oxen.' 

LXXXVIIL 2. Camels and. Wanting in G. 3. One . . . 



bulls and giants. 2. Beings who times Enoch was translated thither, 

were like white men, i. e. unfallen we have in lxxxiii-xc a conception 

angels. As men are represented by of its locality and inhabitants differ- 

animals, the unfallen angels are natur- ing from any that has preceded : see 

ally represented by men. "White : lx. 8 (note). 

cf. lxxxv. 3. One . . . and three with LXXXVIIL There is a very close 

him. The ' one ' is probably Michael. connexion between this chapter and x. 

This is the first real occurrence of 4-14, but the variations are numerous 

the ' three angels ' in Enoch. It is enough to preclude any necessity for 

found again in xc. 31. It is from supposing the same authorship. 1. 

the present passage that the inter- Cf. x. 4-8, where Rufael binds Azazel. 

polator of lxxxi borrowed this phrase : 2. In x. 9, 10 Gabriel executes this 

cf. lxxxi. 5. 3, 4. If we are to task. 3. In x. 12-14 it is really 

regard this high tower as Paradise, Gabriel who binds and imprisons the 

and it seems we must, as according fallen watchers, for x. 1 1 which speaks 

to the universal tradition of later of Michael is an interpolation. The 



Sect. IV.] Chaps. LX XXVII. $— LXXXIX. 5. 231 

down from heaven, and they gathered and took all the great 
stars whose privy members were like those of horses, and 
bound them all hand and foot, and laid them in an abyss of 
the earth. 

LXXXIX. 1 . And one of those four went to that white bull 
and instructed him in a secret, as he trembled : he was born a 
bull and became a man, and built for himself a great vessel 
and dwelt thereon ; and three bulls dwelt with him in that 
vessel and they were covered in. 1. And again I raised mine 
eyes toward heaven and saw a lofty roof, with seven water 
torrents thereon, and those torrents poured much water into 
an enclosure. 3. And I saw again and behold fountains 

were opened on the earth in that great enclosure, and that 
water began to swell and rise upon the earth, and it hid 
that enclosure from view till the whole surface of it was 
covered with water. 4. And the water, the darkness, and 

mist increased upon it ; and as I looked at the height of that 
flood it rose above the height of that enclosure, and streamed 
over that enclosure, and remained on the earth. 5. And 
all the cattle of that enclosure were gathered together until 
I saw how they sank and were swallowed up and perished in 



cast (them) down from heaven, and they gathered. So G M. 
Other MSS. : ' One . . . cast (them) down from heaven and gathered.' 
LXXXIX. 1. To that white bull. So M. All other MSS. 
• to those white bulls.' As he trembled. G inserts a negative 
here: 'fearless as he was.' 2. Poured much water. G reads 
J&a^rhH* 'flowed with much water.' 3. Hid that enclosure 

from view. G : HCXf'. Ao*A*F: QK&. H : h.C\T\ da^kVi h%£. 



implication here, however, is that it see Crit. Note. In order to build the 

is not Gabriel but another of the five Ark, Noah is represented as becoming 

who is the agent of judgment. In a man. Three bulls. Noah's three 

an abyss of the earth. In x. 12 sons. Covered in : cf. Gen. vii. 16; 

1 under the hills.' En. lxvii. 2. 2. As men are 

LXXXIX. 1-9. The Deluge and symbolized by animals, their place of 

the Deliverance of Noah. 1. Cf. habitation is naturally called a pen, 

x. 1-3, where Uriel visits Noah for fold, or enclosure. Seven: cf. lxxvii. 

the same end. To that white bull : 4 (note). 3, 4. The Deluge. 



232 The Book of Enoch. [Sect. IV. 

that flood. 6. But that vessel floated on the water, while 

all the oxen and elephants and camels and asses sank to the 
bottom together with all the animals, so that I could no 
longer see them, and they were not able to come out, but 
perished and sank into the depths. 7. And again I saw 
in the vision till those water torrents were removed from that 
high roof, and the chasms of the earth were levelled up and 
other abysses were opened. 8. Then the water began to 

run down into these, till the earth became visible ; but that 
vessel settled on the earth and the darkness retired and light 
appeared. 9. But that white bull which had become a 

man came out of that vessel, and the three bulls with him, 
and one of the three was white like to that bull, and one of 
them was red as blood, and one black ; and that white bull 



6. Asses sank to the bottom. We have in •ftlTOD'i a*ft1*; Sr°&C 

an idiomatic use of 9^S:C See Lexicon, col. 217 : practically 
the same expression recurs in this verse, ' sank into the depths/ 
•frrtTcn*; ahfttl $({£: 'Bottom of the sea' may be expressed either 
by y&di (\fhC or <M?; (\chC. Dln/s rendering 'the asses on 
the earth sank/ though admissible grammatically, can hardly he 
right here. 7. The chasms of the earth were levelled up : 

"JfrOt; 9°&C\ 0«. Din. renders : ' Die Quellen der Erde ver- 
siegten/ 'the fountains of the earth dried up/ mistaking by a 
strange oversight IfcO^ for Jil$0;Hr of verse 3. This mistake 
led him to a forced and unreal rendering of 0£X. The writer 
conceives the flood as having been caused by a cleaving of the 
depths of the earth. Cf. Gen. vii. 1 1 Ivt; Itfcl <MjP^, and the 
staying of the flood as having been due to a closing or levelling 
up of these clefts or chasms. For this use of 0£?, cf. Baruch v. 7, 
'the valleys shall be filled up/ a)£0&\ y°&C=ds ofxakio-fxov tt)s yrjs. 
This idea of closing the abysses was a familiar one : cf. Prayer of 
Manasses 3, 6 kXciWs rfjv afivcraov ; and Book of Jubilees vi, 'the 
mouth of the depth of the abyss was closed/ 9. And one 



6. Sank to the bottom: see Crit. of the earth, &c: see Crit. Note. 
Note. "With all the animals, i. e. 9. Noah and his three sons. That 
the real animals. 7. The chasms white bull departed from them, 



Sect. IV.] Chapter LXXXIX. 6-14. 233 

departed from them. 10. And they began to bring forth 

beasts of the field and birds, so that there arose out of them 
all together a multitude of kinds : lions, tigers, dogs, wolves, 
hyenas, wild boars, foxes, squirrels, swine, falcons, vultures, 
kites, eagles, and ravens ; and among them was born a white 
bull. 11. And they began to bite one another; but that 

white bull which was born amongst them begat a wild ass 
and a white bull with it, and the wild ass multiplied. 12. 

But that bull which was born from him begat a black wild 
boar and a white sheep; and that wild boar begat many 
boars, but that sheep begat twelve sheep. 13. And when 

those twelve sheep had grown, they gave up one of them to 
the asses, and these asses again gave up that sheep to the 
wolves, and that sheep grew up among the wolves. 14. 
And the Lord brought the eleven sheep to live with it and to 



black. Wanting in GM. 10. Tigers. G reads h1 t dC ! V = 

' sea monsters/ but this word is frequently confused in MSS. 
with te9»tfc =' tigers/ For fifrO'dt G reads frttOt; but no 
such word exists. For fia^fll* 'vultures' G reads KihCf, 
which can have the same meaning. 11. For J^tttlYb, 'bite 

each other/ G reads &Y ( i(\ r b. This form is not found elsewhere. 
12. And that wild boar begat many boars. Wanting in GI. 



i. e. Noah died. 10. The necessi- with the name of the animal it de- 
ties of his subject oblige the author tested most : cf. vv. 42, 43, 49, 66. 
to mar the naturalness of his sym- In ver. 72 it is used of the Samaritans, 
bolism. His cattle produce all manner A white sheep, i. e. Jacob. Israel 
of four-footed beasts and birds of is specially in the symbolic language 
prey. Nearly all these appear later of the O.T. the sheep of God's pasture, 
as the enemies of Israel. A white Pss. lxxiv. 1 ; lxxix. 13; c. 3 ; Jer. 
bull, i. e. Abraham. 11. The wild xxiii. 1, and hence there is a peculiar 
ass is Ishmael, the progenitor of the fitness in representing the individual 
Arabs or Midianites, who in vv. 13, 16 who first bore the name as a white 
are called the 'wild asses/ which is sheep. The idea of declension in 
on the whole an apt designation: faith (see p. 227) can hardly attach 
cf. Gen. xvi. 12. The 'white bull' to this instance of its use. 13. One 
is Isaac. 12. A black wild boar, of them, i. e. Joseph. The asses, 
i.e. Esau. Later Jewish hatred thus the Midianites: cf. vv. II, 16. The 
expresses itself in associating Edom wolves, i.e. the Egyptians — hence- 



234 The Book of Enoch. [Sect. IV. 

pasture with it among the wolves ; and they multiplied and 
became many flocks of sheep. 15. And the wolves began 

to fear them, and they oppressed them till they destroyed 
their (the sheep's) young, and they cast their young into 
a river of much water ; but those sheep began to cry aloud 
on account of their young, and to complain unto their Lord. 
16. And a sheep which had been saved from the wolves fled 
and escaped to the wild asses ; and I saw the sheep how they 
lamented and cried and besought their Lord with all their 
might till that Lord of the sheep descended at the voice 
of the sheep from a lofty abode, and came to them and 
pastured them. 17. And He called that sheep which had 

escaped the wolves, and spake with it concerning the wolves 
that it should admonish them not to touch the sheep. 1 8. 

And the sheep went to the wolves according to the word of 
the Lord, and another sheep met it and went with it, and the 
two went and entered together into the assembly of those 
wolves, and spake with them and admonished them not to 
touch the sheep from henceforth. 19. Thereupon I saw 

the wolves and how they oppressed the sheep exceedingly 
with all their power ; and the sheep cried aloud. 2,0. And 
their Lord came to the sheep and began to smite those 
wolves : then the wolves began to make lamentation ; but 
the sheep became quiet and forthwith ceased to cry out. 
2 t . And I saw the sheep till they departed from amongst the 
wolves; but the eyes of the wolves were blinded, and those 



16. Pastured them. Cf. ver. 28. Din. 'nach ihnensah/ 18. Met 
it and went with it, and the two went and entered. So G, and 
virtually M. Other MSS. ' met that sheep and went with it and 
the two entered/ 20. And their Lord came . . . and began. 

G reads 'and their Lord came . . .and they began/ fl^tt; fiUftTfPav*. 



forth their standing designation in one in this and the following chapters, 

this vision. 16. A sheep which and occurs about twenty-eight times. 

had been saved, i. e. Moses. Lord 18. Another sheep, i. e. Aaron, 

of the sheep. This title is the usual 20. The plagues of Egypt. 21- 



Sect. IV.] Chapter LXXXIX. 15-30. 235 

wolves departed in pursuit of the sheep with all their 
power. 22. And the Lord of the sheep went with them, 
as their leader, and all His sheep followed Him : His face 
was dazzling and glorious and terrible to behold. 23. But 

the wolves began to pursue those sheep till they found them 
by a sea of water. 24. And this sea was divided, and the 
water stood on this side and on that before their face, and 
their Lord who led them placed Himself between them and 
the wolves. 25. And as those wolves did not yet see the 

sheep, they proceeded into the midst of that sea, and the 
wolves pursued the sheep, and those wolves ran after them 
into that sea. 26. And when they saw the Lord of the 
sheep, they turned to flee before His face, but that sea gathered 
itself together, and resumed its own nature suddenly, and the 
water swelled and rose till it covered those wolves. 27. 
And I saw till all the wolves which pursued those sheep 
perished and were drowned. 28. But the sheep escaped 

from that water and went forth into a wilderness, where there 
was no water and no grass ; and they began to open their 
eyes and to see ; and I saw the Lord of the sheep pasturing 
them and giving them water and grass, and that sheep going 
and leading them. 29. And that sheep ascended to the 

summit of that lofty rock, and the Lord of the sheep sent it 
to them. 30. And after that I saw the Lord of the sheep 

standing before them, and His appearance was great and 



22. Glorious and terrible to behold. So GM: XiCtCl wV$.y°i 
ACX.£. Din. gives, ' His appearance was terrible and glorious.' 
24. And on that. Wanting in G. 28. Began to open their eyes 
and to see. G reads &loh$: 'began to open their eyes and 
they saw.' 30. Great and terrible. So G M : 0&&1 (DV$.7°. 



27. The Exodus from Egypt. 28- to recover their spiritual vision and 
40. Journeyings through the wilder- return to God : cf. lxxxix. 32, 33, 41, 
ness, the giving of the law on Sinai, 44, 54; xc. 6, 9, 10, 26, 35. 29. 
and the occupation of Palestine. Moses' ascent of Sinai and return to 

28. Began to open their eyes, i. e. Israel at God's command, Exod. xix, 



236 The Book of Enoch. [Sect. IV. 

terrible and majestic, and all those sheep saw Him and were 
afraid before His face. 3T. And they all feared and 

trembled because of Him, and they cried to that sheep which 
was with them, which was amongst them : " We are not able 
to endure the presence of our Lord or to behold Him."" 32. 
And that sheep which led them again ascended to the summit 
of that rock, but the sheep began to be blinded and to wander 
from the way which he had showed them, but that sheep wot 
not thereof. ^. And the Lord of the sheep was wrathful 

exceedingly against them and that sheep discovered it, and 
went down from the summit of the rock, and came to the 
sheep, and found the greatest part of them blinded and fallen 
away. 34. And when they saw it, they feared and trembled 
at its presence, and desired to return to their folds. $$. 
And that sheep took other sheep with it, and came to those 
sheep which had fallen away, and thereupon began to slay 
them ; and the sheep feared its presence, and (thus) that sheep 
brought back those sheep that had fallen away, and they 
returned to their folds. 36. And I saw in this vision till 

that sheep became a man and built a house for the Lord of 
the sheep, and placed all the sheep in that house. ^1- And 



Dln/s MSS. omit 'great and/ 31. Din. gives ' after that sheep 
that was with Him to the other sheep which was amongst them/ 
G reads: *VHh-; (170; S^ft&lPavi H0ft°; "Vtilfipa*, and this we 
have followed ; for Dln/s MSS. and others give a wrong sense : 
Moses was not with God when the people appealed to him, Exod. 
xx. 18 ff.; Deut. v. 19 ff.; but amongst them, and no appeal 
whatever was made to Aaron. 32. Again ascended. (Dl*dh 
...WOCI: or simply 'returned and ascended/ 33. Fallen 

away. So GM. Other MSS. and Din. add 'from His path/ 
35. Thereupon. G reads KlH. 36. In this vision. So 



31. That sheep which was with 35. Cf. Exod. xxxii. 26-29. 36. 
them, i. e. Aaron : see Crit. Note. That sheep, i. e. Moses becomes a 

32. Cf. Exod. xxiv. 12 sqq.; xxxii. man to build the tabernacle: cf. vv. 
34. It, i.e. Moses. Keturn to their 1,9. Placed all the sheep in that 
folds, i. e. to abandon their errors. house, i. e. made the tabernacle the 



Sect, iv.] Chapter LXXXIX. 31-41. 237 

I saw till this sheep which had met that sheep which led the 
sheep fell asleep ; and I saw till all the great sheep perished 
and little ones arose in their place, and they came to a 
pasture, and approached a stream of water. 38. Then that 
sheep which led them and became a man withdrew from 
them and fell asleep, and all the sheep sought it and 
lamented over it with a great lamentation. 39. And 

I saw till they left off crying for that sheep and crossed 
that stream of water, and there always arose other sheep 
as leaders in the place of those which had led them and 
fallen asleep (lit. f had fallen asleep and led them''). 40. 
And I saw till the sheep came to a goodly place and a 
pleasant and glorious land, and I saw till those sheep were 
satisfied ; and that house stood amongst them in the pleasant 
land. 41. And sometimes their eyes were opened, and 

sometimes blinded, till another sheep arose and led them 
and brought them all back, and their eyes were opened. 



GI Q1f£X£. Other MSS. and Din., 'there the vision.' 
37. Id stead of CiUlbi (170 G gives the confused text *HJK 
Afl70. Which led the sheep. GM read 'which led them/ 
41. And sometimes their eyes were opened. Wanting in G. 



centre of their worship. 37. Death Nova Bihliotheca, t. ii. I have given 
of Aaron and of all the generation this fragment for purposes of com- 
that had gone out of Egypt. Pasture. parison with the English version of 
The land to the east of Jordan. A the Ethiopic. The k£fjs which occurs 
stream. The Jordan. 38. Death between two verses belonging im- 
of Moses : cf. Deut. xxxiv. 39. mediately to each other, i. e. 46, 47, 
Other sheep as leaders. The and the cfnjaiv inserted in ver. 47 prove 
Judges, including Joshua. 40. that the collector of these Greek 
Palestine : cf. xxvi. 1 . Observe that excerpts had not the complete Enoch 
the epithet 'glorious' is used in the before him, but drew them from an 
same connexion by Dan. xi. 16, 41. author who had brought together 
41-50. History of the times of the passages from Enoch and annotated 
Judges to the building of the Temple. them. So Gildemeister, Zeitschrift 
Of vv. 42-49 there is preserved a D. M. 6?., 1855, pp. 621 sqq. 41. 
valuable fragment of the Greek Periods of religious advance and de- 
version. This was published by Mai clension : work of Samuel. 
from a Vatican MS. in the Patrum 



2 3 8 



The Book of Enoch. 



[Sect. IV. 



42. And the dogs and the 
foxes and the wild boars began 
to devour those sheep till the 
Lord of the sheep raised up 
another sheep, a ram from 
their midst, which led them. 

43. And that ram began to 
butt on either side those dogs, 
foxes, and wild boars till he 
had destroyed them all. 44. 
And the eyes of that sheep 
were opened and it saw that 
ram, which was amongst the 
sheep, forgetting its dignity 
and beginning to butt those 



Greek fragment from Vati- 
can MS., published by Mai, 
Patrum Nova Bibliotheca, t. ii, 
deciphered by Gildemeister in 
the#Z)Jf£,i855,pp. 621,622. 

'Ek tov tov 'Ez^o))( (3i(3\lov 

XPWts. 
Kat ol Kvves rip^avro kcltco-- 

OUiV TO, TTpofiaTCL KCLl OL V€S KCU 

ol aX(07T€K€S Kar-qaOtov avrd, 
juexpt ov rjyeipev 6 Kvpios t&v 
TTpojSaTonv Kpibv €va £k tG>v 
irpo/ScLToov. Kat 6 Kptbs ovtos 
rjp£a.TO K€paTi(eiv kol en-iSico- 

K€LV €V Tols K€pa(TLV KOL €V€TL- 

vaa-crcv els tovs a\<aiT€Kas kol 
{X€T clvtovs ets tovs vols kol 

aTT(ti\€(T€V VOLS TToWoVS KOL fA€T 

clvtovs . . .to tovs kvvcls. Kat 

TOL TTpofiaTCL &V OL O^OaXfJLol 

rjvoiyr)crav eOedaovTO tov Kpibv 



42. Till the Lord of the sheep raised up another sheep. So G, 
against all other MSS.: Kfthi KhP'hi *l£V?i; Q70: KVUhi mVO. 
The slight error here of *l2vXi Q70 for *i£vO; (170 explains the origin 
of the later and corrupt reading fV"/! for K\P*\l in an attempt to 
emend the text. G is confirmed by the Gk. pixpt- ov rjyeipev 6 Kvpios 
t5>v irpofidrav Kpibv era. Other MSS. give 'till another sheep, the Lord 
of the sheep, arose.' Din. in his translation leaves out the words 
1 Lord of the sheep ' as a gloss. The words * another sheep ' are, 
I believe, a gloss, and we should render ' raised up a ram from 



42. The dogs and the foxes and the 
wild boars. The ' dogs ' are, accord- 
ing to vv. 46, 47, the Philistines. The 
'foxes' are taken by Din. to be the 
Amalekites, but this interpretation 
will not suit ver. 55 where the foxes 
are still notable foes of Israel close 
on the time of the Exile, whereas the 
Amalekites practically disappear from 
history with the reign of David. 
We shall most probably be right in 
taking the * foxes ' to mean the Am- 
monites. From the earliest times 



down to the wars of the Maccabees 
the Ammonites were always the un- 
relenting foes of Israel. ' This is the 
view also of the glosser on the Greek 
Fragment, vv. 42-49. The 'wild 
boars' are the Edomites : cf. vv. 12, 
43, 49, 66. Till the Lord of the 
sheep raised, &c. : see Crit. Note. 
43. Destroyed them all. The Greek 
text (airuXeoev iroXXovi) is here 
decidedly better. Saul by no means 
destroyed them all. 44. The 

eyes of that sheep were opened. 



Sect. IV.] Chapter LXXXIX. 42-47. 239 

sheep and trampling upon tov kv toIs irpoftaTois, ecos oS 

them and behaving itself un- a^rjKev rr\v bbbv avrov Kal ijp- 

seemly. 45. And the Lord £aro iropeuecrOai avobia. Kal 6 

of the sheep sent the lamb to Kvpios TuvTrpoftdTctv airio-TeiXev 

another lamb and raised it to tov apva tovtov eirl apva erepov 

being a ram and leader of the tov arrival avrbv els Kpibv ev 



sheep instead of that ram 
which had been forgetful of 
its dignity. 46. And it 



apXP T & v KpofiaTOiv olvtI tov 

KpLOV TOV b\(j)€VTOS T7]V 6bbv OV- 

tov. Kal iiropevOr) irpbs avrbv Kal 



went to it and spake with it eXak-qaev ai™ o-iyfj Kara novas 

alone, and raised it to being KalijyeipevavTovels Kpibv Kal els 

ram, and made it the prince ap^ovra Kal els j\yov[ievov t&v 

and leader of the sheep ; but irpo^aTOiv Kal ol Kvves eirl ttclctl 

during all these things those tovtois €0\l(3ov to. irp6j3aTa. 

dogs oppressed the sheep. 47. *E$rjs be tovtols yiypa-nrai otl 

And the first ram pursued 6 Kpibs 6 -np&Tos tov Kpibv tov 

that second ram, and that bevrepov e-rrebicoKev Kal tyv- 

second ram arose and fled be- y €V curb TrpoavTrov avrov' eir 

fore it ; and I saw till those eOedpovv, (f)r)o-iv, tov Kpibv tov 

dogs pulled down the first irp&Tov ecos ov enecrev e/jnrpoa- 



amongst them.' So Gk. 45. The lamb to another lamb. 
So Gk. All Ethiopic MSS. give ' the sheep to another sheep.' 
Cf. ver. 48, Crit. Note. Instead of that ram. So D, thCLl (170 J 
and Gk. avr\ tov Kpiov. Other MSS. 'instead of that sheep.' 



This phrase as applied to Samuel 
here cannot be used in the sense of 
spiritual awakening and return to 
God which it has elsewhere in this 
vision : cf. ver. 28 (note). Here it 
must mean the prophetic gift of in- 
sight as in i. 2. The Greek version 
certainly escapes this difficulty by 
applying the phrase in its usual sense 
to the sheep, and is probably the 



true text. 45, 40. David anointed 
king. Observe that in ver. 45 the 
Greek used apva and not irp6/3aTov for 
Samuel and for David so long as the 
latter is not yet king, where the 
Ethiopic employs the more general 
term 'sheep.' Observe further that 
Solomon previous to his coronation, 
ver. 49, is called ' a little sheep,' i. e. 
a lamb. I have followed the Greek : 



240 The Book of Enoch. [Sect. I v. 

ram. 48. And that second 6ev t5>v kvvG>v. Kcu 6 Kptoj 6 

ram arose and led the sheep, 

and that ram begat many M™pos &va.T,r,tfaa, ^rfvaro 

sheep and fell asleep; and a T&p ^ o/3(W Kal r j ^ 

little sheep became ram in its 

stead and became prince and /3ara -qv^rfd-qaav kcu €tt\t}9vv- 

leader of those sheep. 49. 

A , ,, t t Oncrav' kcu ticivtcs ol kvv€S kcli 

And those sheep grew and ' 

multiplied ; and all the dogs ol fcfcfcwctt tyvyov far' avrov 

and foxes and wild boars 

feared and fled before it, ™<- tyopdvvro avr6v. 

and that ram butted and killed all the wild beasts, and those 

wild beasts had no longer any power among the sheep and 

robbed them no more of ought. 50. And that house 



48. Arose. G reads iP'h for Tl^fi, and M iJ»ha*. Led 
the sheep. So Gk. Ethiopic MSS. give ' led the little sheep/ 
But the word ' little ' should be omitted, as it is wanting in the 
Gk., and the expression ' little sheep' is pointless here, and 
found but once before in ver. 37. It crept into the text from the 
next line. The rest of the verse is also wanting in the Gk., 
but this is so, only because the fragment ends with ver. 49, 
at the close of which these words originally stood. Thus they 
form a natural transition to the account of the temple. A further 
and stronger reason for their genuineness is the phrase ' a little 
sheep ' applied to Solomon, previous to his becoming king. This 
phrase has nothing derogatory in it, but can only be a loose 
rendering of dfivos, 'lamb,' applied also to David previous to his 
being appointed king, see ver. 45. Evidently the Ethiopic trans- 
lator did not feel the technical use of the word, as he has 
obliterated it altogether in ver. 45. Thus, as the technical term 
is not found in the Ethiopic in this connexion, an Ethiopic inter- 
polator could not have produced this manifest, though imperfect 



see Crit. Notes on ver. 45. 48. The sheep, i.e. lamb: see vv. 45, 46 

Greek text gives the true order here : (note). 49. This is a description 

see Crit. Note. The words 'And of the reign of David. 50. That 

that ram begat . . . prince and leader house. As Din. shows by a com- 

of those sheep,' should be placed parisonof vv. 56, 66 sq., 72 sq. and the 

after ver. 49 : see Crit. Note. A little passage in Test. Levi x, o ydp oIkos, 



Sect. IV.] Chapter LXXXIX. 48-54. 241 

became great and broad, and a lofty and great tower was 
built for those sheep : it was built on the house for the Lord 
of the sheep, and that house was low, but the tower was 
elevated and lofty, and the Lord of the sheep stood on that 
tower and a full table was placed before Him. 51. And 
again I saw those sheep that they again erred and went 
many ways, and forsook that their house, and the Lord of 
the sheep called some from amongst them and sent them 
to the sheep, but the sheep began to slay them. 52. And 

one of them was saved and was not slain, and it sped away 
and cried aloud over the sheep; and they wanted to slay 
it, but the- Lord of the sheep saved it from the sheep, 
and brought it up to me, and caused it to dwell (there). 
53. And many other sheep He sent to those sheep to 
testify and lament over them. 54. And after that I 

saw that when they forsook the house of the Lord and 
His tower they fell away entirely, and their eyes were 
blinded ; and I saw the Lord of the sheep how He wrought 



form of it. 50. A lofty and great tower was built for those 

sheep : it was built on the house for the Lord of the sheep. 
So G, inserting CD0&£l Ivhlft after \Vh and omitting "HfK 
IMN give, ' a lofty tower was built for those sheep on that house 
and a tower lofty and great was built on that house for the Lord 
of the sheep.' So also L 0, but that they give ' on the house for 
the Lord of the sheep/ F H and Din., ■ a lofty tower was built 
for those sheep on that house for the Lord of the sheep.' We 
might also translate 'was built by those sheep for the Lord of 
the sheep.' 52. From the sheep. So GM. Other MSS. and 
Din. 'from the hands of the sheep.' 54. The house of the 

Lord. So G M. Other MSS. and Din. ' the house of the Lord 



bv av (K\e£r)Tai rcvpios, 'ie/JoucaX^/i of the Temple. 51. Called some 

KX-qO-qafTai, kcl6ws ircpiex** #tj8Aos . .. and sent them, i.e. the prophets. 

'Ei'wx tov SiKalov, this house is 52. Escape and translation of Elijah : 

Jerusalem and the tower is the cf. xciii. 8. 53, 54. The fruitless 

temple. A full table, i. e. offerings activity of the prophets, and the 

and sacrifices. 51-67. Gradual complete apostasy of the nation owing 

declension of Israel till the destruction to their abandonment of the Temple. 



242 The Book of Enoch. [Sect. IV. 

much slaughter amongst them in their individual herds until 
those sheep invited such slaughter and betrayed His place. 
$$. And He gave them over into the hands of the lions and 
tigers and wolves and hyenas, and into the hand of the foxes 
and to all the wild beasts, and those wild beasts began to 
tear in pieces those sheep. 56. And I saw that He for- 
sook that their house and their tower, and gave them all into 
the hand of the lions to tear and devour them, into the hand 
of all the wild beasts. 57. And I began to cry aloud with 

all my power and to appeal to the Lord of the sheep, and to 
represent to Him in regard to the sheep that they were being 
devoured by all the wild beasts. 58. But He remained 
unmoved, as He saw it, and rejoiced that they were devoured 
and swallowed and robbed, and left them to be devoured in 
the hand of all the, beasts. 59. And He called seventy 

shepherds and put away those sheep that they might pasture 



of the sheep.' In their individual herds. For ft ft G M 
read ft 'in their herds.' 5.6. For J&F'liTPav G reads 

£yojx>paD<. 57, Lord of the sheep. GM have the strange 
reading Jk7Rfo ^•ftfl^ 'Lord of the lions.' All the wild 
beasts. G reads 'all of them.' 58. For \&\ H*ft°OD* G reads 

Itfci XA. 59, Seventy. G M read rt-flOt, a mistake for ft-fl 1 }. 



Invited such slaughter and be- figure and phraseology in regard to 

trayed His place, i.e. called in the destruction of Israel by the 

heathen nations to help them and heathen : cf. Jer. xii. 9 ; Is. lvi. 9 ; 

so betrayed Jerusalem. 55. The Ezek. xxxiv. 5, 8. Barnabas xvi. 4 

final .fortunes of the two kingdoms refers to this verse, see quotation 

and the names of their oppressors. (p. 38). 59. The seventy shep- 

Lions and tigers, i. e. the Assyrians herds. This is the most vexed 

and Chaldees. In vv. 56, 65 (?) where, question in Enoch. The earliest in- 

the lions alone are mentioned, the terpreters took the first thirty-seven 

Chaldees are meant. The ' wolves ' shepherds to mean the native kings 

are the Egyptians : cf. ver. 13. The of Israel and Judah. It was Ewald's 

'hyenas' may be the Ethiopians. merit to point out that this was a 

56. This verse describes how God conception impossible for a Jew, and 

gradually withdrew from the degraded that the seventy shepherds must 

Theocracy and gave Israel defenceless represent so many heathen oppressors 

into the hands of its enemies. To of Israel. This interpretation has 

devour. The prophets use the same undergone many forms, but all alike 



Sect. IV.] Chapter LXXXIX. 55-59. 



243 



them, and He spake to the shepherds and their companions : 
"Let each individual of you pasture the sheep henceforward, and 



have proved unsatisfactory : cf. Geb- 
hardt's 'Die 70 Hirten des Buches 
Henoch u. ihre Deutungen ' in Merx's 
Archivf. Wissenschaftl. Erforschung, 
1 87 1, pp. 163-246. To Hoffmann, 
Schrif the wets, i. 422, is due the credit 
of giving the only possible and satis- 
factory explanation. This explanation, 
which has been accepted by Schiirer, 
Drummond, Wieseler, Schodde, Thom- 
son, and Deane, interprets the shep- 
herds as angels and not as men ; and 
that his interpretation is the true 
one, there is no further room for 
doubt. For (1) the seventy shepherds 
exist contemporaneously, and are sum- 
moned together before the Lord of 
the sheep to receive their commission, 
lxxxix. 59. This could not be said 
of either native or Gentile rulers. 
(2) The shepherds are appointed to 
protect the sheep, lxxxix. 75, and to 
allow only a limited portion of them 
to be destroyed by the Gentiles. 
This could not be said of heathen 
rulers. (3) Jews and Gentiles and 
their kings also are alike symbolized 
by animals. Hence the shepherds 
cannot symbolize men. If not men, 
they are angels. (4) In the earlier 
history God was the true shepherd 
of Israel, but on its apostasy He 
withdrew from it and committed its 
pasturing to seventy of His angels. 
With the growing transcendence of 
God, His place was naturally taken 
by angels. (5) The angel who 
records the doings of the seventy 
shepherds is simply named ' another,' 
lxxxix. 61, in connexion with them, 
and so naturally belongs to the same 
category. (6) In the last judgment 
they are classed with the fallen 
angels, xc. 21-25. (7) God speaks 
directly to the shepherds and not 

R 



through the medium of angels as 
elsewhere in the book. The idea of 
the seventy shepherds is used by the 
author to explain some pressing diffi- 
culties in Israel's history. So long 
as God was the immediate shepherd 
of Israel, it was not possible for 
such calamities to befall it as it 
experienced from the captivity on- 
wards. Israel, therefore, during the 
latter period was not shepherded by 
God but by angels commissioned by 
Him. But again, though God rightly 
forsook Israel and committed it to 
the care of angels, though, further, 
Israel was rightly punished for its 
sins, yet the authoF and the Jews 
generally believed that they were 
punished with undue severity, indeed, 
twofold more grievously than they 
deserved (Is. xl. 2). How was this to 
be accounted for? The answer was 
not far to seek. It was owing to the 
faithlessness with which the angels 
discharged their trust. Had they 
only fulfilled their commission, the 
Gentiles could not have made havoc 
of Israel and apostate Jews only 
could have been cut off. There may 
be some distant connexion between 
the seventy angels here and the 
seventy guardian angels of the Gentile 
nations : cf. Weber, 165. The theory 
of the seventy shepherds is a develop- 
ment of the seventy years of Jeremiah, 
just as the writer of Daniel had seen 
in Jeremiah's seventy years seventy 
periods, and the four divisions into 
which the seventy shepherds fall cor- 
respond to the four world empires 
in Daniel. It is idle, however, to 
seek for chronological exactness in 
the four periods into which the writer 
of Enoch divides all history between 
the fall of Jerusalem and the Mes- 



244 Tke Book of Enoch. [Sect. IV. 

everything that I shall command you that do ye. 60. And 
I will deliver them over unto you duly numbered (lit. l by 
number ') and will tell you which of them are to be de- 
stroyed—and those destroy ye" And He gave over unto 
them those sheep. 61. And He called another and spake 
unto him : " Observe and mark everything which the shep- 
herds will do to those sheep ; for they will destroy more of 
them than I have commanded them. 62. And every excess 
and the destruction which will be wrought through the shep- 
herds, record, (namely,) how many they destroy according to 
My command, and how many according to their own caprice, 
and record against every individual shepherd all the destruc- 
tion he effects. 63. And read out before Me by number 
how many they destroy, and how many they deliver over for 
destruction, that I may have this as a testimony against 
them, and know every deed of the shepherds, so that when 
I give over to them the sheep I may see what they do, 



62. For fYfr&Pav G reads JP'W-A'. 63. How many they 

destroy. So A D G L M O. Other MSS. and Din. add ' according 
to their own caprice/ They deliver over. So GM J&^TflL. 
Din. J&^TJPffl* 'are delivered unto them' (lit. they deliver to 
them). That when I give over to them the sheep I may see. 
G reads KWTTav*. M Jun>TJP<n>«; a)Xav<?ao*. The original 
reading, therefore, was probably Yiao^^ao* 'that I may comprehend 



sianic kingdom. These four periods ends with the return from the cap- 
are thus divided: 12 + 23 + 23 + 12. tivity under Cyrus. The second 
No system whether of Hilgenfeld, extends from Cyrus to the conquests 
Volkmar, or Wieseler, which attributes of Alexander, 332 B.C. The third 
a like number of years to each shep- extends from this date to the trans- 
herd can arrive at any but a forced ference of the supremacy over Israel 
explanation of these numbers. As from the Graeco - Egyptian to the 
Schurer remarks, this division is Graeco-Syrian power. The fourth ex- 
rr.erely intended to denote two longer tends from this date, about 200 B. C, to 
periods coming between two shorter. the establishment of the Messianic 
The limits of these periods are on kingdom. 60. Duly numbered, 
the whole not difficult to determine. The number in each instance to be 
The first period begins with the destroyed was a definite one. 61. 
attacks of the heathen powers, and Another. According to xc. 14, 22 
first that of Assyria on Israel, and this 'another' is an archangel and 



Sect. TV.] Chapter LXXXIX. 60-69. 245 

whether or not they abide by My command which I have 
commanded them. 64. But they shall not know it, and 

thou shalt not declare it to them, nor admonish them, but 
only record against each individual in each case all the 
destruction which the shepherds effect and lay it all before 
Me. - " 65. And I saw till those shepherds pastured in their 
season, and they began to slay and to destroy more than they 
were bidden, and they delivered those sheep into the hand of 
the lions. 66. And the lions and tigers ate and devoured 

the greater part of those sheep, and the wild boars ate along 
with them ; and they burned that tower and demolished that 
house. 6y. And I became exceedingly sorrowful over that 

tower because that house of the sheep was demolished, and 
afterwards I was unable to see if those sheep entered that 
house. 68. And the shepherds and their associates de- 

livered over those sheep to all the wild beasts, to devour 
them, and each one of them received in his time a definite 
number, and the other wrote of each one of them in a 
book how many each of them destroyed. 69. And each 
one slew and destroyed many more than was prescribed; 
and I began to weep and lament on account of those sheep. 



and see.' 64. Thou shalt . . . declare. G reads tl'h'fCM'dV . 
68. The other. All MSS. read A*l£Vfr. Either expunge A as above, 
or render ' how many each of them destroyed in a different way.' 
Cf. A in Asc. Is. v. 14 ; Mark xv. 38. Or take A as a corruption 
of ft. 69. Lament. So G M. Other MSS. add ' exceedingly.' 



the guardian angel of Israel, and or possibly with a somewhat later 

hence, probably, Michael. 64. date, as the former may come under 

No remonstrance against or inter- . the account given in vv. 55, 56. 

ference with the shepherds was to be 66. The account in general terms 

made during their period of dominion, of the destruction of the northern 

but all their deeds were to be re- and southern kingdoms by the lions 

corded against the final judgment. and tigers, i. e. the Assyrians and 

65. Into the hand of the lions. Chaldeans. The wild boars : see 

The lions appear to be the Assyrians, ver. 12 (note). Cf. Obad. 10-12; 

and the reign of the shepherds to Ezek. xxv. 12; xxxv. 5 sqq. ; Is. 

begin contemporaneously with the final lxiii. 1-4; Ps. cxxxvii. *]. That 

struggles of the northern kingdom ; tower, and that house : see ver. 50 



246 The Book of Enoch. [Sect. IV. 

70. And thus in the vision I saw that scribe how he wrote down 
every one that was destroyed by those shepherds, day by day, 
and carried this same entire book up to the Lord of the sheep 
and laid it down and showed (to Him) everything that they 
had done, and all that each one of them had made away with, 
and all that they had given over to destruction. 7 1 . And 

the book was read before the Lord of the sheep, and He took 
the book from his hand and read it and sealed it and laid it 
down. 72. And forthwith I saw how the shepherds 

pastured for twelve hours, and behold three of those sheep 
turned back and came and entered and began to build up all 
the ruins of the house ; but the wild boars tried to hinder 
them, but they were not able. 73. And they began again 

to build as before, and they reared up that tower, and it was 
named the high tower; and they began again to place a 
table before the tower, but all the bread on it was polluted 



7 1 . The book was read. G reads <n>RYfi£; ;J*MM1 . From his 
hand. So GM. Other MSS. 'into His hand.' 72. Turned 

back. G reads 7»(14«. 73. Began to place a table. G reads 



(note). 70. With the sealing of and Joshua. If the text be correct, 
the book which recorded all the doings I see no objection to finding the third 
of these shepherds it is implied that in Ezra or Nehemiah, notwithstand- 
the first period has come to a close. ing the interval that separates these 
72. At the close of the description from the former. The account of the 
of this period, the writer defines its attempt of the Samaritans to prevent 
duration exactly as twelve hours the rebuilding of the temple is as 
long, just as at the close of the third true of the latter as the former, Ezra 
period described in xc. 2-4 he defines iv-v ; Neh. iv-vi. In later times 
its duration in xc. 5. Further, we one of the two was at times mentioned 
are to observe that the term 'hour' without the other, Ecclus. xlix. 11-1 3; 
is to be taken in the same sense as 11 Mace. ii. 13. 73, 74. The 
'time' in xc. 5, since in the fifty- bread was polluted, i.e. the offer- 
eight times there mentioned, the ings were unclean : cf. Mai. i. 7, 
twelve hours are treated exactly as <Ye offer polluted bread upon mine 
'times.' In fact we may feel certain altar.' These words furnish no ground 
that the variation of expression ' hour' for supposing an Essene author of the 
and ' time ' originated with the Ethi- Dream- visions : they are not stronger 
opic translator as renderings of the than Mai. i, ii, and would only ex- 
same word wpa. Three of those press the ordinary judgment of a 
sheep. Two of these were Zerubbabel fanatical Pharisee such as the writer 



Sect. IV.] Chapters LXXXIX. yo — XC. i. 247 

and not pure. 74. And besides all (this) the eyes of 

these sheep were blinded so that they saw not, and the eyes 
of their shepherds likewise ; and they were delivered in large 
numbers to their shepherds for destruction, and they trampled 
the sheep with their feet and devoured them. 7J. And the 
Lord of the sheep remained unmoved till all the sheep were 
dispersed over the field and mingled with them (i. e. the beasts), 
and they (i.e. the shepherds) did not save them out of the 
hand of the beasts. 76. And he who wrote the book 

brought it up, and showed it and re'ad it before the Lord 
of the sheep, and implored Him on their account, and be- 
sought Him, as he showed Him all the doings of those 
shepherds, and gave testimony before Him against all the 
shepherds. 77. And he took this book and laid it down 
beside Him and departed. 

XC. 1. And I saw until that in this manner thirty-six 



ftftt; X1H: J&i-nC: . . . WXA. 76. Before the Lord. So G, 

(THl: hVUh. Instead of (11(1 Din. gives 1(1: fcOft, which against 
the order of the words he is obliged to connect with an earlier 
verb : ' brought it up to the habitation of the Lord of the sheep.' 
M hJlf't. Implored Him on their ac6ount, and besought 
Him. Repeated in G with a slight variation. Other variations 
in M. Gave testimony. G M read J&rto r 7J&. 

XC. 1. Thirty-six. According to MSS. it is doubtful whether 



of this section on the Persian period — ship was conducted by an unworthy 
a judgment certainly justified by the and heathenised hierarchy. 75. 
few details that survive of that Israel sinned still further in mingling 
period : see Ewald's History of Israel, among the heathen nations. This is 
v. 204-206. The author of the Assump- the beginning of the 'dispersion.' 
tion of Moses— a Zealot writing about 77. Here the second period closes 
the beginning of the Christian era — with the fall of the Persian power, 
says that the two tribes grieved on XC. 1. Thirty-six. This must be 
their return • because they could not an error of the MSS. for thirty-five, 
offer sacrifices to the God of their The Ethiopic is far from being above 
fathers,' iv. 8 — the author therein reproach in this respect. The thirty- 
implying that the sacrifices of the five gives the sum of the two periods 
second temple were no true sacrifices already dealt with, i.e. 12 + 23, just 
because the nation was under the su- as in xc. 5 at the close of the third 
premacy of the heathen, and its wor- period the three periods are summed 



248 



The Book of Enoch, 



[Sect, IV. 



shepherds undertook the pasturing of the sheep, and they 
severally completed their periods as did the first; and 
others received them into their hand, to pasture them for 
their period, each shepherd for his own period. 2. And 
after that I saw in the vision all the birds of heaven coming, 
the eagles, the vultures, the kites, the ravens ; but the eagles 
led all the birds ; and they began to devour those sheep and 
to pick out their eyes and to devour their flesh. 3. And 
the sheep cried out because their flesh was devoured by the 
birds, and as I looked I lamented in my sleep over that 
shepherd who pastured the sheep. 4. And I saw until 

those sheep were devoured by the dogs and eagles and kites, 
and they left neither flesh nor skin nor sinew remaining on 
them till only their skeletons stood there : their skeletons too 



thirty-six or thirty-seven. 



3. I looked. So G IRCfk M gives 



together, 1 2 + 23 -1- 23 = 58. As %h.e 
first. As the twelve had duly com- 
pleted their times, so likewise did 
the rest of the thirty-five. Others 
received them. These words mark 
the transition to the Greek period. 
This period extends from the time 
of Alexander, 333, to the establish- 
ment of the Messianic kingdom. It 
falls into two divisions — the first 
constituted by the Graeco-Egyptian 
domination over Palestine, 333-200, 
during which twenty-three shepherds 
hold sway; and the second consti- 
tuted by the Graeco-Syrian domina- 
tion over Palestine from 200 till the 
establishment of the Messianic king- 
dom. During the fourth division 
twelve shepherds bear sway. 2. 

The new world-power — that of the 
Greeks, i.e. Graeco-Egyptian and 
Graeco-Syrian — is fittingly repre- 
sented by a different order of the 
animal kingdom, namely, by birds of 



prey. The ■ eagles ' are the Greeks 
or Macedonians. The ' ravens,' as we 
see from vv. 8, 9, 12, are the Syrians 
under the Seleucidae. The ' vultures ' 
and ' kites ' must stand for the 
Egyptians under the Ptolemies. Verses 
2-4 deal with the Graeco-Egyptian 
domination. Yet the 'ravens/ i.e. 
the Syrians, are mentioned once, and 
the reason is obvious, for Syrians 
frequently contested the Egyptian 
supremacy over Palestine, and in all 
these struggles Palestine suffered 
severely. It was as Josephus says, 
'like to a ship in a storm which is 
tossed by the waves on both sides,' 
Ant. xii. 3. 3. 3. That shepherd. 
Possibly Ptolemaeus Lagi who cap- 
tured Jerusalem by deceit and 
treachery on a sabbath day, Ant. xii. 
i- 1. 4. The dogs. According 

to lxxxix. 42, 46, 47, these are the 
Philistines : cf. Ecclus. 1. 26. Neither 
flesh nor skin. From Mic. hi. 2, 3. 



Sect. IV.] 



Chapter XC. 2-6. 



249 

fell to the earth and the sheep became few. 5. And I saw 
until that twenty- three undertook the pasturing, and they 
completed in their several periods fifty- eight times. 6. But 



ChAh. Other MSS. 'I cried/ 5. Twenty-three. So G M. 

Other MSS. add 'shepherds.' Undertook the pasturing. G reads 



5. See ver. i (note). 6-17. The 

fourth and last period of the heathen 
supremacy. The beginning of this 
period synchronises with the trans- 
ference of the supremacy over Israel 
from the Graeco-Egyptian to the 
Graeco-Syrian power about 200 B. c. 
Though this is not stated in so many 
words, it is the only legitimate in- 
terpretation. For (1) the analogy of 
the three preceding periods points 
to this conclusion, as each is marked 
by a like transference of the supremacy 
over Israel from one heathen nation 
to another. (2) Not only does the 
analogy of the other periods lead to 
this conclusion, but also every subse- 
quent statement in the text, and with 
its acceptance the traditional diffi- 
culties of interpretation vanish. (3) 
This period is marked by the rise 
of the Chasids. As these were already 
an organised party (see ver. 6 note) 
before the Maccabean rising, their 
first appearance must have been much 
earlier and possibly synchronises with 
the beginning of this period. (4) 
There is absolutely no ground in the 
text for making this period begin 
with the reign of Antiochus Epiphanes, 
as all critics have done hitherto. 
This misconception has naturally 
made a right interpretation of the 
subsequent details impossible, and no 
two critics have been able to agree 
on their exegesis. 6. The beginning 
of this period is marked by the ap- 
pearance of a new class or party in 
Israel. These were the Chasids or 
Asideans who existed as a party for 



some time before the Maccabean 
rising. Some have identified the 
Chasids with the followers of Judas 
Maocabaeus, and have traced their 
origin to the efforts of that leader. 
But the separate mention of the 
Chasids as distinguished from the 
immediate followers of Judas, 1 Mace, 
iii. 13, their leagued organisation 
already existing before the Maccabean 
outbreak, as is clear from 1 Mace. ii. 
42, iii. 13, and their action generally 
in support of Judas, but at times 
actually antagonistic to him, 1 Mace, 
vii. 13, make it quite manifest that 
this theory is without foundation. 
In fact so far from its being true 
that Judas founded this party, the 
only available evidence goes to prove 
that he was "originally merely a 
member of it, as we shall see presently. 
The Chasids while first appearing 
as the champions of the law against 
the Hell eni zing Sadducees were really 
the representatives of advanced forms 
of doctrine on the Messianic kingdom 
and the Eesurrection. The Chasids 
possessed all the enthusiasm and re- 
ligious faith of the nation, and though 
spiritual children of the Scribes, 
they drew within their membership 
the most zealous of the priestly as 
well as the non-priestly families. 
Hence our author represents (xc. 9) 
the Maccabean family as belonging 
to the Chasids as well as the High- 
priest Onias III. Within this party, 
though a diversity of eschatological 
views was tolerated, the most strict 
observance of the law was enforced, 



250 The Book of Enoch. [Sect. IV. 

behold lambs were borne by those white sheep, and they 

Jfc&Ofc 6. Behold. So GM iV. Other MSS. 1M1A ' small/ 



and with its requirements no political 
aim was allowed to interfere. On 
the other hand, any movement that 
came forward as the champion of the 
law naturally commanded the adhesion 
of the Chasids, and so they cast in 
their lot with the Maccabean party 
— but that only after much indecision 
(1 Mace. vii. 13), because the Macca- 
bean movement put them in strife 
with the high-priest of the time, the 
legitimate and religious head of the 
nation. By a member of this party 
the present Dream-visions were writ- 
ten. This is obvious from the doc- 
trines of the Resurrection, the final 
judgment, and the kingdom of the 
Messiah which he teaches, but 
especially from his severe criticism 
on the moral and ceremonial irregu- 
larities in the services of the second 
temple (lxxxix. 73). To remedy these 
abuses and defeat the schemes of 
Antiochus the Chasids were ready to 
sacrifice their lives, but all their 
efforts were directed to one end only 
— the re-establishment of the Theo- 
cracy and the preparation for the 
Messianic kingdom. To the writer 
of the Dream-visions all these hopes 
are bound up together with the suc- 
cess of the Maccabean leader. So 
long then as the Maccabean family 
fought for these objects, so long they 
carried with them the support of the 
Chasids; but the moment they laid 
hands on the high-priesthood, from 
that moment began the alienation of 
the Chasids, which afterwards de- 
veloped into a deadly hostility. This 
hostility of the Pharisees to Hyrcanus 
is attested by their demand that the 
latter should resign the high- priest- 
hood (Ant. xiii. 10. 5), and the same 



demand is practically made in the 
Pss. Sol. xvii. The writer who so 
severely criticised the temple worship 
under the legitimate line of high- 
priests could not regard an illegiti- 
mate holder of that office as the 
champion of the Theocracy. On this 
ground, therefore, we hold that 
chapters lxxxiii-xc must have been 
written before Jonathan's assumption 
of the high-priesthood, 153 B. C. This 
in itself makes it impossible to 
identify the ' great horn ' with Hyr- 
canus — so Din., Schurer, and others, 
or with Alex. Jannaeus — so Hilgen- 
feld-, and we shall find that the 
natural and unforced interpretation 
of the text will confirm the conclusion 
we have thus arrived at. 6, 7. 

Lambs were borne by those white 
sheep. The * white sheep ' are the 
faithful adherents of the Theocracy : 
the 'lambs' are the Chasids, a new 
and distinct party amongst the Jews, 
as we have above seen. Schurer 
thinks that it is only 'stubborn 
prejudice which can prevent any one 
from seeing that by the symbolism 
of the lambs the Maccabees are to 
be understood.' It seems, on the 
other hand, to be only ' stubborn 
prejudice' that can hold to such a 
view if the text is interpreted 
naturally. By taking the lambs in 
ver. 6 to symbolize the Chasids, every 
difficulty is removed. In vv. 6, 7 we 
have the unavailing appeals of the 
Chasids to the nation at large : in 
ver. 8 the destruction of on.e of them, 
Onias III, by the Syrians; and in 
ver. 9 the rise of the Maccabees — 
the horned or powerful lambs. If 
with Schurer the lambs in ver. 6 
are the Maccabees, what is to be 



Sect. IV.] 



Chapter XC. 7-9. 



251 



began to open their eyes and to see, and to cry to the sheep. 
7. But the sheep did not cry to them and did not hear what 
they said to them, bat were exceedingly deaf, and their eyes 
were exceedingly and forcibly blinded. 8. And I saw in 

the vision how the ravens flew upon those lambs and took 
one of those lambs, and dashed the sheep in pieces and 
devoured them. 9. And I saw till horns grew upon those 
lambs, and the ravens cast down their horns ; and I saw till 
a great horn of one of those sheep branched forth, and their 



7. Forcibly. GM1?rt«. 8. One of those. G reads Xy°tirti&l 

(VHib and duplicates this clause. 9. Of one. So G Ag. Din. 



made of the horned lambs in ver. 9 ? 
Moreover, though the lambs or 
Chasids did appeal in vain to the 
nation, the Maccabees did not. 8. 
The Syrians attack Israel and put 
Onias III to death, 171 B.C.: see 

II Mace. iv. 33-35. We are still in 
the pre - Maccabean period. We 
should, perhaps, have expected Onias 

III to be symbolized by a white 
sheep rather than by a lamb. The 
writer may have gone back for a 
moment to the symbolic meaning of 
this term in lxxxix. 45 ; but it is 
more likely that it is used loosely as 
including Onias among the Chasids. 
In any case it cannot be interpreted 
of Jonathan who was chief of the 
nation, and would have been symbol- 
ized by a horned lamb or a ram ; 
nor could it possibly be said, as in 
ver. 9, that the lambs did not become 
horned till after the death of Jonathan. 
9. The horned lambs, as we have 
seen, must be the Maccabees, and in 
the 'great horn' it is impossible to 
find any other than Judas Macca- 
baeus. So Lucke and Schodde; but 
their interpretation could not be up- 
held against the objection that the 
period from Antiochus Epiphanes to 
Judas Maccabaeus is far too short 



for the rule of the twelve last shep- 
herds. Schodde indeed tries to show 
that the ' great horn ' comes early 
in this period, and that it is not 
the ' great horn' but the Messianic 
kingdom which forms the terminus 
ad quem. But the text is against 
him. The 'great horn' is still war- 
ring in ver. 16, and the period of the 
twelve shepherds' rule is closed in 
ver. 17. But this objection does not 
hold against the true conception of 
the period, which dates its beginning 
about 200 B.C. Thus nearly forty 
years of this period would have 
elapsed before the writing of these 
chapters lxxxiii-xc; for this section 
must have been written before the 
death of Judas, 160 B.C. The author, 
therefore, must have expected the 
Messianic kingdom to appear within 
twenty years or more. This would 
allow sufficient time for the rule of 
the twelve shepherds, and also admit 
of the ' great horn ' being represented 
as warring till God interposes in 
person and establishes the kingdom. 
The interpretation of Din., Kostlin, 
Schiirer, and others, which takes the 
1 great horn ' to symbolize John Hyr- 
canus, does violence to the text, and 
meets with the insuperable objection 



252 



The Book of Enoch. 



[Sect. IV. 



eyes were opened. to. And it looked at them and their 

eyes opened, and it cried to the sheep and the rams saw it 
and all ran to it. n. And notwithstanding all this, those 

eagles and vultures and ravens and kites still kept tearing the 
sheep and swooping down upon them and devouring them : 
still the sheep took no action, but the rams lamented and 
cried out. 12. And those ravens fought and battled with 

it and sought to destroy his horn, but they had no power 
over it. 13. And I saw them till the shepherds and eagles 
and those vultures and kites came, and they cried to the 
ravens that they should break the horn of that ram, and 
they battled and fought with it, and it battled with them 



omits A. GM add mChtl hOf*iWao*. 10. It looked at 

them. Better take CX? as CO?, and translate ' it pastured with 
them ' or 'pastured them/ It cried. GIN' they cried/ 1 1. 
Notwithstanding all this. Better than Dln/s 'wahrend alle 
dem.' Kites. Wanting in G. 12. Fought. G reads £&&&. 



that thus there would not be even 
the faintest reference to Judas, the 
greatest of all the Maccabees. 10. 
The eyes of the sheep are opened 
through the efforts of Judas Macca- 
baeus. Bams. So I have rendered 
dabelat here and in the next verse 
in accordance with Dln.'s latest 
views : see Lex. col. 1101. The word 
rendered 'ram' in lxxxix. 42-44 is 
quite a different one, and has a 
technical meaning not found in this 
word. 11, 12. Eagles and vul- 

tures and . . . kites. In the Syrian 
armies mercenaries were enrolled 
from the Greek and other nations : 
cf. 1 Mace. v. 39 ; vi. 29. Syria uses 
every effort against Judas but in vain. 
13. It would seem that the use of 
some of the symbols is not steady. 
The 'vultures' and the 'kites' in ver. 
2 must mean the Graeco-Egyptians ; 
but in this verse and in ver. 11 it is 



doubtful who are to be understood 
by these. We have already observed 
that the writer uses the same brute 
symbol for different nations, i. e. the 
wild boars represent the Edomites 
in lxxxix. 66, but the Samaritans six 
verses later: see also ver. 16 (note). 
There may be a fresh change of 
symbols here, and the vultures and 
kites may stand for Ammon and 
Edom : cf. 1 Mace. v. The struggle 
here depicted is a life and death one, 
and neither of. Hyrcanus' wars against 
Antiochus Sidetis and Antiochus Cyzi- 
cenus can fairly be described as such. 
The latter, moreover, was conducted 
by Hyrcanus' sons while Hyrcanus 
himself was quietly discharging his 
priestly duties in Jerusalem ; while 
the former occurring during the first 
year of Hyrcanus could not be re- 
ferred to in vv. 12, 13, as ver. 11 
deals with the first attacks of the 



Sect. IV.] Chapter XC. 10-17. 2 53 

and cried that his succour should come unto him. 14. And 
I saw till that man who wrote down the names of the shep- 
herds and carried (them) up unto the presence of the Lord of 
the sheep came, and he helped that ram and showed it every- 
thing 1 , that he had come down to help it. [15. And I saw 
till that Lord of the sheep came to them in wrath, and all 
who saw Him fled, and all cast themselves into the darkness 
from before His face.] 16. All the eagles and vultures and 
ravens and kites assembled together and brought with them 
all the sheep of the field, and they all came together, and 
helped each other to break that horn of the ram. 17. And 
I saw that man who wrote the book according to the com- 



With it. G reads 'with them.' 14. Helped. G adds 

(Dhf?'?)*? ' helped and saved.' He had come down to help it. 
So G, reading ([££:}*$. Din. 'that his help had come.' 15. 

Cast themselves into the darkness from before His face. Din., 
1 fielen in seinem Schatten vor seinem Angesicht.' 16. Brought 
with them all the sheep of the field. G reads ffDft-fr . . . It fa 
fiQ70 'all the sheep . . . went with them/ 17. Who wrote. 

G reads Jlcn>; f^RttiQ. According to the command of the 



heathen on the ' great horn.' Cried national significance : Israel avenges 

that his succour should come itself on its heathen oppressors. In 

unto him: cf. I Mace. vii. 41, 42 ; xci. 12, on the other hand, the period 

11 Mace. xv. 8 sqq. 14. Earn. The of the Sword has an ethical and vin- 

same word that is used in vv. 10, 11. dictive significance: Israel destroys 

15. I feel convinced that this verse the unrighteous and those who have 

is an interpolation, and that ver. 19 oppressed it. In this verse we pass 

should be inserted before ver. 16, as over into the future. 16. The first 

the destruction of the Gentiles in ver. great Messianic victories of Israel are 

19 has already been consummated in the signal for the final assault of 

ver. 18. Ver. 15 seems to be modelled all the Gentiles combined with the 

on ver. 18. This twofold appearance apostate Jews (i.e. the sheep of the 

of God is uncalled for, and only the field) against Israel. Israel is still 

second appearance is effectual. The led by Judas, the great horn. Here, 

help that is promised in ver. 14 is again, there is a loose use of symbols : 

described in ver. 19 as the sword, the eagles, ravens, vultures, and kites 

which is given to Israel for the represent all the hostile heathen 

destruction of the Gentiles. We should nations in their last Gog and Magog 

omit ver. 15 and insert ver. 19 before struggle against Israel. 17. The 

ver. 16 in our interpretation. 19. fourth period of twelve shepherds is 

The period of the sword here has a now at an end, and the period of 



254 Tke Book of Enoch, [Sect. IV. 

mand of the Lord, till he opened that book concerning the 
destruction which those twelve last shepherds had wrought 
and showed, that they had destroyed much more than their 
predecessors, before the Lord of the sheep. 18. And I saw 
till the Lord of the sheep came unto them and took the staff 
of His wrath into His hand and smote the earth so that it 
was rent asunder, and all the beasts and the birds of the heaven 
fell away from the sheep, and sank in the earth and it closed 
over them. 19. And I saw till a great sword was given to 
the sheep and the sheep proceeded against all the beasts of 
the field to slay them, and all the beasts and the birds of the 
heaven fled before their face. 20. And I saw till a throne 
was erected in the pleasant land and the Lord of the sheep 
sat Himself thereon, and that other took the sealed books and 



Lord, till he opened that book concerning the destruction. 
G reads: fl«J>A: XmfrnrtfcC: Xftcn>; t^trh; OMs X7RX; a^X*F; 
rtl*frJS.. Destroyed much more than their predecessors, 

before the Lord of the sheep. And I saw till the Lord of the 
sheep came unto them. G makes ' before ' an adverb, and reads 
CD immediately after it, omitting the (D before CtLYb, thus making 
' the Lord of the sheep ' subject of the next sentence. Next, for 
•JftlFcn*; X7Rfc mVO it reads IftlPcn*; <[h(\V0. Thus it gives, 
'destroyed much more than their predecessors formerly. And 
I saw until the Lord of the sheep came to the sheep/ 18. Of 

His wrath. SoBCDFGHILMNO. A E, which Din. follows, 
give 'of wrath.' It closed over them. G reads \\SZftGV*\ 
KOAPa*. 1 9 . All the beasts. So A E F G H I L M N O. Din. 
' those beasts.' 20. I saw. Wanting in G. Thereon. G reads 
&(\>\?(&*. That other took the sealed books. I have emended 
the text here, reading *l£vX instead of H*A°. This seems necessary, 
as otherwise the writer would say — ' the Lord of the sheep opened 



judgment has arrived. 18. God land : cf. lxxxix. 40, i. e. Palestine. 
Himself destroys the last enemies of Cf. Dan. xi. 16, 41, 45. God's throne 
Israel after the manner of Korah and is set up in the immediate neighbour- 
ing followers, Num. xvi. 31 sqq. This hood of Jerusalem (cf. ver. 26), the 
is the first act of the final judgment ; books are opened as in Dan. vii. 10 : 
but the remaining acts are of a see xlvii. 3 (note). The Messiah does 
forensic nature. 20. The pleasant not appear till after the judgment 



Sect. IV.] Chapter XC. 18-24. 2 55 

opened them before the Lord of the sheep. 21. And the 
Lord called those seven first white ones and commanded that 
they should bring before Him, beginning- with the first star 
which led the way, all the stars whose privy members were like 
those of horses, and they brought them all before Him. 22. 
And He spake to that man who wrote before Him who was 
one of the seven white ones, and said unto him : " Take those 
seventy shepherds to whom I delivered the sheep, and who 
taking them on their own authority slew more than I com- 
manded them." 23. And behold they were all bound, I 
saw, and they all stood before Him. 24. And the judg- 



the sealed books before the Lord of the sheep/ Further, the 
Lord of the sheep does not Himself read the books. Cf. lxxxix. 
71, 72, 76, 77 ; xc. 14, 17. Din. ' He took all the sealed books.' 
21. Seven. G frflX. M has a conflate reading, but supports 
the text. This verse is most corrupt, and requires emendation. 
First of all I have accepted Dln.'s correction of Xy°ii XlKtb into 
(iittt. Next, from G we see that confusion is introduced 
through the repetition of a clause. This repetition is concealed 
through variations in the later MSS., but it is clear in G. Thus 
the clause ' the firist star which led the way ' appears the second 
time in later MSS. as ' the first star which fell first/ but in G 
as 'the first star which went before,' i. e. led the way, H(D&h; 
$£av instead of HW&'Pi ty&OD. I have accordingly omitted 
this clause on its second occurrence as an interpolation. In the 
earlier part of the verse I have followed Din., £y°ftfc tyg^fri 
X^Mrfl against G .P^frflk AWHl. 22. Seven white ones. 

'Seven ' wanting in G. Doubtful whether 'six' or 'seven' in M. 
Seventy. Wanting in G. On their own authority slew more than 
I commanded them. G gives unintelligibly «H*rt*; •flH'f : •H'rt; 
htt: <E>AHH<n». M *tA«; *!#?; Xtn*VF; H/iHH<n>\ 23. Ch\b\ 
CD$ao* and the second H*ft°ffi>« are wanting in G, which therefore 



in lxxxiii-xc. 21. Seven first the Psalter, pp. 281, 282, 323-327, 

white ones. This order of seven 334-337 ; Schenkel's Bibel-Lex. under 

archangels is derived from the Zoroas- Engel. Star : see lxxxvi-lxxxviii. 

trian Amshaspands. They are spoken 22. The seventy angels who had 

of in Tobit xii. 15: cf. Kev. i. 4; iv. charge of Israel are judged along 

5 ; viii. 2, 6. See Cheyne, Origin of with the fallen watchers. 24. 



\ 



256 The Book of Enoch. [Sect. IV. 

ment was held first over the stars, and they were judged and 
found guilty and went to the place of condemnation, and they 
were cast into an abyss, full of fire and flaming, and full 
of pillars of fire. 25. And those seventy shepherds were 

judged and found guilty, and likewise cast into that fiery 
abyss. 26. And I saw at that time how a like abyss was 
opened in the midst of the earth, full of fire, and those 
blinded sheep were brought, and they were all judged and 
found guilty and cast into that fiery abyss, and they burned : 
now this abyss was to the right of that house. 27. And 

I saw those sheep burning and their bones burning. 28. 

And I stood up to see till He folded up that old house ; and 
all the pillars were taken away, and all the beams and 
ornaments of the house were folded up with it, and it was 
taken off and laid in a place in the south of the land. 29. 

And I saw the Lord of the sheep till he brought a new house 
greater and loftier than that first, and set it up in the place 
of the first which had been folded up : all its pillars were new, 
and its ornaments were new and larger than those of the first 
one which He had taken away, and the Lord of the sheep was 



runs, 'and behold they were all bound before Him/ 24. Flaming, 
and full of pillars of fire. G omits wy°fcX ■ flaming with pillars 
of fire.' 25. Seventy. GM rt«OX. 26. Pull of fire. 

G reads W°&& instead of R^frO. Fiery abyss. G L give 
OffHr\ 28. Folded up: reading C^T for a\9°9 according 

to Dln.'s conjecture. M reads 1*ATcn>, N OKD? . In a place. 
G reads Ogftfc fttn>»ii. 29. The first one. So G. Other 

MSS. ' the first old one/ The Lord of the sheep was within. 



An abyss full of fire : cf. xviii. 11 ; 24 ; En. xlviii. 9 (note). 28, 29. 

xix ; xxi. 7-10. 25. The shepherds The removal of the old Jerusalem 

are cast into the same abyss : cf. liv. and the setting up of the New Jeru- 

6 (note). 26. The apostates are salem. This expectation is derived 

cast into Gehenna. In the midst from O.T. prophecy : Ezek. xl-xlviii ; 

of the earth: cf. xxvi. 1. To the Is. liv. II, 12; lx ; Hagg. ii. 7-9; 

right of that house, i.e. to the Zech. ii. 6-13. The idea of a new 

.south of Jerusalem. 27. The Jerusalem coming down from heaven 

apostates were punished in view of was a familiar one in Jewish Apo- 

the blessed in Jerusalem : cf. Is. lxvi. calypses : cf. IV Ezra vii. 26 ; xiii. 36 ; 



Sect. IV.] Chapter XC. 25-34. 257 

within it. 30. And I saw all the sheep which had been 
left, and all the beasts on the earth, and all the birds of the 
heaven, falling down and doing homage to those sheep and 
making petition to and obeying them in every word. 31. 

And thereafter those three who were clothed in white, who 
had taken me up before, seized me by my hand, and the hand 
of that ram seizing hold of me, they took me up and set me 
down in the midst of those sheep before the judgment took 
place. 32. And those sheep were all white and their wool 

was abundant and clean. 33. And all that had been 

destroyed and dispersed and all the beasts of the field and all 
the birds of the heaven assembled in that house, and the Lord 
of the sheep rejoiced with great joy because they were all 
good and had returned to His house. 34. And I saw till 

they laid down that sword which had been given to the sheep, 
and they brought it back into His house, and it was sealed 



SoBEFHMK G I L and Din. ' all the sheep were within/ 
30. Making petition to and obeying them. G omits 'and 
obeying them/ 31. And thereafter those three. G reads 

(DlWttth. For «Ht G reads *?Hi, and for hOWl G reads 
X0C7. 33. All that had been. 'That' wanting in G. 34. 



Apoc. Ear. xxxii. 2; Rev. xxi. 2, 10. judgment took place. These words 

30. The conversion of the Gentiles — are most confusing. If they are 

of those who took no part in the op- genuine, it is hard to restore them 

pression of Israel ; for the rest were to their place satisfactorily. 32. 

destroyed in ver. 18 — and their spon- The righteousness of the members of 

taneous submission to Israel : cf. Is. the kingdom is expressed by the 

xiv. 2 ; lxvi. 12, 19-21, and parallel whiteness and cleanliness of the wool 

passages. Later Judaism almost uni- of the sheep ; and the large measure 

versally denied even this hope to the of their righteousness by the abund- 

Gen tiles : cf. Weber, L. d. T. 364- ance of the wool: cf. Is. i. 26; iv. 3 ; 

3^9> 376. 31. Those three who lx. 21. 33. The righteous dead 

were clothed in white : seelxxxvii. will rise to share in the kingdom: 

2,3. That ram. Same word as used cf. li. 1 (note). Likewise the dis- 

in vv. 10,11. This ram is the sheep persed of Israel will be gathered 

saved in lxxxix. 52 from its enemies into it: cf. Mic. iv. 6, 7. Rejoiced: 

and brought up to live with Enoch. cf. Is. lxii. 3-5 ; lxv. 19. 34. The 

Paradise is only the temporary abode sword wherewith Israel had crushed 

of Enoch and Elijah. Before the its enemies sealed and preserved as a 



2 5 8 



The Book of Enoch, 



[Sect. IV. 



before the presence of the Lord, and all the sheep were invited 
into that house, but it held them not. $$. And the eyes of 
them all were opened to see the good, and there was not one 
amongst them that did not see. 36. And I saw that that 

house was large and broad and very full. 37. And I saw 

that a white bull was born, with large horns, and all the 
beasts of the field and all the birds of the air feared him and 
made petition to him all the time. 3 8 . And I saw till all their 
(different) kinds were transformed, and they all became white 
oxen ; and the first among them became the buffalo, and that 



Were invited. So G fftoHh Other MSS. WXOL 'they were 
enclosed.' 35. G reads a>BHAJ&d>A/. a^Xhft^. 38. The first 
among them became the buffalo: #/WE: Q^VXhft ^! Ms Y1&. 

Here as Din. suggests the Hebrew was b$"). This the Greek 
translator transliterated into fan, which was in turn taken by the 
Ethiopic translator for fa/xa. Hence the YlC of the text, and the 



memorial. It held them not : cf. 
Is. xlix. 19-21; Zech. ii. 4; x. 10. 
37. A white bull, i. e. the Messiah. 
We have here the Messiah coming 
forth from the bosom of the com- 
munity. He is a man only, but yet 
a glorified man; for he is described 
as a white bull to mark his superiority 
to the rest of the community of the 
righteous who are symbolized by 
sheep. So far as he is a man only, 
he may be regarded as the prophetic 
Messiah as opposed to the apocalyptic 
of the Similitudes ; and yet he is not 
really the prophetic Messiah ; for he 
has absolutely no function to perform, 
as he does not appear till the world's 
history is finally closed. Accordingly 
his presence here must be accounted 
for through literary reminiscence, and 
the Messiah-hope must be regarded 
as practically dead at this period. 
The nation, in fact, felt no need of 
such a personality so long as they 
had such a chief as Judas. It was 
very different, however, in the follow- 



ing century, when the fondest en- 
thusiast could no longer look to the 
Asmoneans, and the helpless degrada- 
tion of this dynasty forced religious 
thinkers to give their hopes and 
aspirations a different direction. Of 
these, some returned to a fresh study 
of the O.T. and revived the hopes 
of the Messianic Son of David as 
in the Pss. of Solomon (70-40 B. C.) : 
others followed the bold and original 
thinker who conceived the Messiah 
as the supernatural Son of Man, who, 
possessing divine attributes, should 
give to every man his due and vindi- 
cate the entire earth for the pos- 
session of the righteous : so in the 
Similitudes (94-70 B. c). 38. All 

the members of the kingdom are 
transformed: the white bull (i.e. 
the Messiah) into a great animal, 
and the sheep, beasts, and birds into 
white oxen. Thus mankind is restored 
to the primitive righteousness of 
Eden, i. e. Adam was symbolized by 
a white bull. The buffalo: see 



Sect. IV.] 



Chapter XC. 35-42. 



259 



buffalo became a great animal, and had great black horns on its 
head ; and the Lord of the sheep rejoiced over them and over all 
the oxen. 39. And I slept in their midst : then I awoke and 
saw everything. 40. This is the vision which I saw while 

I slept, arid I awoke and blessed the Lord of righteousness 
and gave Him glory. 41. Then I fell into a great fit of 

weeping and my tears stayed not till I could no longer en- 
dure it: when I looked, they flowed on account of what 
I saw ; for everything will come and be fulfilled, and all the 
deeds of men in their order were shown to me. 43. And 

in that night I remembered my first dream:, on its account 
also I wept and was overcome, because I had seen that 
vision/ 



misleading translation 'the first among them was the word/ 
Some critics have imagined this to be a Christian interpolation 
referring to the Ao'yos, but it is £»2V and never Y1C which is used 
to translate the word \6yos. The LXX. renders &K") by fxovoKepas 
and Ethiopic by hih&\ #CJ.. The Lord of the sheep. G has 
the peculiar reading OD^-Rfc fi07A='the fatted sheep.' 41. 
After when I looked G inserts hli(W; Xfc ' till I could no longer 
endure it, when I looked ; for they flowed/ &c. 



Crit. Note. Though nothing is said 
as to the duration of the life of the 
individual in this section, the implica- 
tion is that it is eternal. If Enoch 
and Elijah are transferred to the 
Messianic kingdom from Paradise, 
surely it is only reasonable to con- 
clude that the new form of existence 
is an eternal one ; for this new form 



of existence is more glorious than 
that enjoyed by Enoch and Elijah 
in Paradise. In Paradise Elijah was 
symbolized by a ram, but in the 
Messianic kingdom by a bull. 40. 
Cf. xxii. 14. 41, 42. Enoch weeps 
because of the woes that threaten 
mankind in his two visions. 



S 2 



SECTION V. 

(chapters xci-civ.) 

INTRODUCTION. 

A. Critical Structure. B. Relation of xci-civ to (a) i-xxxvi; 
(b) lxxxiii-xc. C. Authorship and Date. D. The Problem 
and its Solution. 

A. Critical Structure. This section maybe regarded as complete 
in the main and self-consistent. It has in some degree suffered at 
the hands of the final editor of the book, both in the way of direct 
interpolation and of severe dislocations of the text. The interpola- 
tions are— xci. n ; xciii. 11-14; xcvi. 2. The dislocations of the 
text are a more important feature of the book. They are confined 
(with the exception of cvi. 1 7 a , which should be read immediately 
after cvi. 14) to xci-xciii. All critics are agreed as to the chief of 
these, xci. 12-17 should undoubtedly be read directly after xciii. 
In xciii we have an account of the first seven weeks of the ten into 
which the world's history is divided, and in xci. 12-17 of the 
last three weeks. But this is far from a full account of the 
matter. The remaining dislocations only need to be pointed out 
in order to be acknowledged. On other grounds (pp. 260-263) we 
find that xci-civ is a book of different authorship to the rest 
of the sections. Now this being so, this section obviously begins 
with xcii—' written by Enoch the scribe,' &c. On xcii follows 
xci. 1-10 as a natural sequel, where Enoch summons his children 
to receive his parting words. Then comes the Apocalypse of 
Weeks, xciii. 1-10; xci. 12-17. xci. 18, 19 form a natural 
transition from xci. 12-17 to xciv. The original order of the 
text, therefore, was: xcii; xci. 1-10; xciii. 1-10 ; xci. 12-19; 
xciv. These dislocations were the work of the editor, who put 
the different books of Enoch together and added lxxx and lxxxi. 

B. (a) Relation of xci-civ to i-xxxvi. Do these sections 
proceed from the same author 1 or if not, of what nature is the 



Introduction, 261 

manifest relation between them 1 Let us proceed to weigh the 
evidence on the former question. At first sight, the evidence 
for unity of authorship seems overwhelming. (1) The phrase 
' ye will have no peace ' is found in xci-civ and in i-xxxvi, and in 
these sections only — xciv. 6; xcviii. 11, 16 ; xcix. 13; ci. 3; cii. 3 : 
ciii. 8 ; i. 8 ; v. 4 ; xii. 5 ; xiii. 1 ; xvi. 4. ' Plant of righteous- 
ness/ xciii. 2, 5, 10; x. 16. (2) Titles of God in common. 'The 
Holy and Great One/ xcii. 2 ; xcvii. 6 ; xcviii. 6 ; civ. 9 ; x. 1 ; 
xiv. 1 ; xxv. 3. ■ The Great One/ ciii. 4 ; civ. 1 ; xiv. 2. ' The 
Great Glory/ cii. 3 ; xiv. 20. (3) References in each to the 
Law, xcix. 2 ; v. 4 : to the eating of blood, xcviii. 1 1 ; vii. 5 : 
to the regularity of nature, ci. 1-7 ; ii. i-v. 4: to the hardhearted- 
ness of men, xcviii. 11; v. 4. (4) No hint of a Messiah in either. 
(5) The division of human history in the Apocalypse of Weeks into 
ten weeks, each apparently of seven generations, seems to agree 
with x. 12, where a period of seventy generations is given. (6) 
The date of the final judgment over the Watchers in xci. 15 
at the close of the tenth week seems to agree with the date 
assigned to it in x. 12, i.e. at the end of seventy generations. 

(7) In both the resurrection is taught, xci. 10; xcii. 3 ; c. 5 ; xxii. 

(8) In both the scene of the Messianic kingdom is the earth 
as it is. 

There are thus many points of connexion, but as we proceed 
we shall see that these are mainly external. The points of 
divergence, on the other hand, are far more serious because 
internal. (1) In the first place, the last four points of agreement 
mentioned above are apparent, but not real. The seventh day 
of the tenth week in xci. 15 marks the close of the Messianic 
kingdom, which began in the eighth week: whereas the seventy 
generations in x. 12 terminate with the establishment of the 
Messianic kingdom. Nor do these periods start from the same 
date : the Apocalypse of Weeks reckons from the creation of 
Adam : the seventy generations from the judgment of the angels. 

(2) The final judgment in xci. 15 is held at the close of the 
Messianic kingdom, but in x. 12, xvi. I, before its establishment. 

(3) Whereas the resurrection implied in xxii is only a resuscitation 
to a temporary blessedness, v. 9, x. 17, xxv. 6, the resurrection 
in xci-civ is not to the temporary Messianic kingdom spoken 
of in xci. 13, 14, xcvi. 8, but to one of eternal blessedness sub- 
sequent to the final judgment. For, from c. 4, 5 we see that the 
righteous do not rise till God has judged sinners and an end has 



262 The Book of Enoch. [Sect.V. 

been made of all sin. Thus the resurrection of the righteous 
in xci-civ follows the final judgment at the close of the temporary 
Messianic kingdom in xci-civ. Further evidence to this effect 
is to be found in xcii. 3, 4, where the righteous are said to ' walk 
in eternal light ' : in civ. 6, where they are to become ' companions 
of the heavenly hosts': in civ. 2, where they are to 'shine as 
the stars,' and have ' the portals of heaven open to them.' These 
statements could not possibly apply to the members of the tem- 
porary Messianic kingdom. (4) There is only a resurrection 
of the righteous in xci-civ: cf. xci. 10; xcii. 3; c. 5 : whereas in 
xxii a general resurrection with the exception of one class of 
sinners is taught. (5) There is no resurrection of the body in 
xci-civ : there is a resurrection of the body in i-xxxvi. (6) Con- 
trast the spiritual nature of the kingdom in xci-civ with the 
crass materialism of i-xxxvi, where much of the bliss consists 
in good eating and drinking and the begetting of large families, 
and life itself depends on the external eating of the tree of life. 
(7) Finally, contrast the answers given by i-xxxvi and xci-civ to the 
question ' why do the righteous suffer V See pp. 56, 57 ; 264, 265. 

The lines of thought, then, being so divergent in these two 
sections, there is no conclusion open to us other than that they 
proceed from different authors; whereas the obvious points of 
agreement necessitate the assumption that one of the two authors 
had the work of the other before him, and we need feel no hesita- 
tion in concluding that the author of xci-civ had i-xxxvi or some 
form of this section before him — some form of this section we 
repeat, for it is at the best fragmentary. 

B. (b) Relation of xci-civ to lxxxiii-xc. There are some 
points of resemblance between these sections. (1) Elijah's trans- 
lation referred to, xciii. 8; lxxxix. 52. God rejoices over the 
destruction of the wicked, xciv. 10 ; lxxxix. 58. (2) Titles of 
God in common : ' The Great King,' xci. 13, lxxxiv. 5 ; ' the Holy 
and Great One,' xcii. 2 (note), lxxxiv. 1. 

But these and other superficial points of resemblance are far 
outweighed by the divergent lines of thought pursued in the two 
sections, which render the theory of one and undivided authorship 
impossible. We should observe then, that — (1) the Messianic 
kingdom is finite in duration in xci-civ, i.e. from the eighth 
to the tenth world-week inclusive; whereas in lxxxiii-xc it is 
eternal. In xci-civ the final judgment takes place at the close 
of the Messianic kingdom : in lxxxiii-xc it is consummated at 



Sect. V.] Introduction. 263 

the beginning of the Messianic kingdom. (2) There is a resur- 
rection of the righteous only in xci-civ; but in lxxxiii-xc a 
resurrection of apostate Jews also. (3) The period of the sword 
is differently dated and conceived in the two sections. In xci-civ 
it is separated from the final judgment by the whole period of 
the Messianic kingdom, see xci. 12 : in lxxxiii— xc it immediately 
precedes the final judgment, see xc. 19: in xci-civ it is ethical 
and vindictive — the destruction of the wicked by the righteous : 
in lxxxiii-xc it is national and vindictive — the destruction of the 
hostile Gentiles by the Jews. (4) The building of the Temple 
precedes the final judgment in xci-civ : in lxxxiii-xc it is subse- 
quent to the final judgment. (5) The scene of the Messianic 
kingdom in xci-civ is apparently heaven; for in xci. 14-16 the 
former heaven and earth are destroyed and a new heaven created, 
but no new earth, and in civ. 2 heaven is thrown open to the 
righteous. 

We must therefore conclude that xci-civ and lxxxiii-xc proceed 
from different authors, and this conclusion is confirmed when we 
observe the forcible dislocations that xci-civ have undergone at the 
hands of the final editor. This section taken in the following 
order, xcii ; xci. 1-10; xciii. 1-10 ; xci. 12-19; xciv (see 
p. 260) forms a complete book in itself, and presents a world- 
view peculiarly its own. Why then was the original order de- 
parted from, unless in order to adapt it to a new context 3 On all 
sides, then, the conclusion is irresistible that xci-civ once formed 
an independent writing : that it was afterwards incorporated into 
a larger work, and underwent its present derangements in the 
process of incorporation. 

C. The Authorship and Date. The author belongs to a 
clearly defined party. That this party is the Pharisees is obvious ; 
for it is exclusive in an extreme degree, xcvii. 4 ; it is an upholder 
of the law against an apostate hellenizing party, xcix. 2, 14; it 
looks forward to a temporal triumph over its opponents, xci. 12, 
&c; it believes in a final judgment and resurrection of the 
righteous, xci. 10, xcii. 3, and in Sheol as the place of eternal 
punishment for the wicked, xcix. 11, ciii. 7, 8. 

The enemies of this party are rich and trust in their riches, 
xcvi. 4, xcvii. 8-10, xcviii. 2 : they oppress and rob the poor 
of their wages, xcix. 1 3 : they have forsaken the law, xcix. 2, 
falsified the O. T. writings, and led men astray through their 
heathen doctrines, xciv. 5, civ. 1 o : they are given up to super- 



264 The Book of Enoch, [Sect. v. 

stition and idolatry, xcix. 7-9 : they hold that God does not 
concern Himself with the doings of men, xcviii. 6, 7, civ. 7, and 
that life ceases with the grave, cii. 11. As the former party are 
designated as the 'children of heaven,' ci. 1, these are called the 
1 children of earth,' c. 6, cii. 3. 

The date of this clearly defined and developed opposition of 
the two parties cannot have been pre-Maccabean, nor yet earlier 
than the breach between John Hyrcamis and the Pharisees. But 
a still later date must be assumed according to the literal inter- 
pretation of ciii. 14, 15, where the rulers are said to uphold the 
Sadducean oppressors and to share in the murder of the righteous. 
This charge is not justified before 95 B.C. As for the later limit, 
the Herodian princes cannot be the rulers here mentioned, for the 
Sadducees were irreconcilably opposed to these, as aliens and 
usurpers. It appears, therefore, that this section should be 
assigned either to the years 95-79 B.C. or to 70-64 B.C., during 
which periods the Pharisees were oppressed by both rulers and 
Sadducees. 

If, on the other hand, we might regard the word ' murder ' as 
merely a strong expression for a severe persecution, and the silence 
elsewhere observed as to the rulers would point to this interpreta- 
tion, then we should naturally refer this section to the years 
134-95 B.C., i.e. after the breach between Hyrcanus and the 
Pharisees and before the savage destruction of the Pharisees by 
Jannaeus in 95. If the date of the book is subsequent to 95, 
the merely passing reference in ciii. 15 to the cruelties of Jannaeus 
is hardly intelligible. We should expect rather the fierce indig- 
nation against ■ the kings and the mighty/ which we actually do 
find in xxxvii-lxx, and which fittingly expresses the feelings of 
the Pharisees towards Jannaeus, ' the slayer of the pious.' We 
are inclined therefore to place xci-civ before 95 B.C., and if we 
may regard c. 2 as an historical reference, these chapters are to 
be assigned to the years 104-95 B « c « 

The author is thus a Pharisee, writing between the years 104 
and 95 b. c. 

D. The Problem and its Solution. The author of i-xxxvi 
solves the problem of the righteous suffering by their resuscitation 
to a temporary blessedness in the Messianic kingdom : the wicked 
dead who escaped punishment in life, xxii. 10, n, rise also to 
receive requital for their sin. What becomes of the righteous 
after their second death is not so much as hinted at in that section. 



Sect. v.] Chapter XCI. i, 2. 265 

Thus in this respect the solution of the problem here presented has 
not advanced a single step beyond that given in Is. lxv and lxvi. 

But this solution of the problem must have failed early to give 
satisfaction. In xci-civ we find another attempt to grapple with 
this difficulty, and in this an answer immeasurably more profound 
is achieved. The wicked are seemingly sinning with inrpunity j 
yet their evil deeds are recorded every day, civ. 7 ; and for these 
they will suffer endless retribution in Sheol, xcix. 1 i ; for Sheol 
is not a place such as the O. T. writers conceived, but one in 
which men are requited according to their deserts, cii. 4-civ. 5. 
From this hell of darkness and flame their souls will never escape, 
xcviii. 3, 10 ; civ. 7, 8. But the time is coming when even on 
earth the wicked will perish and the righteous triumph over them, 
on the advent of the Messianic kingdom, at the beginning of the 
eighth world-week, xci. 12 ; xcv. 7 ; xcvi. 1 ; xcviii. 12 ; xcix. 4, 6. 
This kingdom will last till the close of the tenth world-week, and 
during it the righteous will enjoy peace and well-being, and see 
many good days on earth, xci. 13, 14; xcvi. 8. Then will ensue 
the final judgment with the destruction of the former heaven and 
earth, and the creation of a new heaven, xci. 14-16. And the 
righteous dead, who have been specially guarded by angels all 
the time hitherto, c. 5, will thereupon be raised, xci. 10, xcii. 3, 
as spirits only, ciii. 3, 4, and the portals of the new heaven will 
be opened to them, civ. 2, and they shall joy as the angels, civ. 4, 
and become companions of the heavenly hosts, civ. 6, and shine as 
the stars for ever, civ. 2. 

TRANSLATION. 

XCI. I. ' And now, my son Methuselah, call to me all thy 
brothers and gather together to me all the sons of thy 
mother ; for the word calls me and the spirit is poured out 
upon me that I should show you everything that will befall 
you for ever/ 3. Thereupon Methuselah went and called 



XCI. 1. G gives a different order of the words : 'call to me all 
the sons of thy mother, and gather together to me thy brothers.' 

XCI. 1. Enoch calls his sons to- 5,6. All the sons of thy mother, 

gether. One of the editors of this The names of these sons is given in 

book has already prepared for the the Slavonic Enoch. The word calls 

introduction of this section in lxxxi. me. This expression must be taken 



266 The Book of Enoch. [Sect.V. 

to him all his brothers and assembled his relatives. 3. And 
he conversed with all the children of righteousness and spake : 
1 Hear, ye sons of Enoch, all the words of your father, and 
hearken befittingly to the voice of my mouth ; for I exhort 
and say unto you, beloved, love uprightness and walk therein. 
4. And draw not nigh to uprightness with a double heart, 
and associate not with those of a double heart ; but walk 
in uprightness and righteousness, and it will guide you on 
good paths and righteousness will be your companion. 5. 
For I know that a condition of oppression will increase on the 
earth and a great chastisement will be executed on the earth, 
and all unrighteousness will be consummated and be cut off 
from the roots, and its whole superstructure destroyed. 6. 
And unrighteousness will again be consummated on the earth, 
and all the deeds of unrighteousness and of violence and trans- 



3. With all the children of righteousness. So G ahfc&\ %&%. 
Din. reads OhCt&l R&& ' with all his children concerning right- 
eousness/ Ye sons of Enoch. So GM. Other MSS. and Din. ' my 
sons.' Beloved. So G M. Other MSS. ' my beloved/ 4. And 
associate not with those of a double heart. Wanting in G. Up- 
rightness and. So G QC^O: CO. Other MSS. omit and read ' my 
sons' after 'righteousness/ 6. After £ft; 9°S:C G inserts (D^XHTI, 
and FH I L M N (D^h^fTi. The former is possibly a corruption of 
wtfiTVH (see lxxxi. 6 Crit. Note) 'will grow strong/ I have however 
followed the reading of FHILMNO ' will prevail/ omitted in Din. 
And transgression. From this point the order of G is confused. 
It omits for the present xci. 7 -xcvii. 6 a and connects xcvii. 6 b -cviii. 
10 directly with xci. 6. Then it resumes with the last word 
of xci. 6 and proceeds without break to xcvii. 6 a . With the words 
'the Great and Holy One' begins a fresh section, xcvii. 6 b -cviii. 10, 
but from a different MS. than G — a fact wliich will be confirmed 



as equivalent to ' the Spirit is poured cf. Ps. xii.3, DPI 2?; Jas. i. 8, tlxpvxos. 

out upon me.' 3. Love upright- Associate not, &c: cf. xciv. 2, 3; 

ness, &c. : cf. xciv. 1. 4. Draw civ. 6. 5. The Deluge. Cut off 

not nigh to uprightness with a from the roots: cf. w. 8, 11. 6. 

double heart. This is undoubtedly The growth of wickedness after the 

derived from Ecclus.i. 25,^7) irpoai\0r)s Deluge. And transgression : see 

airy (i. e. <p60<{) Kvpiov) iv KapSiq diffarj : C rit. Note. Prevail : see Crit. Note. 



Sect. v.] Chapter XCI. 3-1 1. 267 

gression will again prevail. 7. And then when unrighteous- 
ness and sin and blasphemy and violence in all kinds of deeds 
will increase, and apostasy and transgression and uncleanness 
increase, a great chastisement from heaven will come upon 
them all, and the holy Lord will come forth with wrath and 
chastisement to execute judgment on earth. 8. In those 
days violence will be cut off from its roots and the roots 
of unrighteousness, together with deceit, and they will be 
destroyed from under heaven. 9. And all the idols of the 

heathen will be abandoned : the temples will be burned with 
fire and they will be removed from the whole earth, and they 
(i.e. the heathen) will be cast into the judgment of fire and 
will perish in wrath and in grievous eternal judgment. 10. 
And the righteous one will arise from sleep and wisdom will 
arise and be given unto them. [11. And after that the 



when we deal with that section. Thus, for chapters xcvii. 6 D - 
cviii. 10 we possess two MSS. belonging to the beginning of the 
sixteenth century. In that section we shall distinguish the two 
MSS. as G and G 1 . 7. In all kinds of deeds. So GM. 

Other MSS. 'and all kinds of deeds/ And transgression. 
Wanting in G. From heaven. Wanting in G. The holy 
Lord. After these words G adds £0; 9° AC 8. For (DhJv&CDi 
Ocn>q G reads wOod^ and omits D&tdfMt against M and all 
other MSS.: 'in those days violence will be cut off from its roots 
and unrighteousness together with deceit from under heaven/ 
9. For &YYb(t G reads j&riiTA. 11. For k^teD G reads 



7,8. This fresh development of wicked- where the conversion of the heathen 
ness will call forth the final judgment. is expected. That verse, however, 
Boots of unrighteousness : cf. vv. belongs to the Apocalypse of Weeks 
5, 11. 9. The absolute rejection which has all the appearance of an 
of the heathen seems to be taught earlier fragment incorporated in his 
here. This was a prevailing though work by the original author of xci -civ. 
not the universal belief of later 10. The righteous one. Used col- 
Judaism : see Weber, L. d. T. 368. lectively as in xcii. 3. In xci-civ 
Idolatry is reprobated in xcix. 7-9, only the righteous attain to the Resur- 
10, as here. They will be cast into rection : see li. 1 (note) for full dis- 
the judgment of fire. This reproba- cussion of the subject. Wisdom : 
tion of the heathen does not appear see xlii. 1, 2 (note). 11. As we 
to agree with the teaching of ver. 14, have already seen (p. 260), xci. 12- 



268 



The Book of Enoch. 



[Sect. V. 



roots of unrighteousness will be cut off and the sinners will 
be destroyed by the sword (and the roots) will be cut off from 
blasphemers in every place, and those who devise oppression 
and those who commit blasphemy will perish by the edge of 
the sword.] t 2. And after that there will be another week, 
the eighth, that of righteousness, and a sword will be given 
to it that judgment and righteousness may be executed on 
those who commit oppression, and sinners will be delivered 
into the hands of the righteous. 13. And at its close they 

will acquire houses through their righteousness, and the house 
of the Great King will be built in glory for ever more. 14. 
And after that in the ninth week the righteous judgment will 



XST V J*'C(D. In every place. ' Place ' wanting in G. Those 
who devise oppression and those who commit blasphemy. 
G reads 'those who devise and those who commit blasphemy.' 
13. The house of the Great King will be built in glory. So G M 
(ln-flrft^. Other MSS. ' a house will be built to the glory of the 



17 originally stood after xciii. i-io. 
As for this verse, we must regard 
it as an interpolation added by the 
final editor in order to introduce 
vv. 12-19 which he had torn from 
their original context. This verse is 
wholly out of place here. Judgment 
has already been consummated, all 
evil works destroyed, and all the 
wicked handed over to a judgment of 
fire (vv. 7-9). In ver. 10 the Resur- 
rection ensues and judgment is now 
over. But in ver. 1 1 all this is ignored 
and a moral chaos is represented as 
still existing — a moral chaos of exactly 
the same nature as existed before the 
judgment of vv. 7-9. Moreover, 
the period of the Sword — man's part 
in the final judgment — precedes the 
Resurrection : cf. xc. 19 ; xci. 1 2. The 
Resurrection follows upon the destruc- 
tion of all evil and the final judgment, 
c. 4, 5. Finally, this verse seems 
modelled partly on vv. 7 and 8, and 
partly on ver. 1 2,the expressions about 



blasphemers being drawn from ver. 7, 
the phrase 'roots of unrighteousness 
will be cut off' from ver. 8, and the 
reference to the Sword from ver. 12. 
12-19. These verses giving an account 
of the first three weeks of the world's 
history should be read after xciii. I- 
10 (see p. 260), the account of the 
first seven weeks. 12. The eighth 
week sees the establishment of the 
Messianic kingdom. It likewise forms 
the first act of the final judgment ; 
for it is the period of the Sword ; cf . 
xc. 19; and the wicked are given 
into the hands of the righteous ; cf. 
xcv. 7 ; xcvi. 1 ; xcviii. 12 ; xcix. 4, 6 ; 
also xxxviii. 5. 13. On the period 
of strife will follow that of rest and 
quiet possession of the earth ; cf. Is. 
lx. 21, 22; lxv. 20-23. The house 
of the Great King : see Crit. Note. 
This means first of all the Temple, and 
in the next place Jerusalem. 14. 

This verse is difficult. The ninth 
week, as Din. supposes, may mean 



Sect. V.] Chapter XCI. 12-17. 2 ^9 

be revealed to the whole world, and all the works of the god- 
less will vanish from the whole earth, and the world will be 
written down for destruction, and all mankind will look to 
the path of uprightness. 15. And after this, in the tenth 

week in the seventh part, there will be the great eternal 
judgment, in which He will execute vengeance amongst the 
angels. 16. And the first heaven will depart and pass 

away, and a new heaven will appear, and all the powers of 
the heavens will shine sevenfold for ever. 17. And after 
that there will be many weeks without number for ever in 
goodness and righteousness, and sin will no more be mentioned 



Great King/ 14. "Will be revealed. G reads ^ftvfll (sic). 

All the works of the godless. G reads ' all the godless/ The 
world will be written down for destruction. G reads J&JMl*?: 
(idifrfc ^rty° ' one shall write down the destruction of the world/ 
15. Seventh part. 'Seventh' wanting in G. The great 

eternal judgment, in which He will execute vengeance amongst 
the angels. So M, and also G, but that it reads J&(1«| H *A. instead 
of &V(h<PPi as M. F H L O and Din. ' the eternal judgment, 
which is held over the watchers, and the great eternal heaven 
which springs from amongst the angels': thus adding W^tldCx 
X^^T-yl: a)t\ at l£l HA^Ay°. This was probably a marginal 
gloss. It appears in IN as ' which is held over the watchers of 
the eternal heaven.' ] 6. Will shine sevenfold for ever. 

G reads J&QClh and omits A^A^ . 17. In goodness. G inserts 



the period in which true religion will ends with the final judgment on the 
spread over the earth, and the judg- watchers. As there is no mention of 
ment described in ver. 12, and exe- the judgment of the wicked by God 
cuted by the righteous, will be made in person in this verse, the preceding 
known to the neutral Gentile nations verse may in some measure refer to 
with a view to their conversion : cf. it. The great eternal judgment : 
1.2-55x0.30,33,35. With this view see Crit. Note ; also xlv. 2 (note). 
the concluding words of this verse 16. Observe that though there will 
would harmonize well. Yet see ver. be a new heaven, cf. Is. lxv. 17; 
15 (note). The works of the god- Ixvi. 22 ; Ps. cii. 26, there is no men- 
less will vanish: cf. x. 16, 20, 21. tion of a new earth, cf. civ. 2 (note). 
The world will be written down For the idea of a new creation, cf. 
for destruction. This destination xlv. 4; lxxii. 1 (note). Sevenfold: 
will take effect towards the close of the cf. Is. xxx. 26; lx. 19, 20. 17. 
tenth week. 15. The tenth week This verse closes the Apocalypse of 



2 70 The Book of Enoch. [Sect. V. 

for ever. 1 8. And now I tell you, my sons, and I show 

you the paths of righteousness and the paths of violence, and 
I will show them to you again that ye may know what will 
happen. 19. And now, hearken, my sons, and walk in the 
paths of righteousness and walk not in paths of violence ; for 
all who walk in the paths of unrighteousness will perish 
for ever/ 

XCII. 1. Written by Enoch the scribe, this complete 
doctrine of wisdom which deserves the praise of all men and 
is a judge of the whole earth, for all my children who will 
dwell on the earth and the future generations who will 
observe uprightness and peace. 2. Let not your spirit be 

troubled on account of the times ; for the Holy (and) Great 
One has appointed days for all things. 3. And the 

righteous one will arise from sleep, will arise and walk in 
the path of righteousness, and all his path and conversation 
will be in eternal goodness and grace. 4. He will be 



before these words (DitfraD* ' and all of them in goodness/ 18. 

The paths of righteousness. G reads ' all the paths of righteous- 
ness/ "Will show to you. G reads ftCh&YbXlOV 4 . 19. 
Hearken and. Wanting in G, repeated thrice in M. 

XCII. 1 . The scribe, this complete doctrine of wisdom. G 
reads: avRthGi KdiL\ Kihi 3f?*i: HH*fr>; tJi^Ct; cot^UCT; 
T(MI. wav\fr\\. G M omit the W. 2. On account of the 
times. G reads ftfi^l 'indeed/ 'truly/ 3. For the righteous 

one will arise from sleep, will arise G merely gives .C^f^X; 
T(Wl ' wisdom will arise/ M ' righteousness will arise from its 



Weeks. 18, 19. These form a This book is mainly practical in cha- 

most suitable transition from the racter. A judge of the whole 

Apocalypse of Weeks to xci v. earth. Wisdom is represented as the 

XCII. This chapter forms the real irapeSpos or assessor of God in lxxxiv. 

beginning of the independent book 3 : see note. 2. The times are 

composed of chapters xci-civ. The evil ; but these too are the ordination 

order of the original text was (see of God. The Holy (and) Great 

p. 260) xcii ; xci. 1-10; xciii. 1-10; One: see i. 3 (note). 3. Theright- 

xci. 12-19; xc i y - !• The scribe : eous one. Used collectively as in 

cf. xii. 3, 4. Doctrine of wisdom. xci. 10. In eternal goodness and 



Sect. v.] Chapters XCL iS — XC/If. 2. 



271 



gracious to the righteous and will give him eternal upright- 
ness, and will give him power, and he will live in goodness 
and righteousness, and will walk in eternal light. 5. And 

sin will perish in darkness for ever, and will no more be seen 
from that day for evermore. 

XCIII. 1. And after that Enoch began to recount from 
the books. 2. And Enoch spake : l Concerning the children 
of righteousness and concerning the elect of the world and 
the plant of uprightness — of these I will speak to you and 

sleep, will arise.' 4. To the righteous. G reads tofc&fa ' to 
righteousness.' 

XCIII. 1. For W G reads wVM.. 2. Plant of uprightness. 



grace. These words are further ex- 
plained in ver. 4. 4. Power. 
Uprightness and power will no longer 
be dissevered. In eternal light: see 
xxxviii. 4 (note). 5. Cf. x. 16, 20. 
XCIII. 1-10. In these verses we 
have an account of the great events 
of the world during the first seven 
weeks of its history. These seven 
belong to the past, the three last 
weeks described in xci. 12-17 belong 
to the future. As this Apocalypse 
of Weeks comes from a different au- 
thor and date to the Dream-visions, 
lxxxiii-xc, we are relieved of the 
task of harmonizing them, on which 
many critics have laboured and to no 
purpose. We are not to regard the 
ten weeks as being definite and equal 
periods of 700 years each, as Wieseler, 
Hoffmann, and others have done ; for, 
not to press the fact that this reckon- 
ing would place the book after Christ, 
the facts recorded as occurring in the 
individual weeks would not fall within 
the limits assigned them by this 
theory. Dln.'s scheme of seventy 
generations of varying length, seven 
generations to each week, is still more 
unsatisfactory. In the first five weeks, 
seven actual generations are taken 
for each week ; but in the sixth and 



seventh weeks fourteen or more gene- 
rations are compressed into the needful 
seven. .Rather we are to regard the 
ten weeks as periods of varying 
length, each one of which is marked, 
especially towards its close, by some 
great event — the first by the birth of 
Enoch : the second by the corruption 
of primitive man and the Flood : the 
third by the call of Abraham : the 
fourth by the revelation of the law 
and the occupation of Palestine : the 
fifth by the building of the Temple : 
the sixth by the apostasy of Israel 
and the destruction of the Temple : 
the seventh by the publication of 
Enoch's writings. Cf. also Le Livre 
d? Henoch, par T. G. Peter, Geneve, 
1890. 1. From the books. These 
were either written by Enoch, ac- 
cording to some sections ; or by the 
angel that accompanied him, accord- 
ing to others : cf. xxxiii. 3,4; xl. 8 ; 
lxxiv. 2; lxxxi. 1, 2. In the next 
verse Enoch appeals to visions, angels, 
and the heavenly tables, as the source 
of his revelations. 2. These dis- 

closures are for the children of right- 
eousness : cf. xcii. 1 . The elect of 
the world. This designation of the 
elect is not found elsewhere in Enoch. 
The plant of uprightness : see x. 



272 The Book of Enoch. [Sect. v. 

announce to you, my sons, I Enoch, according to that which 
appeared to me in the heavenly vision, and know through the 
word of the holy angels, and have learnt from the heavenly 
tables/ 3. And Enoch began to recount from the books 
and spake : ' I was born the seventh in the first week, while 
judgment and righteousness still tarried. 4. And after me 
there will arise in the second week great wickedness, and 
deceit will spring up j and in it there will be the first end and 
in it a man will be saved ; and after it is ended unrighteous- 
ness will grow up and He will make a law for the sinners. 

5. And after that in the third week at its close a man 
will be chosen as the plant of righteous judgment, and 
after him will come for evermore the plant of righteousness. 

6. And after that in the fourth week, at its close, visions of 
the holy and righteous will be seen, and a law for all future 
generations and an enclosure will be made for them. 7. 
And after that in the fifth week, at its close, will the house 



So G M. Other MSS. ' plant of righteousness and uprightness.' 
5. Plant of righteous judgment. G adds H^CiT , and omits 
the rest of the verse. Before 111 A; 8\£*fr M inserts A. 6. 
G reads %&<P\ &YLh¥» 'there will be visions of the holy ones 



16 (note). Heavenly tables: see nant made with Noah : Gen. viii. 21- 
xlvii. 3 (note) for a complete account ix. 17. The time order in the close 
of this and similar expressions. 3. of this sentence is not observed. 5. 
Seventh in the first week. Ewald Abraham and his seed chosen as the 
and Din. find in this expression the race in and through which God would 
foundation of their theory that the reveal His righteous judgments — 'the 
reckoning here is according to genera- plant of righteous judgment ' : cf. ver. 
tions. But this is to press the words 2 ; x. 16 (note). 6. Visions of 
too much. They mean nothing more the holy, &c. The divine manifesta- 
tion 'seventh iu his generation,' Book tions in favour of Israel in Egypt. 
of Jubilees vii, or ' seventh from A law, &c. The law given on Sinai. 
Adam,' Jude 14. Still tarried. The This law is of eternal obligation : cf. 
righteous judgment of the Deluge had xcix. 2. An enclosure. Din. thinks 
not yet come. 4. Great wicked- this refers to the Tabernacle and the 
ness. According to vi. 6 and cvi. 13 hedging in of the national life by the 
this growth of wickedness should have law. It seems rather to refer to the 
been assigned to Jared's days, when occupation of Palestine : cf. lxxxix. 2. 
the fall of the angels took place. This 7. The Temple. The Temple will, 
week includes the Deluge and Cove- according to this author, stand \ for 



Sect. V.] 



Chapter XCIII. 3-1 1. 



273 



of glory and dominion be built for ever. 8. And after that 
in the sixth week, all those who live in it will be blinded, 
and the hearts of all of them will be given over to a wicked 
forgetfulness of wisdom, and in it a man will ascend; and at 
its close the house of dominion will be burnt with fire, and 
the whole race of the elect root will be dispersed. 9. And 

after that in the seventh week will a generation arise and 
many will be its deeds, and all its deeds will be apostate. 
10. And at its close will the elect of righteousness of the 
eternal plant of righteousness be elected to receive sevenfold 
instruction concerning His whole creation. [u. For who 



and righteousness will appear.' 9. Generation. So G M. 

Other MSS. 'apostate generation.' 10. The elect of righteous- 

ness. So D G L O. G reads J&t^fr ^fii 8\£fr. ABCFHI 
give 'the elect, the righteous.' EN 'the elect and righteous.' 
Be elected. So A(C)EFGHIMN fl^tf. Din. with 
B D gives ' be recompensed.' Concerning His whole 



ever,' though one form of it may give 
place to another. If this Apocalypse 
of Weeks was originally an integral 
part of xci-civ, this ' for ever ' means 
only an indefinitely long time ; for 
though there is an eternal law, there 
appears to be no Temple after the 
final judgment, and the risen right- 
eous enjoy a purely spiritual existence 
like the angels, as in the Book of 
Jubilees, and possibly in the Pss. of 
Solomon. 8. The time of the 

divided kingdom in Israel, of growing 
degeneracy and darkness. A man, 
i.e. Elijah: cf. lxxxix. 52. At the 
close of this week the Temple is 
destroyed and the nation carried into 
captivity. 9. This week embraces 
the period from the Captivity to the 
time of the author. It is an apostate 
period. The same judgment is passed 
upon it in lxxxix. 73-75. 10. The 
writer here refers to his own dis- 
closures which will be made known 



at the end of the seventh week. It 
might seem that it would be im- 
possible for any writer to make such 
extravagant claims for his productions. 
We find some slight approach to these 
in Ecclus. xxiv. 28-32, and a perfect 
parallel in the case of 'Walking' Stewart 
of the early part of this century. 
This writer, who was also the greatest 
traveller of his age, styles one of his 
productions, ' this unparalleled work 
of human energy,' and describes him- 
self as possessing a ' unique mind,' 
and ' unparalleled energies of genius.' 
Nay, more, he makes the era of 
1 Intellectual Life or Moral World ' 
to date from the publication of his 
chief work, and, believing that only 
future ages would appreciate him, pre- 
vailed on his personal friends to bury 
his books in secure places ; see De 
Quincey's Essays, vol. vii. The elect 
of righteousness. The revelations 
are designed for these, for only these 



2^4 The Book of Enoch. [Sect. v. 

is there of all the children of men that is able to hear the 
voice of the Holy One and quakes not (thereat) ? And who is 
there that can think His thoughts ? and who is there that 
can see all the works of heaven? 12. And how should 

there be one who could behold the heaven and who is there 
who could understand the things of heaven and see a soul 
or a spirit and tell thereof, or ascend and see all their ends and 
conceive them or do like them ? 13. And who is there of 

all men that could know what is the length and the breadth 
of the earth, and to whom has been shown the measure of all 
of them ? 14. Or is there any one who could discern the 

length of the heaven and how high it is, and upon what it is 
founded, and how great is the number of the stars, and where 
all the luminaries rest ?] 

XCIV. I. And now I say unto you, my sons, love right- 
creation. For £TV:i* G reads T<5+ 'concerning His whole 
possessions/ 12. Who could behold the heaven and who is 

there who could understand. SoGI: H£tl£Vl iRCtl (l^fr 
maote (D->rti H£*l£V: h\9°C. Other MSS. and Din. omit ■ behold 
the heaven and who is there who could/ A soul or a spirit. 
So B M : i$fo wXaoi ftfe aolLti, and G gives }£A and ao*\&J\ y 
and therefore practically supports M. Other MSS. and Din. 
give « His breath or His Spirit/ Tell. G gives 7fl£. 



will receive them : cf. c. 6 ; civ. 12, xxxviii. 33 ; Pss. xl. 5 ; xcii. 5 ; Eccles. 

13. 11-14. These verses .are com- xi. 5. 12. A soul or a spirit : see 

pletely out of place in their present Crit.Note. This would refer to Enoch's 

context, as Laurence, Hoffmann, and journey through heaven and Hades. 

Schodde have already remarked. Ascend: cf. Prov. xxx. 4. Their 

They would belong rather to the ends, i.e. of the things of heaven. 

Book of Celestial Physics, lxxii-lxxix, 13. Cf. Job xxxviii. 4, 5. Not given 

lxxxii, but are foreign in character in Enoch. 14. The length of the 

to the whole tone of this book, xci- heaven, &c. Jer. xxxi. 37 ; Job xi. 8. 

civ, and do not as a matter of fact Not given in Enoch. Pounded : cf. 

rightly describe any one of the books xviii. 2, 3. Number of the stars, 

of Enoch. 11. The voice of the This is nowhere found in Enoch. 

Holy One, i. e. the thunder : cf. Job XCIV. This chapter followed im- 

xxxvii. 4, 5; Ps. xxix. Think His mediately on xci. 12-19 in the original 

thoughts : cf. Job v. 9 ; ix. 10 ; text. It introduces the practical part 



Sect. v.] Chapters XCI II. \2 — XCIV. 7. 275 

eousness and walk therein ; for the paths of righteousness are 
worthy of acceptation, but the paths of unrighteousness are 
suddenly destroyed and vanish. 2. And to certain men of 

a (future) generation will the paths of violence and of death 
be revealed, and they will hold themselves afar from them 
and will not follow them. 3. And now I say unto you, the 
righteous : Walk not in the path of wickedness, nor on the 
paths of death, and draw not nigh unto them lest you be 
destroyed. 4. But seek and choose for yourselves righteous- 
ness and a holy life, and walk in the paths of peace that ye 
may live and prosper. 5. And hold fast my words in the 

thoughts of your hearts, and suffer them not to be effaced 
from your hearts ; for I know that sinners will tempt men to 
make wisdom wicked, and no place will be found for her and 
no manner of temptation will minish. 6. Woe to those 

who build unrighteousness and oppression and lay deceit as a 
foundation; for they will be suddenly overthrown and will 
have no peace. 7. Woe to those that build their houses 

with sin ; for they will be overthrown from their foundation 
and will fall by the sword ; and those who acquire gold and 



XCIV. 1. Worthy of acceptation. G reads £.£&: W^Wh^t. 
3. Path of wickedness. So G M. Other MSS. add ■ and in 
violence/ 4. But seek. G reads h«n>; XA; &i&&4 KM, and 

connects it with the preceding verse, ' as those who seek evil.' A 
holy life. This suits the context better than Dln.'s ' ein wohl- 
falliges Leben.' That ye may live and prosper. And hold 



of this section. Though written for cf. xci. 4; civ. 6. 5. We have 

the righteous, it devotes as much at- here a warning against Sadducean 

tention to the woes awaiting the or Greek influences. No place "will 

sinners. 1. Love righteousness, be found for her: cf. xlii. 6. 

&c: cf.xci. 3. Worthy of accepta- Some of the forms that wickedness 

tion: cf. 1 Tim. i. 15. Paths of will assume in those days. Build: 

unrighteousness are destroyed : cf. xci. 5. Have no peace. This 

cf. Ps. i. 6. 2. The revelations recurs in xcviii. 11, 16; xcix. 13; ci. 

through Moses and the Prophets. 3; cii. 3; ciii. 8. See also v. 4 

Paths of death: cf. Prov. xiv. 12; (note). 7. Build their houses 

Jer. xxi. 8. 3. Draw not nigh : with sin: cf. Jer. xxii. 13. They, 

T 2 



276 The Book of Enoch. [Sect.V. 

silver will perish in judgment suddenly. 8. Woe to you ye 
rich, for ye have trusted in your riches and from your riches 
ye shall depart, because ye have not remembered the Most 
High in the days of your riches. 9. Ye have committed 
blasphemy and unrighteousness and have become ready for 
the day of slaughter and the day of darkness and the day of 
the great judgment. 10. Thus I speak and declare unto 

you that He who has created you will overthrow you and for 
your fall there will be no compassion, and your Creator will 
rejoice at your destruction. II. And your righteous ones 

in those days will be a cause of shame to the sinners and the 
godless. 

XCV. 1. Oh that mine eyes were a cloud of water that I 
might weep over you, and shed my tears as a cloud of water ; 
that so I might rest from my trouble of heart ! 2. Who 

has permitted you to practise hate and wickedness? May 
judgment light upon you, sinners ! 3. Fear not the sinners, 
ye righteous ; for again will the Lord deliver them into your 
hands that ye may execute judgment on them according to 



fast. G reads : (Dt<MoM arfr&Aa*; ftf*AHH«. 9. And the day 
of darkness. Wanting in G. 1 1 . Your righteous ones. GM 

read ' Thy righteous ones.' 

XCV. 1 . Oh that mine eyes were a cloud of water. G reads : 
aoU J&lhAi: vfti AfiOj&l^? ' Oh that I had water for mine eyes 
that they might become a cloud of water/ 2. Who has per- 

mitted you to practise hate and wickedness? G omits h<n>; 
^7A4«, and for £Ch>(Hlcn>« reads £d.\l([Xia*. 3. Your hands. 



i. e. the men who so build. 8. Pss. 58 and xcvii. 2. 11. Your right- 

xlix. 6 ; lii. 7 ; Prov. xi. 28 ; Jer. ix. eous ones, i. e. the righteous among 

23. Cf. also En. xlvi. 7; lxiii. 10; his children's descendants, 
xcvi. 4; xcvii. 8-10. 9. Through XCV. 1. Oh that mine eyes were 

their sin and blasphemy they are now a cloud of water, &c. From Jer. 

ripe for judgment. Day of slaughter, ix. 1. This verse was probably before 

Ac.: see xlv. 2 (note). 10. Your the writer of Baruch xxxv. 2 : oculi 

Creator will rejoice at your mei, estote scatebrae. 3. Yet let 

destruction. This sentiment so op- not the righteous fear ; for the period 

posed to the O.T. (cf. Ezek. xviii. 23, of their supremacy is at hand: cf. 

32 ; xxxiii. n) has parallels in lxxxix. xci. 12. Again. The writer may 



Sect. v.] Chapters XCI V. 8 — XC VI. 2. 277 

your desires. 4. Woe to you who fulminate irreversible 
anathemas: healing shall therefore be far from you because 
of your sins. 5. Woe to you who requite your neighbour 

with evil ; for ye will be requited according to your works. 
6. Woe to you, lying witnesses, and to those who weigh out 
injustice, for suddenly will ye perish. 7. Woe to you sinners, 
for ye persecute the righteous ; for ye will be delivered up 
and persecuted, ye people of injustice, and heavy will their 
yoke be upon you. 

XCVI. 1. Be hopeful, ye righteous ; for suddenly will the 
sinners perish before you, and ye will have lordship over them 
according to your desires. [2. And in the day of the tribu- 
lation of sinners, your children will mount and rise as eagles 
and higher than the vultures will be your nest, and ye will 
ascend as squirrels and enter the crevices of the earth, and 



G reads ' their hands/ 4. Irreversible anathemas : healing 

shall therefore be far. G reads : 7H^ti h<n>; &Y&JYdh\ wLa)(\\ 
hm>! £C$$. M : VU^fi h(wi K&r&Srdh\ w&ahfti «#. 7. 
Ye will be delivered up and persecuted, ye people of injustice. 
G reads : ^"ZTOL: (D ! V(\£:&i ftOooq ' ye deliver up and persecute 
with injustice/ For XA: O^q M reads XSPtaoq. For UhlTa* 
G M read RA7 ' its (i. e. injustice) yoke/ 

XCVI. 1. Ye righteous; for suddenly will . . . perish. 
Wanting in G. ([Xiav* wanting in G. 2. And rise. G reads 



refer to the Maccabean victories; for sinners. 1. Lordship: cf. xci. 

these were victories over Sadducean 12 (note); xcv. 3, 7; xcviii. 12. 2. 

influences. Though the Maccabean This verse must be an interpolation : 

princes are now Sadducees themselves, it is silly in itself and interrupts the 

the period of the Sword, the time of the context. It is the wicked who will 

vengeance of the righteous, is coming. flee to hide themselves in secret 

4. Magical practices and incantations places, xcvii. 3 ; c. 4 ; cii. 1, and not 

are here referred to. 5. Requited the righteous : the latter will not 

according to your works : cf. c. 7. have to conceal themselves on the 

6. Weigh out injustice, i. e. are day of judgment, civ. 5. In the day 

unjust judges. 7- See Grit. Note of the tribulation of sinners, i. e. 

for a possibly better text. when the sinners suffer tribulation. 

XCVI. The righteous exhorted to Mount and rise, &c. From Is. xl. 

hope in the coming Messianic kingdom, 31. Higher than the vultures: 

and fresh woes denounced against the cf. Jer. xlix. 16. Into the crevices 



278 The Book of Enoch. [Sect.V. 

the clefts of the rock for ever before the unrighteous, and they 
will sigh and weep because of you as satyrs.] 3. Where- 

fore fear not, ye that suffer ; for healing will be your portion, 
and a bright light will enlighten you, and you will hear the 
voice of rest from heaven. 4. Woe unto you, ye sinners, for 
your riches make you appear like the righteous, but your 
hearts convict you of being sinners, and this word will be a 
testimony against you, for a memorial of (your) wickedness. 
5. Woe to you who devour the finest of the wheat and drink 
the power of the source of the fountain, and tread under foot 
the lowly with your might. 6. Woe to you who drink 

water at all times ; for suddenly will you be requited and will 
dry up and wither, because ye have forsaken the fountain of 
life. 7. Woe to you who work unrighteousness and deceit 

and blasphemy: it will be a memorial against you for evil. 
8. Woe to you, ye mighty, who with might oppress the 
righteous ; for the day of your destruction will come. In 



firfiMP. Will sigh and weep because of you as satyrs. 

G reads : fr>»Yb\ fr^^lPtn*: a)£Ml\ &££*. 4 Your riches. 
Before these words G inserts Xff». A memorial of (your) 
wickedness. G reads : +"H*iC; Kh-Fi. 8. Oppress. G reads 
SfrCVP. 



of the earth, &c. These words are the O.T. doctrine of retribution, pros- 
taken from Is. ii. 10, 19, 21, and are perity was a mark of righteousness, 
used there of those who flee through This word, i. e. that your riches 
fear from the presence of the Lord. prove you to be righteous. For a 
Hence they are most inappropriate memorial, &c: cf. ver. 7. 5. The 
in their present connexion. Before finest of the wheat: Pss. lxxxi. 16; 
the unrighteous. These words imply cxlvii. 14. The power of the source 
that the righteous go into the clefts of the fountain. This must mean 
of the rocks to escape the unrighteous. the purest water. 6. Drink water 
Sigh and weep because of you, at all times. If the text is right, 
&c. The present text is very doubt- this phrase describes the self-indulgent 
ful : see Crit. Note. 3. A bright life : the end of such a life will be 
light : see xxxviii. 4 (note). 4. painful want ; for they have forsaken 
Your riches make you appear like the fountain of true life : cf. Jer. ii. 
the righteous. Wealthy sinnerscould 13; Ps. xxxvi. 9. 7. Cf. xci. 8 ; 
appeal to their riches as a proof of xciv. 6, 9. For a memorial : cf. 
their righteousness ; for, according to ver. 4. 8. Many and good days. 



Sect, v.] Chapters XCVI. $ — XCVII. 6. 279 

those days many and good days will come to the righteous — 
in the day of your judgment. 

XCVII. 1. Believe, ye righteous ; for the sinners will 
come to shame and perish in the day of unrighteousness. 
2. It will become known to you that the Most High is mind- 
ful of your destruction and the angels of heaven rejoice 
over your destruction. 3. What will ye do, ye sinners, and 
whither will ye flee on that day of judgment when ye hear 
the voice of the prayer of the righteous ? 4. And it will 

not fare with you as with them, ye against whom this word 
will stand as a testimony: "Ye have been companions of 
sinners." 5. In those days the prayer of the righteous will 
reach unto the Lord, and the days of your judgment will 
overtake you. 6. And all the words of your unrighteous- 

ness will be read out before the Great (and) Holy One, and 
your faces will be covered with shame, and every work which 



XCVII. 2. The angels of heaven. So GMK Other MSS. 
omit ' of heaven.' 5. G reads, ' will go forth (^ffDfrX) and reach.' 
6. All the words of your unrighteousness. G reads : H"ft°: *}tn>q 
Xiao*. The words Great (and) Holy One introduce the repeated 
section xcvii. 6 b -cviii. 10 in G. We shall distinguish the two texts 
for this section as G and G 1 . It will be remarked that the readings 
of G 1 stand almost midway between G and Dln.'s text. (And) 
Holy. So G G 1 M. Din. gives ' and Holy.' Every work which 



The reference here seems to be to ver. 5. 4. This word ... * Ye 

the temporary Messianic kingdom in have been companions of sinners.' 

which the righteous who are living xcvi. 4 may be taken in this sense, 

at the time will participate. The Pharisaic duty of separation from 

XCVII. This chapter mainly con- the unrighteous could not be more 

sists of threatenings against the strongly enforced. 5. The prayer 

wicked. 1. In the day of un- of the righteous : cf. xlvii. 2 ; xcvii. 

righteousness. A peculiar expres- 3 ; xcix. 3, 16 ; civ. 3. This cry of 

sion for the day appointed for the the righteous for vengeance on their 

judgment of unrighteousness : seexlv. persecutors is found in Rev. vi. 10. 

2 (note). 2. Cf. xciv. 10 for a 6. "Will be read out, i. e. from the 

similar expression of religious hate books of remembrance of evil deeds : 

contrasted with Luke xv. 10. 3. see xlvii. 3 (note). Great (and) Holy 

Whither will ye flee : cf. cii. 1. One : see i. 3 (note) ; xcii. 2 (note). 

The prayer of the righteous : cf. Covered with shame : cf. xlvi. 6 ; 



280 The Book of Enoch. [Sect. v. 

is grounded in unrighteousness will be rejected. 7. Woe to 
you, ye sinners, on the mid ocean and the dry land, for their 
remembrance of you is evil. 8. Woe to you who acquire 

silver and gold in unrighteousness, yet say : "We have increased 
in riches : we have possessions ; and we have acquired every- 
thing we desire. 9. And now let us do that which we 
purpose ; for we have gathered silver and our granaries are 
full, and plentiful as water are the husbandmen in our houses." 
10. And like water your lies will flow away; for riches will 
not abide with you but will ascend suddenly from you ; for 
ye have acquired it all in unrighteousness and ye will be 
given over to a great condemnation. 

XCVIII. 1. And now I swear to you, to the wise and foolish, 
for ye will experience much on the earth. %. For ye men 

will put on more adornments than a woman and coloured gar- 
ments more than a virgin : in royalty, and in grandeur, and 
in power, and in silver, and in gold, and in purple, and in 



is grounded in unrighteousness will be rejected. G reads 
<&JF\\ *?a& 0<n>q, and G 1 reads &l£<Zi *70<5; HM0i Mao*. 
Text of other MSS. and Din. is a free combination of the two, 
but leaves both in giving a passive ■ will be rejected.' 9. Are 
full, and plentiful as water are the husbandmen. G reads : 
htn>; "V&i OHM 1 ?. This gives a good sense : ■ are full as water 
and many are the husbandmen.' M : (D\\av\ <*?,£■ •flH'^J Mftfl 
thdli*?. All other MSS. support Din. 10. Acquired it all. 
G omits H-ft». G 1 and other MSS. retain it. 

XCVIII. 1. To the wise and foolish. G and G 1 read wh.([h 
•ft/?"}. 2. In royalty and in grandeur . . . they will be poured 



lxii. 10; lxiii. 11. 7. On the XCVIII. This chapter introduces 

mid ocean and the dry land, i. e. a fresh division in xci-civ. This 

everywhere. Remembrance : cf. c. division, xcviii-cii. 3, consists mainly 

10, 11 ; civ. 8. 8. Cf. xciv. 7, 8 of a denunciation of the sinners, of 

(note) ; also Ecclus. xi. 17; Luke xii. their errors in life and doctrine, and 

19. 10. This verse is a rejoinder announces their coming judgment, 

to the boasting of the sinners, and 1. I swear to you. This formula 

plays partly on their words. Riches occurs here for the first time but 

will ascend suddenly : cf. Prov. recurs frequently : cf. vv. 4, 6 ; xcix. 

xxiii. 5. 6^ & c> To the wise and foolish. 



Sect, v.] Chapters XC VII 7 — XC VIII 6. 281 

splendour, and in food they will be poured out as water. 
3. Therefore they will be wanting in knowledge and wisdom, 
and they will perish thereby together with their possessions 
and with all their glory and their splendour, and in shame and 
in slaughter and in great destitution will their spirits be cast 
into the furnace of lire. 4. I have sworn unto you, ye 

sinners, as a mountain does not become a slave and will not, 
nor a hill the handmaid of a woman, even so sin has not been 
sent upon the earth, but man of himself has created it, and into 
great condemnation will those fall who commit it. 5. And 
barrenness has not been given to the woman, but on account 
of the deeds of her own hands she dies without children. 
6. I have sworn unto you, ye sinners, by the Holy and Great 
One that all your evil deeds are revealed in the heavens, and 
that none of your deeds of oppression are covered or hidden. 



out as water. But G omits the ft in every instance, and thus 
we have, ' royalty and grandeur and power and silver . . . will be 
poured out as water/ i.e. as plentifully as water, cf. xcvii. 9. G 1 in- 
serts the preposition before the first four, M before the first three, 
nouns. N inserts it before all. Before ' in royalty ' all MSS. except 
G G 1 M read ft<n>l72v, which is not a possible word. This reading 
is valuable in determining the various worth of the MSS. 4. 
I have sworn. Wanting in G 1 . For Wh.wVC G reads (DVC ' As 
a mountain does not become a slave and a hill will not become 
the handmaid of a woman.' G 1 H I L M N O agree with Din. 6. 



The foolish are addressed in xcviii-cii. the immoral view that sin is some- 

3 ; the wise in cii. 4-civ. 2. Will thing original and unavoidable. Sin 

be poured out as water. Their was of man's own devising : see lxix. 

personality giving itself wholly to 11 (note). 5. And as a conse- 

such external possessions will at last quence of their sin men are punished 

lose itself in them, as water is lost in just because sin is a voluntary thing, 

the earth : cf. Ps. xxii. 14. 3. The instance in the text is chosen as 

In great destitution. In contrast an illustration of this general law : 

to their wealth in this world. Their cf. Hos. ix. 14. 6-8. The writer 

spirits: cf. ver. 10; ciii. 8. As in- next deals with the view that God 

corporeal spirits the wicked are cast does not concern Himself with the 

into hell. This ' furnace of fire ' is world or the deeds of men, cf. Job 

the final place of punishment. 4. xxii. 13, Ps. lxxiii. II, and declares 

The writer now proceeds to attack that the deeds of men are recorded 



282 The Book of Enoch. [Sect.V. 

7. And do not think in your spirit nor say in your heart that 
you do not know and that you do not see that every sin is 
every day recorded in the presence of the Most High. 8. 

From henceforth ye know that all your oppression wherewith 
ye oppressed is written down every day till the day of your 
judgment. 9. Woe to you, ye fools, for through your folly 
will ye perish : ye have transgressed against the wise, and so 
good hap will not be your portion. 10. And now, know ye 
that ye are prepared for the day of destruction : wherefore do 
not hope to live, ye sinners, but ye shall depart and die ; for 
you know no ransom ; for ye are prepared for the day of the 
great judgment and for the day of tribulation and great shame 
for your spirit. 1 1 . Woe to you, ye obstinate of heart, who 
work wickedness and eat blood : whence have ye good things 
to eat and drink and to be filled ? From all the good things 
which our Lord, the Most High, has placed in abundance on 
the earth; and ye indeed shall have no peace. 12. Woe to 
you who love the deeds of unrighteousness : wherefore do you 
hope for good hap unto yourselves? know that ye shall be 
delivered into the hands of the righteous, and they will cut 



Deeds of oppression. G omits ' deeds/ 8. Is written down. 

G reads J&J^rh^. Your judgment. G 'judgment.' 9. 

Transgressed against the wise. So G and G 1 ^tfiOPav. M 
tthyCPOD 4 . Other MSS. ^Ci^OPao* < ye have not hearkened/ 
1 o. For destruction. G reads ADA; thT u lKXl(i D *. 11. Who work. 



every day in heaven. 7. Beeorded : (note). For your spirit : see ver. 3 
cf. xcvii. 6 ; xcviii. 8 ; c. 10 ; civ. 7, 8. (note). 11. The denunciation of 
8. From henceforth, ye know, i. e. individual sinners. Obstinate of 
from the publication of Enoch's book heart : cf. c. 8. Eat blood : cf. vii. 
in these later times. 9. This verse 5. Not content with enjoying the 
introduces a long succession of woes best of everything that God gives, 
directed against the sinners. 10. these sinners eat blood and break 
Prepared : cf. xciv. 9. Die. This the divine law : cf. Book of Jubilees 
refers not only to the loss of the life vii, xxi ; Acts xv. 29. Have no 
temporal but also of the life eternal. peace : see v. 4 (note). 12. De- 
No ransom : Ps. xlix. 8, 9. Day of livered into the hands of the 
great judgment, &c: see xlv. 2 righteous: see xci. 12 (note). 13. 



Sect, v.] Chapters XCVIII. J — XCIX. 3. 283 

off your necks and slay you, and will have no pity upon you. 
13. Woe to you who rejoice in the tribulation of the righteous; 
for no grave of yours will be seen. 14. Woe to you who set 
at nought the words of the righteous ; for no hope of life will 
be yours. 15. Woe to you who write down lying and god- 
less words ; for they write down their lies that men may hear 
them and transgress against (their) neighbour. 16. There- 
fore they will have no peace but will die a sudden death. 

XCIX. 1. Woe to them who act godlessly and glory in 
lying words and extol them : ye will perish and no happy 
life will be yours. 2. Woe to them who pervert the words 
of uprightness and transgress the eternal law, and transform 
themselves into what they were not, i.e. into sinners : they 
shall be trodden under foot upon the earth. 3. And in 



G G 1 M give J&7»04« and J&Q&lh 13. Wo grave of yours wiU 
be seen. So G and G 1 PTO&. Other MSS. 'no grave will be 
dug for you/ 15. And transgress against (their) neighbour. 

So G 1 M : (Dj&CF'OFl Aa0,£\ G leaves a blank space where the 
verb should be, but gives MO •£". Other MSS. ' and forget not 
folly/ 

XCIX. 1. Ye will perish and no happy life be yours. 
G reads: •fdkb&Xta&i fi\£>Wi\\ U*££+ 'ye will perish as to a 
happy life/ 2. Woe to them, &c. So G G 1 M : h A>: teao*\ 
fth&l jE.<B&TiPtfi>«. Other MSS. ' woe to you,' &c, but this seems 
wrong, as verse 1 opens with ' woe to them/ and all the remaining 



No grave of yours will be seen : of the Hellenistic literature are de- 
see Crit. Note. Cf. Jer. viii. 2; nounced: here all those who sympa- 
xxii. 19. 14. Wo hope of life, thise with or praise them : cf. xciv. 
&c. : cf. xcvi. 1; xcviii. 10. 15. 5; xcviii. 15 (note). Act godlessly. 
Cf. civ. 10. This verse attests the The Ethiopic could also be rendered 
vigorous literary strife existing be- ' practise transgression ' ; for the sub- 
tween the Sadducean or Hellenistic stantive here is derived from the verb 
and the Pharisaic party. Transgress translated •' transgress ' in xcviii. 15. 
against (their) neighbour : see Crit. 2. Pervert the words of upright- 
Note. Cf. ver. 9. 16. Have no ness : cf. xciv. 5. The eternal law, 
peace : see v. 4 (note). A sudden i. e. the Mosaic law : cf. v. 4 ; xcix. 
death: cf. xciv. 1,6, 7; xcv. 6; xcvi. 14. Transform themselves into 
1 , 6. what they are not, i.e. adopt foreign 
XCIX. 1. In xcviii. 15 the writers customs and make themselves 'sinners 



284 The Book of Enoch. [Sect. V. 

those days make ready, ye righteous, to raise your prayers as 
a memorial, and ye will place them as a testimony before the 
angels in order that they may place the sin of the sinners for 
a memorial before the Most High. 4. In those days the 

nations will be stirred up and the families of the nations will 
arise on the day of destruction. 5. And in those days those 
who are reduced to want will go forth and mangle their chil- 
dren, and they will cast them away, and there will be mis- 
carriages ; and they will cast away their sucklings, and will 
not return unto them, and will have no pity on their be- 
loved ones. 6. Again I swear to you, sinners, that sin is 
prepared for a day of unceasing bloodshed. 7. And they will 
worship stones, and others will make graven images of gold and 



verbs of verse 2 are in the 3rd pi. 3. G reads, ' the righteous 

will make ready to raise their prayers,' f^hP 3 }^ ftft^Wtf 1 *. 
4. Will be stirred up. G gives a false form i*a*Ufl>fK 
The families of the nations will arise. G omits 'families.' 
Will arise. GG*M read JW&, M adding 7fc. 5. Those 

who are reduced to want. &A; fi%\(t. Din. rendered this in 
his translation, ' wird die Frucht des Mutterleibes abgehen/ de- 
riving J&&iCh from 01A. But B1A could not bear this meaning. 
In his Lexicon, col. 1286, he derives it from "TftiA, ad egestatem 
redigi. Cast them away. So GG X M. Other MSS. 'cast 



of the Gentiles ' : become apostates. will be the period of the Sword : cf. 

3. Your prayers: see xcvii. 5 (note). xc. 19; xci. 12 ; xcix. 6. 5. See 

Place them . . . before the angels. Crit. Note. As there will be wars 

This mediatorial function of the angels and strifes among nations, so there 

(cf. ix. 2-1 1 note) has its root in the will be also amongst families : cf. lvi. 

O.T., cf. Job v. 1 ; xxxiii. 23 ; Zech. 7 (note) ; c. 1. 6-C. 6. Denuncia- 

i. 12; but has no place in the N.T., tion of the idolatry and superstition 

except in Eev. viii. 3, 4. The Most of the wicked. In this denunciation 

High. This title is found in all sec- not only the apostates but also the 

tions of the book. For 'Most High actual heathen are included. 6. 

God ' see in xxi. 6, Crit. Note. The title Day of unceasing bloodshed, i.e. 

' Most High ' appears in ix. 3 ; x. 1 ; the judgment of the sword : see xci. 

xlvi. 7; lx. 1, 22 ; lxii. 7; lxxvii. 1; 12 (note); xlv. 2 (note). Quoted by 

xciv. 8; xcvii. 2; xcviii. 7, 11 ; xcix. Tertullian, De Idol, iv: Juro vobis, 

3, 10 ; ci. 1, 6, 9. 4. In the last peccatores, quod in diem sanguinis 

times there will be wars and tumults perditionis poenitentia parata est. 

among the nations of the earth. This 7. Graven images of gold and 



Sect, v.] Chapter XCIX. 4-12. 285 

silver and wood and clay, and others will worship impure spirits 
and demons and all kinds of superstitions not according to know- 
ledge, notwithstanding no manner of help will be found in them. 
8. And they will become godless by reason of the foolishness 
of their hearts, and their eyes will be blinded through the fear 
of their hearts and through visions in their dreams. 9. 
Through these they will become godless and fearful, because 
they work all their works in a lie and they worship a stone : 
therefore in an instant will they perish. 10. But in those 

days blessed are all they who accept the words of wisdom, and 
understand them, and follow out the paths of the Most High, 
and walk in the path of His righteousness, and become not 
godless with the godless; for they will be saved. II. Woe 
to you who hope for misfortune to your neighbour ; for you 
will be slain in Sheol. 12. Woe to you who make deceitful 



their children away/ 7. Impure spirits. G gives av { Z(t<li i Vi 

hfbfTt ' evil spirits/ M : i^/tf*: Xh-JP^. Not according to 
knowledge. So G 1 iLMr^YC So Tert. Be Idol, iv, quoted in 
Exeget. Note. G At^OC. F H I L N O and Din. (17° Ad^t ' in 

idol temples/ M reads with Din., but inserts a negative. 10. Of 
His righteousness. So GG X M. Other MSS. ' of righteousness.' 
With the godless. Wanting in G. 11. Hope for misfortune 

to your neighbour. So G *Vft&Oh f P, i.e. ^AXaHP. Other MSS. 
^(l^fhV 'who spread evil to your neighbour/ 12. Woe 



silver, . . . and others will worship and idolatry will proceed from bad 
. . . demons : cf. Rev.ix. 20. Demons: to worse : cf. Book of Wisdom xiv. 12, 
cf. xvi. 1 ; xix. I. Not according to 27 ; Rom. i. 21. "Will become god- 
knowledge: see Crit. Note. Observe less: cf. xciii. 8; xcix. 9. On the 
that this reading is supported by relation of dreams to superstition, cf. 
Tertullian, De Idol, iv, where he Ecclus. xxxi. 1-7. 9. Through 
translates this verse : Qui servitis these, i. e. dreams. 10. As sudden 
lapidibus, et qui imagines facitis destruction will befall the idolaters, 
aureas et argenteas et ligneas et lapi- ver. 9, so salvation will be the recom- 
deas et fictiles, et servitis phantas- pense of those who accept the true 
matibus et daemoniis et spiritibus wisdom. 11. Hope for mis- 
infamibus [MSS. give infamis] et fortune, &c. : see Crit. Note. Will 
omnibus erroribus non secundum be slain : cf. cviii. 3. This is the ex- 
scientiam, nullum ab iis invenietis treme penalty of sin : a less severe 
auxilium: cf. Book of Jubilees i. punishment is eternal condemnation 
8. The victims of such superstition to Sheol, but that not attended by 



286 The Book of Enoch. [Sect.V. 

and false measures, and who tempt (others) on the earth ; for 
they will thereby be utterly consumed. 13. Woe to you 
who build your houses through the grievous toil of others and 
their building material is nothing save the bricks and stones 
of sin j I tell you ye will have no peace. 14. Woe to them 
who reject the measure and eternal heritage of their fathers 
and whose souls follow after idols ; for they will have no rest. 

15. Woe to them who work unrighteousness and aid oppression 
and slay their neighbours until the day of the great judgment. 

16. For He will cast down your glory and bring affliction on 
your hearts, and will arouse the spirit of His indignation to 
destroy you all with the sword; and all the righteous and 
holy will remember your sins. 

C. 1. And in those days the fathers together with their 
sons will be smitten in one place, brothers will fall in death 
one with another until it streams with their blood like a river. 
2. For a man will not withhold his hand from slaying his 



to you. G gives 'woe to them/ Measures. So G G 1 (iaDft&.C't. 
M davtywOt. Other MSS. A<n>ip£1* 'who lay a foundation of 
sin and deceit/ Tempt (others). So G ,ftn>h4«. G 1 reads 
ftUPir. Other MSS. fao&r 'cause bitterness/ 14. Whose 

souls follow after idols. So G M jkf&OLi. G 1 testifies to this 
text though its present order is confused: frttiiC&i &*}& i&til 
Wi*?. Other MSS. ' who cause their souls to follow after idols.' 
16. Will bring affliction on your hearts. Dln/s rendering is 
astray here : ' die Bosheit euch ans Herz legen/ The spirit of 
His indignation to destroy you. G*M read: m>0*fc (DOi>~i&.fa 

C. 1. Their blood. G gives 'your blood/ 2. Withhold 



the ' slaying ' of the soul : cf. xxii. apostates as in that verse are here 

13. Sheol here means the eternal referred to. Have rest: see xciv. 

place of punishment: see lxiii. 10 6 (note). 15. Day of the great 

(note) ; ciii. 7. 12. See Crit. judgment : see xciv. 9 ; xcviii. 10 ; 

Note ; Prov. xi. 1 ; Hos. xii. 7. 13. xlv. 2 (note). 16. Eemember 

Build . . . through the grievous your sins. And accordingly pray for 

toil of others : cf. Jer. xxii. 13 ; also your destruction : see xcvii. 5 (note). 

En. xciv. 7 ; xcvii. 8. 14. The C. 1. The thought in xcix. 6 is 

measure and eternal heritage, i. e. here expanded. Streams with their 

the Mosaic land : cf. ver. 2. The blood : cf. Is. xxxiv. 3, 7 ; Ps. lviii. 



Sect, v.] Chapters XCIX. 13 — C. 5. 287 

sons and his sons' sons, and the sinner will not withhold his 
hand from his honoured brother : from dawn till sunset — they 
will slay one another. 3. And the horses will walk up to 

the breast in the blood of sinners, and the chariot will be sub- 
merged to its height. 4. And in those days the angels will 
descend into the secret places and will gather into one place 
all those who brought down sin, and the Most High will 
arise on that day of judgment to execute great judgment 
amongst sinners. 5. And over the righteous and holy he 

will appoint as guardians holy angels to guard them as the 
apple of an eye until He has made an end of all wickedness 
and all sin, and though the righteous sleep a long sleep, they 



his hand. So G G 1 M. Other MSS. ■ withhold in compassion his 
hand/ GG X M give A£>TA for (D^tTX. 3. To its height. 
G reads Xfth: XAti ao^O^Vi a), and G 1 Xfth: XAtj aD&Ohp. 

4. Who brought down sin. So G G 1 M fmC&V. Other MSS. 
1 who aided sin/ Day of judgment. So G G l M : Mi Ytil . 
Other MSS. 'day/ Amongst. So GG X M : A"¥Ahtan*; A. Other 
MSS. 'on all/ 5. The righteous. So G. Other MSS. 'all 

the righteous/ He has made an end of. So G G 1 M J&<Bȣ-0, 
with the four next words in the ace. Other MSS. ' till all wicked- 



10. 2. From his honoured temporarily buried in abysses of the 
brother. It is very probable that earth, i.e. 'the secret places.' 5. 
we have here a reference to the This verse has always been inter- 
murder of Antigonus by his brother preted of the righteous on earth, but 
Aristobulus I. Josephus (Ant. xiii. wrongly. The righteous here spoken 

11. I, 2) tells us that Aristobulus of are not the living, but are righteous 
specially loved Antigonus, but moved souls in the place of the departed, 
by calumnies put him to death, and This place was afterwards called the 
afterwards died of remorse for this chambers orpromptuaries, as in IV Ezra 
deed. On the internecine strife that [vi. 60] : Vident promptuaria anima- 
was to initiate the kingdom, cf. lvi. 7 ; rum aliarum, quae custodiuntur ab 
xcix. 5, 6; Zech. xiv. 13; Ezek. angelis in quiete multa ; and again 
xxxviii. 21 ; Hagg. ii. 22. 3. Up in [vi. 68] the souls in their promptu- 
to the breast : cf. Rev. xiv. 20. aries requiescunt in quiete multa et 
4. Brought down sin: see Crit. ab angelis custodiuntur: cf. also 
Note. The reference in this verse can IV Ezra iv. 35 ; vii. 32 ; Apoc. Bar. 
only be to the fallen angels who are xxx. 2. The apple of an eye : cf. 
here described as having 'brought Deut. xxxii. 10; Ps. xvii. 8. The 
down sin.' These fallen angels were righteous sleep a long sleep. The 



288 



The Book of Enoch. 



[Sect. V. 



have nought to fear. 6. And the wise amongst men will 

see the truth, and the children of earth will understand all 
the words of this book and recognise that their riches will not 
be able to save them in the overthrow of their sins. 7. 
Woe to you sinners, when ye afflict the righteous on the 
day of great trouble and burn them with fire : therefore ye 
will be requited according to your works. 8. Woe to you, 

ye obstinate of heart, who watch in order to devise wicked- 
ness : therefore fear shall come upon you and there will be 
none to help you. 9. Woe to you, ye sinners ; for on 

account of the words of your mouth and on account of the 
deeds of your hands which ye have godlessly wrought, ye will 
burn in a fire of blazing flame. 10. And now know ye 



ness and all sin have been made an end of/ 6. The truth. 

GG'LMO read X«n>i. 8. Obstinate of heart. So GG'M: 
7H4f; £W1 . Other MSS.: 7CT 4 }*: 2WI ' ye perverse of heart.' To 
help you. G gives ' to help them.' 9. Godlessly wrought. G M 



writer of xci-civ did not expect the 
resurrection at the beginning of the 
temporary Messianic kingdom. The 
words ' sleep a long sleep ' could not 
be said with reference to this kingdom ; 
for the writer living at the close of 
the seventh week expects its advent 
immediately at the beginning of the 
eighth week. The ' long sleep ' ex- 
tends from his time till the close of 
the tenth week, when the righteous 
rise. Again, from vv. 4, 5 we see 
that the righteous do not rise till 
God has judged sinners and an end 
is made of all sin. Thus the resur- 
rection of the righteous in xci-civ 
follows the final judgment at the 
close of the Messianic kingdom. 6. 
Those who are still capable of wisdom 
will be warned by these revelations 
of Enoch. Here as in xciii. 10, civ. 
12, 13, the writer refers to the ap- 
pearance of his book. Children of 



earth. This title belongs to the 
Sadducees, sinners, apostates, pagan- 
izers, cii. 3 : cf. the Hebrew phrase 
}OKn DJ?: the righteous are desig- 
nated as the ' children of heaven,' 
ci. 1. Riches will not be able to 
save them : cf. Zeph. i. 18. 7. 

The righteous underwent such perse- 
cution under Antiochus Epiphanes : 
cf. 11 Mace, vii, if we may trust the 
latter. On the day of great trouble. 
These words should probably be read 
directly after • woe to you sinners ' : they 
would in that case refer to the final 
judgment : cf. xlv. 2 (note). Other- 
wise they must be taken of the time 
of the persecution of the righteous. 
Requited according to your works: 
cf. xcv. 5. 8. Obstinate of heart : 
cf. xcviii. 11. "Watch: cf. Is. xxix. 
20. 9. The wicked will suffer 

in the flames of hell for their godless 
words and deeds. 10. All the 



Sect. v.] Chapters C 6 — CI. i. 289 

that the angels will seek out your deeds in heaven from the 
sun and from the moon and from the stars in reference to 
your sins because ye execute judgment on the righteous upon 
earth. 11. And He will summon to testify against you 
cloud and mist and dew and rain ; for they will all be with- 
held by you from descending upon you, and that because of 
your sins. 12. And now give presents to the rain that it 

be not withheld from descending upon you, nor yet the dew, 
when it has received gold and silver from you that it may 
descend. 13. When the hoar-frost and snow with their 

chilliness and all the winds of the snow with all their plagues 
fall upon you, in those days ye will not be able to stand 
before them. 

CI. 1. Observe the heaven, ye children of heaven, and 



ZtUittUfl*, and G 1 £.(Vfi\iao*. 10 . Execute judgment on. 

G reads *»Wl4«f 1ft, and G 1 t7ft4.; 9°M. M: *Mf4 9°M. 

ir. Cloud. So G. Other MSS. 'every cloud.' From de- 

scending. G reads: htn>; ££&. Other MSS.: hcn>; h&Lf*. 
And that because of your sins. So G : (D%S\\ 1fIL#Hlcn>\ But 
the MSS. vary much. G 1 reads : (DjBL-i&fr £ft; ^HlUftliaD* « and 

they will think of your sins/ Din. gives the same as G 1 , with the 
addition of a negative and 1ft instead of £fl : ' and shall not they 
think of your sins?' B gives an attractive reading, £j&/h>£V£Q< 
■ shall not they keep watch as to your sins V FHILMNO same 
as Din., except £ft for 1ft. 12. That it may descend. So 

G G * 1 L O. M inserts negative. FHN and Din. omit entire 
phrase. 

CI. 1. Ye children. So G G 1 M. Other MSS. ' all ye children/ 



heavenly powers which have witnessed testify against sinners, as they have 

the sins of the wicked will testify been withholden on account of their 

against them : cf. xcviii. 6-8 ; also sins. This is exactly in keeping with 

xcvii. 7 ; civ. 8. In Hab. ii. 1 1 this lxxx, one of the chapters interpolated 

testimony is given by the stones and in lxxii-lxxxii : cf. Jer. iii. 3. 12. 

beams of the dwelling of the wicked. Spoken ironically. 13. Even the 

Execute judgment, &c. Text very lesser punishments of the elements 

uncertain : see Crit. Note. 11. All are irresistible. 

the natural powers which minister 01. 1. The same subject pursued ; 

to the fruitfulness of the earth will but the writer turns aside for a 



290 The Book of Enoch. [Sect.V. 

every work of the Most High, and fear ye Him and work no 
evil in His presence. 1. "When He closes the windows of 

heaven and withholds the rain and the dew from descending 1 
on the earth on your account, what will ye do then ? 3. 
And when He sends His anger upon you because of all your 
deeds, ye cannot petition Him ; for ye have spoken proud 
and insolent words against His righteousness : therefore ye 
will have no peace. 4. And see ye not the sailors of the 
ships, how their ships are tossed to and fro by the waves and 
are shaken by the winds and are in sore trouble ? 5. And 
therefore do they fear because all their goodly possessions go 
into the sea with them, and they are anxious of heart lest the 
sea should swallow them and they should perish therein. 6. 
Are not the entire sea, and all its waters, and all its move- 
ments the work of the Most High and all its doings and its 
waters, and has He not confined it throughout by the sand ? 



Pear ye. G gives Wl/* ■ His ways/ 3. Because of. So G M ft. 
G 1 omits. Other MSS. 'and upon/ 4. Sailors of the ships. 
I have here and in ver. 9 accepted Hallevi's emendation of ' kings 
of the ships ' into c sailors of the ships/ The false reading arose 
from a confusion of nfrjKJJ *$© with "KH *gjft 5. G G 1 M for 
CDWX read U*£J&; (D, and G repeats ^flrtilFtfD* — QrhC through 
homoioteleuton. 6. And its waters. So G G 1 M (D a H^. 

E K&ao. Other MSS. rhttn> ' has He not sealed all its doings V 
This last, which Din. follows, is obviously a late conjecture. 



moment to address the righteous who instances of such insolent speech, cf. 
are here called ' children of heaven,' xcviii. 7, 8 ; cii. 6. 4-7. They who 
as elsewhere sinners are called 'children go down to the sea in ships are filled 
of earth' : cf. c. 6 ; cii. 3. The con- with fear at the might of the sea: 
templation of heaven and of nature how much more should not men fear 
and of the ends they serve should God by whom the sea has been made 
move them to the fear of God. 2, and of whom it is sore afraid ? 4. 
3. The writer resumes his address to Sailors of the ships : see Crit. Note. 
the wicked and recurs to the subject : For the thought of the verse Ps. cvii. 
cf. c. n, 12. "Windows of heaven : 23-27. 6, 7. The sea can do 
Gen. vii. 11. Proud and insolent nothing save according to divine coin- 
words : v. 4 (note) ; xxvii. 2. As mand. Its doings and its waters : 



Sect, v.] Chapters CI. 2 — CI I. 4. 291 

7. And at His reproofs it is afraid and dries up and all its 
fish die and all that is in it ; but ye sinners who are on the 
earth fear Him not. 8. Has He not made the heaven and 

the earth and all that is therein ; and who has given under- 
standing and wisdom to all that move on the earth and to all 
that move in the sea? 9. Do not the sailors of the ships 
fear the sea ? Yet sinners fear not the Most High. 

CII. 1 . And in those days when He brings a grievous fire 
upon you, whither will ye flee and where will ye find deliver- 
ance ? And when he launches forth His word against you, 
will you not be affrighted and fear? 2. And all the 

luminaries will quake with great fear, and all the earth will 
be affrighted and tremble and be alarmed. 3. And all the 
angels will execute their commands and will seek to hide 
themselves from the presence of the Great Glory, and the 
children of earth will tremble and quake; and as for 
you, ye sinners, ye are cursed for ever and ye will have no 
peace. 4. Fear ye not, ye souls of the righteous, and be 



7. It is afraid and dries up. So G'M. FHILNO and Din. 
' dries up and is afraid.' G omits ' is afraid.' 

CII. 1. When. Wanting in G. 3. The Great Glory. So 

G G 1 M : ft(L£; fMlffrfr. Din. gives ' Him who is great in glory.' 



see Crit. Note. With this passage frighted, and even the holy angels 
cf. Jer. v. 22 ; Job xxvi. 10 : xxxviii. will seek to hide themselves from it. 
8-u ; Pss.lxxxix. 9; civ. 9; Prov.viii. What then will become of sinners? 
29. 8. God has not only made 1. A grievous fire, i. e. the fire of 
the sea, but also heaven and earth hell: cf. xcix. IX. His word, i.e. 
and all that in them is. He too word of judgment. 3. The Great 
has given instinct to animals and Glory : cf. xiv. 20. Children of 
reason to man. 9. The whole earth : cf. c. 6 ; ci. 1 (note). Have 
argument of the chapter summed up no peace : cf. xciv. 6 (note). 4- 
in a few r pregnant words. Sailors of CIV. 9. The discussion and con- 
the ships : see Crit. Note on ver. 4. dem nation of the ftadducean views of 
CII. 1-3. If they now refuse to the future life. 4, 5. The right- 
fear God, the day will come when eous are bidden to be of good cheer 
they will be terrified before the awful though their life be such as only 
day of the Lord — a day so terrible sinners deserved, and their latter 
that heaven and earth will be af- end be full of grief (vv. 4, 5). 4. 

U 2 



292 The Book of Enoch. [Sect.v. 

hopeful ye that die in righteousness. 5. And grieve not if 
your soul descends in grief into Sheol, and that in your life 
your body has not fared as your goodness deserved but truly 
as on a day on which ye became like the sinners, and on a day 
of cursing and chastisement. 6. And when ye die the 

sinners speak over you : ' As we die, so die the righteous, and 
what benefit do they reap from their deeds ? 7. Behold, even 
as we, so do they die in grief and darkness, and what advantage 
have they over us ? from henceforth we are equal. 8. And 
what will they receive and what will they see for ever? for 
behold they too have died, and from henceforth for ever they 
will see no light/ 9. I tell you, ye sinners, ye are content 
to eat and drink and strip men naked, and rob and sin and 
acquire wealth and see good days. 10. Have ye seen the 

righteous how their end falls out ? for no manner of violence 



Children of earth. Wanting in G. 4. Ye that die. So 

C F H I L M N : XAi T^tia*. G has i «?ft; XAi <T% cf. ciii. 3 ; 
G 1 hdl fl**F. O and Din., ' hope for the day of your death in 
righteousness/ 5. If. So G and G 1 X<n>. Other MSS. ' that/ 
iWlffD. In grief. So G G 1 M. Other MSS. '- in great tribulation 
and wailing and sorrow and grief/ 8. What will they receive. 
G and G 1 read: 9»Wl PViJ^h- 'how will they arise V 10. 



Die in righteousness: see Crit. and argue that as there is no dif- 

Note. 5. The author, given the ference in the lot of the righteous 

standpoint of belief in a blessed future and the wicked in this life — a point 

for the righteous, can readily concede just conceded by the author in ver. 5 

that there is often no difference in — so there is none in an existence 

the outward lot of the righteous and beyond this life : cf. Book of Wisdom 

the wicked either in life or death. ii. 1-5; iii. 2-4; Eccles. ii. 14-16; 

Such a concession according to the iii. 19-21, &c. 7. In grief and 

O.T. doctrine of retribution was'im- darkness. This refers to the O.T. 

possible. Sheol: see lxiii. 10 (note), conception of Sheol, lxiii. 10 (note). 

We must apparently assume an apo- 9, 10. The answer of the author, 

siopesis at the close of this verse. The life of the wicked is fashioned 

Became like the sinners, i. e. were by material and temporal aims only, 

afflicted just as if ye were sinners. and so all their desires find satis- 

6-8. The sinners — the Sadducean op- faction in this world ; but the life 

ponents — start from the O.T. doctrine of the righteous, as is manifest from 

of retribution, which taught the pros- first to last, is moulded by spiritual 

perity of the righteous in this life, and eternal aims. How their end 



Sect, v.] Chapter CII. 5 — CI II. 3. 293 

is found in them till the day of their death. 11. * Never- 

theless they perished, and became as though they had not 
been, and their souls descended into Sheol in tribulation/ 

CIII. 1. Now, therefore, I swear to you, the righteous, by 
the glory of Him that is great and honoured and mighty in 
dominion, and by His greatness I swear to you. 2. I know 
this mystery and have read it in the heavenly tables, and have 
seen the book of the holy ones and have found written therein 
and inscribed regarding them: 3. That all goodness and 
joy and glory are prepared for them and are written down for 
the spirits of those who have died in righteousness, and that 
manifold good will be given to you in recompense for your 



How their end falls out. So G G 1 M, omitting Mao, Other 
MSS. ' how their end is peace.' Is found. G reads ^hQ^. 
In them. G gives ' in you/ 

CIII. 1. By the glory of Him that is great and honoured. 
So G 1 : ali'ddi^i AOajS; (DdXkCtC G gives the same text except 
that it omits & before 0&£. FHILNO and Din., 'by His 
great majesty and glory.' M : Qft>flrii*ft 0&&: (DdllCtC: (n>y?P»$. 
And mighty in dominion. So G and G 1 : OlMf; aoyjP'^. 
Din. 'and by His glorious kingdom/ 3. Are written down 

for the spirits of those. G reads : t$Wh&; fift^yWcH* < the names 
of those . . . are written down/ Manifold good will be given. 



falls out : see Crit. Note. Again, as were not to regard the contumely of 

in ver. 5, the author concedes that the wicked. 1. See Crit. Note. 

there is no outward distinction be- The oath is more solemn here than 

tween the righteous and the wicked in xcviii. 1, 4, 6; xcix. 6; civ. 1. 

in this life, but that there is a religious 2. The writer bases his knowledge 

and ethical distinction. 11. The on the heavenly tables which he has 

wicked rejoin : this difference in cha- read. Book of the holy ones, i. e. 

racter is of no advantage — the same of the angels : cf. cviii. 7. See xlvii. 

lot awaits good and bad alike. 3 (note). Din. comparing cviii. 3 

CHI. 1-4. The author, instead of takes the holy ones here to mean the 

replying directly to the wicked, turns saints or righteous. 3, 4. The 

to the righteous, and solemnly assures blessings here depicted will be enjoyed 

them that every good thing is in by the righteous, both in Sheol and 

store for them ; for so he has read in the spiritual theocracy established 

in the heavenly tables and in the after the final judgment. The words 

book of the holy ones. Hence they here are vague and might apply to 



294 TfU Book of Enoch. [Sect. V. 

labours, and that your lot is abundantly beyond the lot of the 
living. 4. And your spirits — (the spirits) of you who die in 
righteousness, will live and rejoice and be glad, and their 
spirits will not perish, but their memorial will be before the 
face of the Great One unto all the generations of the world : 
wherefore then fear not their contumely. 5. Woe to you, 

ye sinners, when ye die in your sins, and those who are like 
you say regarding you : ' Blessed are they, the sinners : they 
have seen all their days. 6. And now they have died in 

prosperity and in riches, and have not seen tribulation or 
murder in their life ; and they have died in honour, and judg- 
ment has not been executed on them during their life/ 7. 
Know ye that their souls will be made to descend into Sheol, 
and they will become wretched and great will be their tribu- 
lation. 8. And into darkness and chains (lit. ■ net ') and a 
burning fire, where there is grievous condemnation, will your 
spirits enter ; and there will be grievous condemnation for the 
generations of the world. Woe to you, for ye will have no 



So G: *lH«fi D»£J&, and M practically. G 1 gives »(lH"k WW^. 
Din. ' with manifold good is it given.' For *flH*"J we must read 
»flH"V. 4. And their spirits will not perish. So G : Wh/V 

AT-frl avSGllWai*; but we must emend ^th'hCt into ^dfrfc 
with G l M. Other MSS. omit ' will not perish and/ 5. Ye sin- 
ners. G G 1 M curiously read ' ye dead sinners/ Die in your sins. 
G G 1 M read : (HlOA: "pflUfttiao* ' die in the riches of your sins.' 
Seen all their days. G adds ip£? ■ seen good all their days/ 
8. Where there is grievous condemnation. Din. renders 'beim 
grossen Gericht/ Generations of the world. So G G 1 M : 
•tah&£i Ite". Other MSS. 'all generations unto eternity/ 



either. There is apparently only a sure doom awaits them in Sheol — 

resurrection of the spirit. 5-8. darkness and chains and a burning 

A different fate awaits the wicked. flame. 7. Sheol: see lxiii. 10 

These have enjoyed all the blessings (note). Sheol here is the final place 

which according to the O. T. belonged of punishment : cf. the different signi- 

to the righteous. Hence they vaunt fications it has in cii. 5, 11. 8. See 

themselves on their prosperity and Crit. Note. Have no peace: see 

immunity from punishment; but a v. 4 (note); xciv. 6 (note). 9- 



Sect. V.] Chapter CI II. 4-9. 295 

peace. 9. Say not in regard to the righteous and good who 



9. From this verse to the end of this chapter the variations 
are nearly sixty in G alone, but these are mainly between the 
1st and 3rd plurals in the verbs and the corresponding suffixes, 
verbal and substantival. G favours throughout the 3rd pi., 
whereas G 1 in the main agrees with Din. in giving the 1st pi. 
The question now arises on which person, the 1st or 3rd, 
are we to decide. The evidence of the MSS. would go to prove 
that the 3rd 'person was the original ; for in about fifty instances 
Din. gives the 1st person and never the 3rd; G gives the 3rd 
person in all, except seven instances, confined to vv. 14 and 
15. All other MSS. agree with Din. And the evidence of the 
context is in the same direction, ciii. 9-15 are pronounced deri- 
sively by the sinners of the righteous. For in cii. 6-8, when the 
sinners declare that the righteous live in trouble and darkness 
and have no advantage over the wicked beyond the grave, the 
author (10) in reply points to the nature of their death and the 
purity of their life. To this the sinners rejoin (11), 'despite all 
that they go down to Sheol in woe as we.' The author now 
addresses himself first to the righteous (ciii. 1-4) and then to the 
sinners. In the case of the latter he gives their glorification of 
their own life (5, 6) and their depreciation of the life of the 
righteous (9-15). In these verses the wicked describe the wretched- 
ness and helplessness of the present life of the righteous, just as in 
cii. 6, 7 they had described the wretchedness of the future of the 
righteous. The author could not, as Din. imagines, represent the 
departed righteous who were in bliss as discouraging the righteous 
who were still living, and as arraigning, as it were, the justice 
of God. At the close of these words the author addresses his 
reply (civ. 1-6) not directly to the sinners who have just spoken 
but to the righteous, just as in the opening of ciii, and returns to 



15. These verses are in the mouth of with the future life of the righteous, 

the wicked a sarcastic description of In these verses the wicked show that 

the lot of the righteous : see ciii. 9, in every respect the life of the right- 

Crit. Note. As in vv. 5, 6, the eous on earth is a wretched one and 

wicked extol the life of the wicked, contrary to every expectation raised 

so here they depreciate the life of by the O.T.: in fact the righteous 

the righteous — the earthly life, for suffer all the penalties that were to 

in cii. 6, 7 they had similarly dealt befall the wicked. 9. In regard 



296 The Book of Enoch. [Sect. v. 

are in life : ' In the days of their life they are worn out with 
their troublous toil, and have experienced every trouble and 
met with much evil and suffered from disease, and have been 
minished and become small in spirit. 10. And they are 
destroyed, and there has been none to help them (even) in word 
and have attained to nothing : they are tortured and destroyed, 
and have not hoped to see life from day to day. j 1. And 

they hoped to be the head and they have become the tail : 
they toiled laboriously and attained not to the fruit of their 
toil; and they became the food of sinners, and the un- 
righteous laid their yoke heavily upon them. 13. And 
they that hated them and smote them have had dominion 
over them; and they have bowed their necks to those that 
hated them and they have had no compassion on them. 13. 
And they have desired to get away from them that they 
might escape and be at rest, but have found no place where- 



the sinners in vv. 7-9. Conclusion. We shall therefore adopt 
the third person throughout in these verses. Space will not 
admit of more than a few of the variations being given, and these 
will not be mere variations of 1st and 3rd persons, but of words. 
Din. gives the first person throughout in the case of the righteous. 
In ciii. 9-15 I have translated the perfects as Greek perfects, 
and the imperfects as pasts. In the days of their life they 
are worn out with their troublous toil. So G: Qcn>«p0A; 
thf-m^ao". %PH\ r>6.frao*i Rm>m«. Din. gives, 'in the days of 
our adversity we were worn out with toil/ G 1 : ClODVOCi; ft&{**(Wi 
%PH\ Zavahi. Suffered from disease. So G £.0*$, which we 
should emend into &aft. Other MSS. ' were consumed/ + wXOh 
10. (Even) in word and have attained to nothing. So G : dilCl 
(DKd^l^li KdflCt, and also G 1 M, except in the person of the 
verb. In the translation I have omitted a in (Dhd^lefl with 
later MSS. Din. gives, ' with word and deed we were powerless 
and could attain to nothing.' n. Hoped. So G J&&4.01.. 

to. This can also be translated ' to.' become small, &c. : cf. Ps. cvii. 39. 

From disease : see Crit. Note. Cf. Small in spirit. Not ' humble ' but 

Deut. xxviii. 21, 22. 10. Cf. Deut. 'poor-spirited' (hik P 6$v X os). 11. 

xxviii. 29, 66, 67. Minished and Cf. Deut. xxviii. 13, 30, 31. 12. 



Sect, v.] Chapters CI II. 10 — CIV. i. 



297 



unto they should flee and be safe from them. 14. And 

they have complained to their rulers in their tribulation and 
cried out against those who devoured them, but they did not 
attend to their cries and would not hearken to their voice. 
15. And they helped those who robbed and devoured them, 
and those who made them few; and they concealed their 
oppression, and they did not remove from them the yoke of 
those who devoured, and dispersed, and murdered them, and 
they concealed their murder, and have thought not of the 
fact that they had lifted up their hands against them/ 

CIV. 1. I swear unto you, that in heaven the angels are 
mindful of you for good before the glory of the Great One : 



15. The confusion of persons is made worse by G 1 M reading hC#X 
Xl9»<pa* <you helped them.' The yoke of those who. So 
G G 1 M: hCKrt ao*i Krt. Din. reads 'their yoke but/ 

CIV. 1. Unto you. So GG X M. Other MSS. insert <ye 



Cf. Deut. xxviii. 48. 14, 15. These 
verses furnish materials towards deter- 
mining the date of xci-civ. In lxxxiii- 
xc the rulers are regarded as the 
divinely appointed leaders of the right- 
eous. In this section, on the other 
hand, the rulers appear as the aiders 
and abettors of the enemies of the 
righteous. These enemies are the 
Sadducees, sinners, apostates, and 
paganizers, while the righteous are 
the Pharisaic party. The issues be- 
tween these parties as they appear 
in this book could not have been so 
clearly denned before the Maccabean 
times. Nor again could this book 
have been written before the breach 
between John Hyrcanus and the 
Pharisees. But the date must be 
brought down still further, if we are 
to explain literally such statements 
as ' dispersed and murdered them,' 
and ' their murder,' where the murder 
of the righteous is meant ; for there 
was no blood spilt between the parties 



till the reign of Jannaeus, 94 B. c. 
The later limit is not hard to deter- 
mine. The close confederacy which 
here prevails between the Sadducees 
and the rulers did not exist under 
the Herodian princes, but only under 
the later Maccabean princes. Hence 
this section was written before 64 
B.C., and may be assigned either to 
the years 94-79 B.C. or 70-64 B.C., 
during which periods the Pharisees 
were oppressed by the rulers and 
Sadducees. But the rest of the 
section is against taking the words 
'murder,' &c. literally. We should 
probably regard them merely as the 
description of a severe but not mur- 
derous persecution : see Special Introd. 
(pp. 263, 264). 15. Dispersed and 
murdered them. These words taken 
literally would apply well to the actual 
destruction and dispersion of the 
Pharisaic families under Jannaeus. 

CIV. 1-6. Instead of answering 
directly the wicked who have thus 



298 The Book of Enoch. [Sect.v. 

your names are written before the glory of the Great One. 
1. Be hopeful ; for aforetime ye were put to shame through 
ills and affliction ; but soon ye will shine as the stars of 
heaven, ye will shine and ye will be seen, and the portals of 
heaven will be opened to you. 3. And persist in your cry 

for judgment, and it will appear to you ; for all your tribula- 
lation will be visited on the rulers, and on all their helpers 
and on those who plundered you. 4. Be hopeful, and cast 

not away your hope ; for ye will have great joy as the angels 
of heaven. 5. What will ye be obliged to do then ? Ye 
will not have to hide on the day of the great judgment and 
ye will not be found as sinners, and the eternal judgment 
will be far from you for all the generations of the world. 



righteous/ In heaven. Wanting in G. 2. Ye will shine. 

This repetition of the verb in G G*M wanting in Din. 5. What 
will ye be obliged to do then? So GffMN and E 9*lft. 
Other MSS. and Din. Ki'f, which is to be translated : ' as for the 



derisively described the lot of the see xlvii. 3 (note). The Great One : 

righteous in this life, the author turns cf. xiv. 2 ; ciii. 4. 2. Shine as 

to the righteous and addresses them. the stars : cf. Dan. xii. 3 ; IV Ezra 

This is exactly what he did in the [vi. 71]; vii. 55. Portals of heaven 

opening of ciii. He returns to the will be opened to you, i. e. heaven 

sinners in civ. 7-9. In these verses will become their dwelling-place, for 

the author practically concedes that they will ■ shine as the stars,' • joy as 

the wicked have rightly described the angels,' and be ' companions of the 

the lot of the righteous in this life ; hosts of heaven.' The author does 

but he holds out a sure hope, a hope not hope for a new earth : cf. xci. 16 

however not to be fulfilled in the tran- (note). 3. Their demand for justice 

sitory Messianic kingdom on earth, which they make in vain on earth, 

but to be directed to the blessed future ciii. 14, 15, will one day be satisfied : 

that is awaiting them in heaven : the wherefore let them continue to make 

angels are mindful of them for good it: cf. xcvii. 3, 5 (note) ; xcix. 3, 16. 

even now, and in due time they will The rulers. These are brought for- 

become ' companions of the hosts of ward very prominently here : cf. ciii. 

heaven.' 1. The angels are 14, 15 (note). 4. As the angels 

mindful of you. Though apparently of heaven: cf. Matt. xxii. 30 ; Mark 

forgotten on earth, the righteous are xii. 25 ; also En. civ. 6. 5. See 

not forgotten before God by the Crit. Note. Day of the great 

angels. On the intercession of the judgment: cf. xix. 1; lxxxiv. 4; 

angels, cf. xv. 2 (note) ; xl. 5-7 ; xlvii. xciv. 9; xcviii. 10; xcix. 15. The 

2 ; lxxxix. 76. Names are written : eternal judgment : cf. xci. 1 5, ' great 



Sect, v.] Chapter CIV. 2-10. 299 

6. And now fear not, ye righteous, when ye see the sinners 
growing strong and prospering in their ways and be not like 
unto them and have no companionship with them, but 
keep afar from their violence ; for ye will become com- 
panions of the hosts of heaven. 7. Ye sinners, though 
ye say, 'Ye cannot ascertain it and all our sins are not 
written down/ still they will write down all your sins con- 
tinually every day. 8. And now I show unto you that 
light and darkness, day and night see all your sins. 9. 
Be not godless in your hearts, and lie not and alter not the 
word of uprightness, and do not charge with lying the words 
of the Holy (and) Great One and glorify not your idols ; for 
all your lying and all your godlessness will prove not to be 
righteousness but to be great sin. 10. And now I know 



role ye shall have then to play/ 6. Prospering in their ways. 

So GG L M QW-frn*. Other MSS. 'prospering in their lusts.' 
Like unto them and. So G : h^lFff^j W. Will become. So 
G*M !/Aartlcn>«. Din.: V&a>Ha*l ^Ibi* 'are destined to become.' 
G omits verb. 7. G 1 : &£8vhf ; Wfiri ^flLfrtt; J&Jfrhf 1 IMOOL. G 
gives the same sense. 9. Glorify not your idols. G reads ^rhft: 
<\y, and G 1 T^frOJP— ' take no account of your idols/ All other 



eternal judgment': also xl v. 2 (note). in the future life, he turns finally 

There appears to be no judgment for to the wicked, and declares that, 

the righteous according to this verse. though they prosper and are strong, 

Contrast the teaching of xxxvii- and for that reason conceive that no 

lxx : see lxii. 3. 6. Pros- account is taken of their sin, never- 

pering in their ways: see Crit. theless all their sins are recorded, 

Note. Cf. Jer. xii. 1. The Pharisaic and recorded daily. 7. Ascertain, 

exclusiveness is clearly defined here : i. e. our sins. 8. Even the natural 

cf. xci. 3, 4. Observe that the right- powers will give witness against them : 

eous are not bidden to hope for blessed- cf. c. 10 (note). 9-13. From a 

ness on earth through the overthrow reproof of the life and the attitude 

of the sinners. No doubt the sinners of the wicked towards the O.T. revela- 

will be cut off in the period of the tion, the author passes on to certain 

Sword, but the author sets little store disclosures and directions regarding 

by the temporary Messianic kingdom his own book. 9. The wicked are 

thereby established on earth. The admonished not to alter or misin- 

hopes of the righteous can be realised terpret the O.T.: cf. xciv. 5 ; xcviii. 

in heaven alone. Companions, &c: 14; xcix. 2. Holy (and) Great One : 

cf. civ. 2, 4. 7-8. After showing see i. 3 (note). Your idols : cf. xcix. 

the blessed destiny of the righteous 7-9, 14. 10. A time will come 



300 The Book of Enoch. [Sect.v. 

this mystery that many sinners will alter and pervert the 
words of uprightness and will speak wicked words, and lie, 
and practise great deceits and write books concerning their 
words. ii. But when they write down truthfully all my 
words in their languages and do not change or minish ought 
from my words but write them all down truthfully — all that 
I first testified concerning them: 12. Then, I know another 
mystery that books will be given to the righteous and the 
wise to become a cause of joy and uprightness and much 
wisdom. 13. And to them will the books be given and 

they will believe in them and rejoice over them, and then will 
all the righteous who have learnt therefrom all the paths of 
uprightness be recompensed. 

[CV. 1. 'And in those days/ saith the Lord, ' they shall call 



MSS, support text. 10. Will alter and pervert the words of 

uprightness. Din. translates, 'die Worte der Kechtschaffenheit 
andern und davon abfallen werden.' It is arbitrary, however, 
to take ?0£UQ< as neuter here. Practise great deceits. See 
Lexicon, col. 1383, 4. Din. translates, 'grosse "Werke schaffen/ 
but this he withdraws in his Lexicon. "Write books. G G 1 M 
give cn>5&ASt?. 1 1. My words, G G 1 M give il&t. 



when the words of revelation will be these books will reach the generation 

perverted, and books be written en- for whom they were designed — a 

forcing wicked and heathen doctrine : ' righteous and wise ' generation, and 

see Crit. Note. Practise great this generation will be the first to 

deceits: see Crit. Note. 11. But understand their worth. For this 

the writings of Enoch will counteract idea cf. Dan. xii. 4, 9, 10. 13. The 

these heathen teachings, and these righteous and the wise will recognise 

writings will be handed down from and believe in these books : cf. Dan. 

generation to generation and through xii. 10, ■ None of the wicked shall 

various languages, and in the course understand, but the wise shall under- 

of transmission be exposed to volun- stand.' Recompensed. The gift of 

tary and involuntary perversions and these books with their revelations and 

changes. The author speaks here wisdom seems to be the recompense 

from the standpoint of Enoch. In of the righteous. This is certainly 

their languages. The (XT. was the view of the writer of cv. 1: cf. 

already translated into Greek. It is xciii, 10; c. 6; civ. 12, 13. Or is it 

probable that Aramaic and Greek are meant that soon after their reception 

the languages here referred to. 12. the Messianic kingdom will appear ? 
At last in the course of transmission CV. This chapter does not seem to 



Sect. v.] Chapters CIV. n — CVI. 2. 



301 



and testify to the children of earth concerning their wisdom : 
show it unto them \ for ye are their guides and a recompense 
over the whole earth. 2. For I and My Son will unite 
with them for ever in the paths of uprightness in their lives ; 
and ye will have peace : rejoice, ye children of uprightness. 
Amen.''] 

[CVI. 1. And after some days my son Methuselah took a 
wife for his son Lamech, and she became pregnant by him 
and bore a son. 2. And his body was white as snow and 

red as a blooming rose, and the hair of his head and his long 
locks were white as wool, and his eyes beautiful. And when 



CV. 2. Amen. So G G 1 Mfc Other MSS. 'in truth/ OJWi. 



belong to xci-civ. For (i) the phrase 
'children of earth,' which in xci-civ 
is a synonym for the sinners or 
heathen, has here a good ethical sig- 
nification : see c. 6 (note) ; ci. i (note). 
(2) The Messiah is introduced in cv. 2, 
to whom there is not the faintest 
allusion throughout xci-civ. (3) The 
finite duration of the lives of the 
saints seems to be implied in cv. 2. 
This is the doctrine in i-xxxvi, but 
not in xci-civ. (4) The emphasis is 
laid in cv on the finite life on earth : 
in xci-civ on the immortal life in 
heaven. This chapter, like lvi. 5- 
lvii. 3*, is a literary revival of 0. T. 
thoughts and ideals. 1. Children 

of earth. This phrase has a good 
signification here; for the books of 
Enoch, which only ' the righteous and 
the wise ' will receive, are the guides 
of those designated ' children of 
earth.' Contrast with this the tech- 
nical meaning of this phrase in c. 6; 
cii. 3. Kecompense: cf. civ. 13. 
2. To My Son. There is no difliculty 
about the phrase • My Son ' as applied 
to the Messiah by the Jews : cf.iv Ezra 
vii. 28, 29 ; xiv. 9. If the righteous are 
called 'God's children' in lxii. 11, the 



Messiah was pre-eminently the Son 
of God. Moreover, the early Mes- 
sianic interpretation of Ps. ii would 
naturally lead to such an expression. 
In lxii. 14 above we have practically 
the same thought expressed : cf. John 
xiv. 23. In their lives : see intro- 
duction to this chapter. Ye will 
have peace. This was the special 
blessing of the righteous, as its loss 
was the curse entailed on the wicked : 
cf. xciv. 6 (note). 

CVI-VII. We have here again a 
fragment of a Noah Apocalypse. This 
fragment, as the other fragments of 
this Apocalypse, uses the Samaritan 
reckoning : see lxv. 2 (note) ; lxx. 4 
(note). Enoch is still alive and with 
the angels at the ends of the earth, 
exactly as it is presupposed in lxv. 2 ; 
lxvi. 3, when Noah is born. Only 
the Samaritan reckoning would admit 
of this coincidence, as according to it 
Enoch was only as yet 185 years old. 
According to the Hebrew text, on 
the other hand, Noah's birth did not 
occur till the seventieth year after 
Enoch's translation, and according to 
the LXX. not till the 155th year 
after that event. 2. As wool : 



302 The Book of Enoch. [Sect.V. 

he opened his eyes, he lighted up the whole house like the 
sun, and the whole house was very full of light. 3. And 

when he was taken from the hand of the midwife, he opened 
his mouth and conversed with the Lord of righteousness. 
4. And his father Lamech was afraid of him and fled, and 
came to his father Methuselah. 5. And he said to him : 
' I have begotten a strange son : he is not like man but 
resembles the children of the angels of heaven ; and his 
nature is different and he is not like us, and his eyes are 
as the rays of the sun and his countenance is glorious. 
6. And it seems to me that he is not sprung from me but 
from the angels, and I fear that in his days a wonder may be 
wrought on the earth. 7. And now, my father, I am here 
to petition thee and implore thee that thou mayest go to 
Enoch, our father, and learn from him the truth, for his 
dwelling-place is amongst the angels/ 8. And when 

Methuselah heard the words of his son, he came to me to the 
ends of the earth ; for he had heard that I was there, and he 
cried aloud and I heard his voice and came to him. And 
I said unto him : 'Behold, here am I, my son, for thou hast 
come to me.' 9. And he answered and said : ' Because of 

a great cause of anxiety have I come to thee, and because of a 
disturbing vision have I approached (thee). 10. And now, 
hear me, my father, hear me : unto Lamech my son there hath 
been born a son, whose form and nature are not like man's 
nature, and the colour of his body is whiter than snow and redder 
than a blooming rose, and the hair of his head is whiter than 



CVI. 9. Cause of anxiety. So G G 1 M fcUfr. Other MSS. HC, 
' matter.' 10. Hear me, my father. So G. Din. and G 1 give 

1 my father.' Colour of his body. So G : 'W1& /"^IK Other 



cf. xlvi. 1. 3. Conversed with. angels, i. e. at the ends of the earth, 

According to ver. u Noah 'blessed' as in lxv. 2; lxvi. 3. 9. Cause 

God. Lord of righteousness : cf. of anxiety : see Crit. Note. 10. 

xxii. 14 ; xc. 40. 5. Children of The colour . . . rose. Borrowed 

the angels of heaven : cf. lxix. 4, 5; by Apoc. Petri: rd ptv yap owpara 

also lxxi. 1. 7. Amongst the avruv tjv Kevfcorfpa ndarjs x i ° vos Kai 



Sect, v.] Chapter CVI. 3-16. 303 

white wool, and his eyes are like the rays of the sun, and he 
opened his eyes and thereupon he lighted up the whole house. 

11. And when he was taken from the hand of the midwife, 
he opened his mouth and blessed the Lord of heaven. 

12. And Lamech became afraid and fled to me and did not 
believe that he was sprung from him, but that he was in 
the likeness of the angels of heaven ; and behold 1 have come 
to thee that thou may est make known to me the truth/ 

13. And I, Enoch, answered and said : 'The Lord will do a 
new thing in the earth, and this I have already seen in a 
vision, and I make it known unto thee that in the generation 
of my father Jared some from the heights of heaven trans- 
gressed the word of the Lord. 14. And behold they com- 
mitted sin and transgressed the law, and united themselves 
with women and committed sin with them, and married some 
of them and have begotten children by them. 15. And 
there will come a great destruction on the earth, and there will 
be a deluge and a great destruction for one year. 16. This 
son who is born unto you will be left on the earth, and his 
three children will be saved with him; when all mankind 



MSS. 'His colour.' 12. Lamech. So G. Other MSS. 'his 
father, Lamech/ 13. This I have already seen. (D%0\b: 

(DChib. By a strange slip Din. renders, 'diess Weiss ich und 
habe . . . gesehen.' This, however, is a well-known idiom. G omits 
(D^Ofn W. In the generation of . . . Jared. G and G 1 read : 
Ma>-&&\ (ItLftoT. M : ftt; a*(£&\ dfioA. Some from the 
heights of heaven. So Din. G G 1 . L M : Xm>£vO£Vih ti a V&. 
E HK give <n>2v02VT; A"7J&; and N gives aDlXlvti ti°H^. An 
easy emendation would be hcn><\KXvtl t\PH?» ' some of the angels of 
heaven.' 15. On the earth. G. Other MSS. ' on the whole earth.' 



kpvepSrcpa iravrbs fiotiov. Eyes . . . tions began with Jared, and accord- 
sun : cf. Apoe. Petri : dud rrjs ing to the Samaritan reckoning, 
fyecos avrwv uktIv ws ijAiou. 11. Jared, Methuselah, and Lamech die 
Lord of heaven. Here only in or are destroyed in the year of the 
Enoch. 13. Do a new thing. Flood. 14. The law, i. e. the law 
For this phrase cf. Num. xvi. 30 ; Is. appointed to them as spiritual beings : 
xliii. 19. In the generation of . . . cf. xv. 15. One year : cf. Gen. 
Jared: cf. vi. 6. The sinful genera- vii. 11, and viii. 14. 16. See 



304 The Book of Enoch, [Sect. v. 

that are on the earth shall die. 17. The giants are not 
according to the spirit, but according to the flesh, and there 
will be a great punishment on the earth and the earth will be 
cleansed from all impurity. 18. And now make known to 

thy son Lamech that he who was born was in truth his son, 
and call his name Noah ; for he will be left to you, and he 
and his children will be saved from the destruction which will 
come upon the earth on account of all the sin and all the un- 
righteousness of apostasy which will be consummated on the 
earth in his days. 19. And after that there will be still 

more unrighteousness than that which was at first consum- 
mated on the earth ; for I know the mysteries of the holy 
ones; for He, the Lord, has showed me and informed me, 
and I have read in the heavenly tables/ 

CVII. 1. And I saw written on them that generation upon 
generation will transgress, till a generation of righteousness 
arises, and transgression will be destroyed and sin will pass 
away from the earth and all manner of good will come upon 
it. 2. And now, my son, go and make known to thy son 



16. That are on the earth shall die. Here I have omitted with 
G G 1 the words which come after these in Dln/s text, ' he and his 
children will be saved. They will beget on earth/ 1 8. For (IB*.^ 
G G 1 give %&<P. Unrighteousness of apostasy which will be 
consummated. So G 1 Xlti O&tD* for Xlti UfoD* of Din. 
G reads 0£lo*t, and so really supports G 1 . Din. gives < unright- 
eousness which will be consummated/ 

CVII. 1. Till. G G 1 read JtflffD 'that a generation of righteous- 



Crit. Note. 17. The first half of of 'remnant': cf. Ecclus. xliv. 17 

this verse, ending with the words where he is described as a KaTaKei/xfia. 

'on the earth/ has been transposed 19. The mysteries of the holy 

through a slip from its right posi- ones. Either the secrets known to 

tion after ver. 14: in that connexion the angels, or the secrets relating 

it should be rendered : ' Giants, who to the righteous in the future. Hea- 

are not according/ &c. Dln.'s incor- venly tables : see xlvii. 3 (note). 
rect text made any explanation im- CVII. 1. The fresh growth of sin 

possible. 18. The name Noah is after the Deluge : its destination and 

here derived from PM in the sense the advent of the Messianic kingdom. 



Sect. v.] Chapters CVI. i^ — CVIIL 3. 305 

Lamech that this son, which has been born, is in truth his 
son, and that (this) is no lie. 3. And when Methuselah had 
heard the words of his father Enoch — for he had shown to 
him all the secret things — he returned and showed (them) to 
him and called the name of that son Noah ; for he will cause 
the earth to rejoice in compensation for all destruction. 

CVIII. 1. Another book which Enoch wrote for his son 
Methuselah and for those who will come after him and will 
keep the law in the last days. %. Ye who have done good 

will wait for those days till an end is made of those who work 
evil, and an end of the might of the transgressors. 3. And 
wait ye indeed till sin has passed away, for their names will 
be blotted out of the book of life and out of the books of the 
holy ones, and their seed will be destroyed for ever, and their 

ness will arise/ 3. For when G reads *10(1 ' again/ Ke- 

turned and showed (them) to him. So M : 7<IX; wKChfc. G 
omits. G 1 : 7»(!Cfc (DUCHf. F H L N and Din., < returned, after 
having seen him/ 

CVIII. 2. Ye who have done good will wait for. So G G 1 : 
XA; laOia*! u»«i tfftrfi.; fthfc aovO&i but that G 1 gives (1 for 
A. F H I L N O and Din., < ye who have fulfilled it and are waiting 
in those/ M, 'ye who have fulfilled it, wait ye for,' ^RldK A. 
3. Out of the book of life and. So G G 1 : Xtn>8vfi£; fhj&fflt; W. 
M, ' out of the book/ Other MSS. omit. Of the holy ones. G 1 

3. The derivation of Noah given in 8-10, the blessed immortality of the 

Gen. v. 29 is here particularly re- soul, but apparently not of the body, 

P eated - as well as the dualism of light and 

CVIII. This final chapter forms an darkness so prominent in vv. 11-14. 

independent addition. Its writer was cviii is more nearly akin to xci-civ 

acquainted with sections i-xxxvi and than any other section in the book, 

xci-civ, or at all events with parts of The object of this chapter is to en- 

them. But his acquaintance with i- courage the righteous still to hope on 

xxxvi is very inaccurate. In vv. despite the long delay of the advent 

3-6 what was originally the place of of the kingdom. 1. Keep the 

punishment for the disobedient stars law, as opposed to < fall away from 

in chapters xviii and xxi becomes in the law,' xcix. 2. 2. The faithful 

his hands practically Gehenna. The are exhorted to further patience, 

writer is Essene in tone. Observe 3. Blotted out of the book of life : 

the high honour paid to asceticism, cf. xlvii. 3 (note). Books of the 

the scorn of gold and silver in vv. holy ones, i. e. the roll of the 



306 The Book of Enoch. [Sect. V. 

spirits will be slain, and they will cry and make lamentation 
in a place that is a waste wilderness, and they will burn with 
fire where there is no earth. 4. And I saw there something 
like a viewless cloud ; for by reason of its depth I could not 
look thereon, and I saw a flame of fire burning brightly, and 
there circled (there things) like shining mountains and they 
swept to and fro. 5. And I asked one of the holy angels 

who was with me and said : ' What is this shining thing ? for 
it is not a heaven but only the flame of a burning fire, and 
the voice of crying and weeping and lamentation and strong 
pain/ 6. And he said unto me : ' This place which thou 

seest — here are cast the spirits of sinners and blasphemers and 
of those who work wickedness and of those who pervert every 
thing that God does through the mouth of the prophets — 
(even) the things that shall be. 7. For some of them are 

written and inscribed above in the heaven, in order that 
the angels may read them and know that which will befall 



reads fa&ft; ' of the Holy One/ G 4»&A^\ In ... a waste wilder- 
ness. G gives: (Un>*iii ££% H/uPfttC/t. 4- For by reason 
of its depth. G reads: Jt7 D «0'H1; 0m>*: w. A flame of 
fire. So GG 1 : 1fJ(l: Mfc Din. 'the flame of its fire/ 
5. This shining thing. G reads HQrth = immolatus. 6. 

Does. So GG 1 7*1£. Other MSS. 'speaks/ Through the 
mouth. G gives fl^A. 7. Bead them. G G 1 read ^IflCTtn* 4 . 



members of the kingdom: cf. ciii. 2. cf. xviii. 13. 6. This hell which 
Spirits will be slain : cf. xxii. 13 ; is outside the earth is the final place 
xcix. 11 (note). Though the extreme of punishment of sinners and bias- 
penalty of sin, it does not imply an- phemers and perverters of God's 
nihilation, for the victims of it ' cry revelation and action through the 
and make lamentation.' In a place, prophets. In verses 3-6 the writer 
&o. This chaotic flaming hell beyond of this chapter has confounded places, 
the limits of the earth is the place i. e. Gehenna and the hell of the dis- 
of punishment of the angels in xviii. obedient stars, that are most carefully 
12-16; xxi. 1-7. 4. This hell distinguished in i-xxxvi, and yet bor- 
and its inhabitants further described, rowed the phraseology of that section. 
in terms borrowed from xviii. 13; xxi. Blasphemers : cf. xci. 7. The pro- 
3. 5. One of the holy angels, phets. Here only mentioned ex- 
Ac. This phrase is borrowed from pressly in Enoch. 7. "Written 
i-xxxvi : cf. xxvii. 2. Voice, &c. : and inscribed. This refers to the 



Sect, v.] Chapter CVIII. 4-11. 307 

the sinners, and the spirits of the humble, and of those who 
afflict their bodies, and are (for that) recompensed by God ; 
and of those who are put to shame by wicked men : 8. Who 
loved God and loved neither gold nor silver nor any of the 
goods of the world, but gave over their bodies to torture, 
9. and who, since they came into being, longed not after 
earthly food, but regarded their bodies as a breath that passeth 
away, and lived accordingly, and were much tried by the Lord, 
and their spirits were found pure so that they should bless 
His name. 10. And all the blessings they received I have 
recounted in the books, and He hath assigned them their 
recompense because they have been found to be such as loved 
heaven more than their life in the world, and whilst they 
were trodden under foot of wicked men and experienced abuse 
and reviling from them and were put to shame, (nevertheless) 
blessed Me. 1 1 . And now I will summon the spirits of the 
good who belong to the generation of light, and I will trans- 



om Their bodies. So G i$ft-hn>«. Other MSS. 'themselves.' 
Lived accordingly. Lit. 'observed this/ 10. He hath assigned 
them their recompense. G reads *}ft?Vn>\ Heaven more 

than their life in the world. So G H(Wrty°. G 1 and Din. 
give HA*}A^° 'the eternal heaven more than their life/ But 
the collocation of the words favours the former. Here ends 



heavenly tables : cf. xlvii. 3. These righteous have their counterpart in 

records are also called the book of the those of the wicked : cf. xcvi. 5-7 ; 

angels, for their purpose is to acquaint xcvii. 8-10; xcviii. 2. 9. Be- 

the angels with the future : cf. ciii. 2. garded their bodies as a breath. 

See also Asc. Is. vii. 27. 7-9. The The ascetic scorn of the body is here 

humble. These are the W))V and strongly expressed. The body is left 

D^PJI so often referred to in the behind in this world and garments of 

Psalms. They constitute the true light assumed after death : cf. Asc. 

Israel as opposed to the proud, the Is. iv. 17; En. cviii. 12. 10. Enoch 

selfish, and the paganizers : see Cheyne speaks and refers his hearers and 

on Ps. ix. 13. Those who afflict readers to his books. Their life in 

their bodies, loved neither gold the world: see Crit. Note: cf. 

nor silver, longed not after earthly xlviii. 7. 11. Verses 11 and 12 

food. These phrases would apply are represented as being spoken 

well to the Essene party: cf. xlviii. by God. Generation of light: 

7; cii. 5. These characteristics of the cf. lxi. 12 (note); xxxviii. 4 (note). 

X % 



308 The Book of Enoch. 

form those who were born in darkness, who sought not honour 
in the flesh as their faithfulness deserved. 12. And I will 

bring forth clad in shining light those who have loved My 
holy name, and I will seat each on the throne of his honour. 

13. And they will be resplendent for times without number ; 
for righteousness is the judgment of God ; for to the faithful 
He will give faithfulness in the habitation of upright paths. 

14. And they will see how those who were born in darkness 
will be cast into darkness, while the righteous will be resplen- 
dent. 15. And the sinners will cry aloud and see them as 
they shine, and they indeed will go where days and seasons 
are prescribed for them. 

the repeated section. M has the strange reading: Ji7°*iftYh 
}$frn>«; \\(W&9°. II* Sought not honour. So G: &&P& 
ftfl£. F H I L N O and Din. ' were not recompensed with honour, 
fttf^JS"?'. M l were recompensed/ 12. Clad in shining light. 
(W144J: *\CI\ Cf. Matt. vii. 15. (lft&QA: M70 ' clad in sheep's 
clothing/ The statement of the next verse, ' they will be resplen- 
dent/ calls for this translation. Din. translates, 'I will bring 
forth into a brightly shining light.' The throne of his honour. 
So GLMN: (W*ia& frfldi RftlK Din. gives <a throne of honour, 
of his honour/ 13. In the habitation of upright paths. 

G reads : (ffl'l&Gi <D W¥i*; C^O ' in a habitation and paths of 
uprightness.' M 'in a habitation and uprightness/ 14. Will 

be cast. G reads &VO)([&. 15. As they shine. For XlH; 
&aCfr G reads frDdtahtlh. 



"Who were born in darkness. Of 17 ; viii. 14, 26; ix. 9, &c. Throne 

those who are born in darkness, such of his honour : see Crit. Note. Cf. 

as are faithful and seek not honour in Matt. xix. 28; Kev. iii. 21; iv. 4; 

the flesh are transformed, but those who Asc. Is. ix. 1 o, 1 8. 13. Enoch again 

remain in their darkness are cast into speaks. Resplendent, &e. : cf. xxxix. 

darkness as their condemnation: cf. 7; civ. 2; cviii. 14. 14. Born in 

ver. 14. 12. Clad in shining darkness: see ver. 11 (note). Cast 

light: see Crit. Note; also lxii. 16 into darkness: cf. ciii. 8. 15. 

(note) ; Asc. Is. i. 5 ; iii. 25 ; iv. 16, Cf. Dan. xii. 2, 3. 



APPENDIX A. 



EDITIONS AND TRANSLATIONS. 

Boueiant: Fragments grecs du livre d' Enoch. Memoires 
publies par les Membres de la Mission Archeol. Francaise, torn, 
ix. pp. 91-136. 

L'Fvangile et V Apocalypse de Pierre avec le texte grec 

du livre d' Enoch. Teocte publie en facsimile \ par V heliogravure, 
d'apres les photographies du manuscrit de Gizeh. Paris, 1893. 

Migne : Le livre d' Henoch in his Lictionnaire des Apocryphes, 
Paris, 1856, torn. i. pp. 393-514. This French translation 
is made from Laurence's Ethiopic text. 

Goldschmidt : Das Buch Henoch aus dem Aethiopischen in 
die urspricnglich hebrdische Abfassungssprache zuriickubersetzt ; 
mil einer Finleitung und Not en verse hen y 1892. This retrans- 
lation is the work of a very young scholar, and, being so, 
it is a creditable performance. It labours, however, under 
many defects. First, it is based on Dln/s Ethiopic text, 
which is very corrupt : secondly, the author appears to trans- 
late at times not from the Ethiopic as he professes, but directly 
from Dln.'s German translation, as in xxxvi. 3 ; xxxvii. 2 ; 
lxxxix. 7, &c. : thirdly, he mistranslates occasionally familiar 
phrases, possibly through carelessness : and finally, he intro- 
duces conjectures into the text without any attempted justifi- 
cation in the notes. Notwithstanding, we are grateful to the 
author for his book, and regard it as full of promise for his 
future. For my review of this book see Jewish Quarterly, 
Jan. 1893, pp. 327-329. 



310 The Book of Enoch. 

Lods: Le Livre d'Henoch, Fragments grecs, decouverts a 
Akhmim, publies avec les variantes du texte ethiopien, traduits et 
annotes, Paris, 1892. For some unexplained reason France 
has not till the present made any original contribution to the 
study of Enoch, though it has been prolific enough in works 
of a secondary importance on this subject. But M. Lods has 
broken through this evil tradition and presented us with 
a work of first-class importance, a work that is at once 
learned, scholarly, and judicious. I have been obliged, how- 
ever, to traverse his main conclusions on the relative values 
of the Ethiopic version and the Giz. Gk. text; but this 
is due not to the fault but the misfortune of M. Lods, as 
he was not acquainted with any better representative of the 
Ethiopic version than Dln.'s corrupt text. See further, p. 319. 
On some other occasion I hope to review at some length this 
attractive and suggestive book. 

CRITICAL INQUIRIES. 

Bissell : The Apocrypha of the Old Testament, 1880, pp. 
66$ } 666. In this short account of Enoch the usual analysis 
into Groundwork, Similitudes, and Noachian fragments is 
accepted. 

Schwally : Das Leben nach dem Tode, 1893. The traditional 
division of the book of Enoch into the Groundwork, Simili- 
tudes, and Noachic interpolations is here assumed, p. 136. 
The author, however, is very arbitrary in his interpretation of 
the text and is often demonstrably wrong; and this is all 
the more to be regretted as his work is at once original and 
suggestive. The instances in which the book of Enoch is 
used or interpreted will be found given at length on p. 300 
of Schwally 's book. 

ZOckler : Die Apocryphen des Alten Testaments i 1891, 
pp. 426-436. Like most writers this author assumes the 
book of Enoch to consist of a Groundwork of chapters i-xxxvi; 
lxxii-cv (135-105 b. a): the Similitudes (of uncertain date) : 



Appendix A. 311 

the Noachic fragments (before the publication of the Book 
of Jubilees): and cviii of recent origin. Slight Christian 
additions in the Similitudes are admitted. 

Batiffol: in the Dictionnaire de la Bible > fasc. iii, 1892, 
pp. 757-759, this writer divides the Book of Enoch into 
(1) Book of Celestial Physics, xvii-xix; xxi-xxxvi; lxxii- 
lxxix ; lxxxii. (2) Historical Apocalypse, i-xvi ; lxxx-lxxxi ; 
lxxxiii-cv (circ. no B.C.). (3) Similitudes or Messianic 
Apocalypse, xxxvii-lxiii ; lxix-lxxi (40-44 b. a), (4) Book of 
Noah, lxiv-lxviii. It is worthy of notice that this analysis 
is almost an exact reproduction of Lipsius' article in Smith's 
Diet, of Christian Biography. 

Dillmann : Sitzungsberichte d. Kgl. Preuss. Akad. d. Wiss. 
zu Berlin, 1892, li-liii. pp. 1039-54; 1079-92. This great 
scholar has here resumed his old Apocalyptic studies, and 
published an emended edition of the Gizeh MS., with a series 
of corrections of the Ethiopic text also. That the bulk of 
these is of great value goes without saying. For some further 
notice of these papers, see p. 319. 

Charles : ' The Recent Translations and the Ethiopic Text 
of the Book of Enoch ' (Jewish Quarterly Review, Jan. and 
April, 1893). 



APPENDIX B. 



'THE SON OF MAN': ITS ORIGIN AND MEANING. 

As both the origin and meaning of this title in the New 
Testament have been very differently understood, it will be 
necessary to discuss these theories briefly. 

(i) It has been taken to mean the Messiah with special 
reference to its use in Daniel. Hengstenberg, Christologie, iii. 

91, 1858 ; Schulze, Tom Menschensohn und vom Logos, 1867 

8 while the concept of the Messiah is contained in the name, 
the peculiar expression of it in the Danielic sense can never be 
knowingly left out'; and Meyer, Comment, on Matt. viii. 20— 
f As often as Jesus uses the words " Son of Man," He means 
nothing else than the Son of Man in the Prophecy of Daniel.' 

The Danielic conception has undoubtedly influenced the 
meaning of this title in the New Testament in certain in- 
stances ; see S. Matt. xxiv. 30 ; xxvi. 64; but in the majority 
of instances it is wholly inapplicable, i. e. when it is used in 
reference to the homelessness of Christ, S. Matt. viii. 20, or 
His aversion to asceticism, xi. 18, 19 ; or His coming not to 
be ministered unto but to minister, S. Mark x. 45, or His 
destiny to be rejected of the chief priests and scribes and to 
be put to death, viii. 31. 

(ii) It is taken to mean the ideal man, the typical, repre- 
sentative, unique man. So Schleiermacher, who holds (Ckristl. 
Glaube, ii. 91) that this title, in our Lord's use of it, implied a 
consciousness of His complete participation in human nature, 



Appendix B. 313 

as well as of a distinctive difference between Himself and 
mankind. So Neander, Leben Jesu, Eng. Trans. 4th Ed. p. 99, 
and more or less approximately Tholuck, Olshausen, Reuss, 
Weisse, Beyschlag, Liddon, Westcott, Stanton. 

This supposition cannot be regarded as more successful than 
the former. It fails to show any fitness in the majority of 
cases. It is moreover an anachronism in history and thought. 
No past usage of the term serves even to prepare the way for 
this alleged meaning; and such a philosophical conception 
as the ideal man, the personalised moral ideal, was foreign to 
the consciousness of the Palestinian Judaism of the time. 
The nearest approach to this idea in the language of that 
time would be the ' Second Adam.' 

(iii) Baur {Neutest. TheoL pp. 81-2; Z. f. W. Theol. i860, 
pp. 274-92) thinks that Jesus chose the expression to designate 
Himself as a man, not as a man in the ideal sense, but as 
one who participated in everything that is human, qui hu- 
mani nihil a se alienum putat. But though He thus used it to 
denote a simple ordinary man in its first acceptation, He 
afterwards incorporated in it the Danielic conception, as in 
S. Matt. xxiv. 30, &c. So Schenkel, Bibel-Lex. iv. pp. 170-5. 

Baur has found but few to follow him. His explanation 
is the most inadequate that has been offered whether regarded 
from the standpoint of history or exegesis. His observation, 
however, that this title had apparently a varying signification 
is worth noting. This variation is recognised by Weizsacker, 
Ev. Gesch. 1864, p. 429 ; Das Apostol. Zeitalter, 1890, p. 109. 
Its explanation is to be found in the complex origin of the 
phrase. 

(iv) Mr. Bartlet (' Christ's use of the term "the Son of 
Man," ' The Expositor, Dec. 1892) takes this title to mean the 
'ideal man/ but he gives it a further and more definite 
content by subsuming under it the conception of the Servant 
of Jehovah in Isaiah. The actual phrase, he concedes, may 
have been derived from a current Enochic usage. 

Save for the fact that this theory recognises the inclusion in 



314 The Book of Enoch. 

this title of the Old Testament conception of the Servant of 
Jehovah, it labours under all the difficulties of (ii), and incurs 
further disabilities of its own. It attributes to Jesus a most 
capricious and arbitrary method. It supposes Him, first of 
all, to choose a current Apocalyptic phrase ; next to strip it 
absolutely of its received meaning, and to attach to it a 
signification in the highest degree questionable for the period 
and country ; and, finally, while rejecting the Old Testament 
authoritative title of Servant of Jehovah, to subsume its 
complete connotation under this current Apocalyptic phrase 
with its new, artificial, and unmediated meaning. That the 
title, moreover, however transformed, had not parted with 
its apocalyptic meaning, is proved by S. John v. 22, 27, which 
are practically a quotation from Enoch lxix. 27. 

The above interpretations are all unsatisfactory, and the 
reason is not far to seek. They are too subjective and one- 
sided, and they all more or less ignore the historical facts of 
the age. The true interpretation will, we believe, be found 
if we start with the conception as found in Unoch and trace its 
enlargement and essential transformation in the usage of our Lord. 
In this transformation it is reconciled to and takes over into itself 
its apparent antithesis , the conception of the Servant of Jehovah t 
while it hetrays occasional reminiscences of Dan. vii, the ultimate 
source of this designation. 

First shortly as to the facts of the problem. The expression 
is found in S. Matthew thirty times, in S. Mark fourteen, in 
S. Luke twenty-five, in S. John twelve. Outside the Gospels, 
in Acts vii. 56 ; Rev. i. 13 ; xiv. 14. In all these cases we 
find 6 vlos tov avOpdnrov except in S. John v. 27, and Rev. i. 
13, xiv. 14. The two passages in Rev. may be disregarded 
as they are not real designations of the Messiah. As for 
S. John v. 27, I can find no satisfactory explanation of the 
absence of the article. 

Our interpretation of this title is as follows : — 

(1) Its source in Daniel and its differentiation therefrom. 
The title ' the Son of Man ' in Enoch was undoubtedly derived 



Appendix B. 315 

from Dan. vii, but a whole world of thought lies between 
the suggestive words in Daniel and the definite rounded con- 
ception as it appears in Enoch. In Daniel the phrase seems 
merely symbolical of Israel, but in Enoch it denotes a super- 
natural person. In the former, moreover, the title is indefinite, 
'like a Son of Man' as in Rev. i. 13 ; xiv. 14, but in Enoch 
it is perfectly definite and distinctive, f the Son of Man/ 

(2) The first occasion of its use. As the Similitudes are 
pre-Christian, they furnish the first instance in which the 
definite personal title appears in literature. 

(3) Its supernatural import in Enoch. The Son of Man as 
portrayed in the Similitudes is a supernatural being and not 
a mere man. He is not even conceived as being of human 
descent, as the Messiah in En. xc. $J. He sits on God's 
throne, li. 3, which is likewise His own throne, lxii. 3, 5 ; lxix. 
27, 29 ,* possesses universal dominion, lxii. 6, and all judgment 
is committed unto Him, xli. 9 ; lxix. 27. 

(4) Its import in the New Testament. This title with its 
supernatural attributes of superhuman glory, of universal 
dominion and supreme judicial powers, was adopted by our 
Lord. The Son of Man has come down from heaven, S. John 
iii. 13 (cp. En. xlviii. 2, note) ,• He is Lord of the Sabbath, 
S. Matt. xii. 8 ; can forgive sins, S. Matt. ix. 6 ; and all 
judgment is committed unto Him, S. John v. %% } 27 (cp. En. 
lxix. 27). But while retaining its supernatural associations, 
this title underwent transformation in our Lord's use of it, 
a transformation that all Pharisaic ideas, so far as He adopted 
them, likewise underwent. And just as His kingdom in 
general formed a standing protest against the prevailing 
Messianic ideas of temporal glory and dominion, so the title 
' the Son of Man * assumed a deeper spiritual significance ; and 
this change we shall best apprehend if we introduce into the 
Enoch conception of the Son of Man the Isaiah conception of 
the Servant of Jehovah. These two conceptions , though out- 
wardly antithetic, are through the transformation of the former 
reconciled and fulfilled in a deeper unity — in the New Testament 



316 The Book of Enoch. 

Son of Man. This transformation flowed naturally from the 
object of Jesus' coming", the revelation of the Father. The 
Father could be revealed not through the self-assertion of the 
Son, not through His grasping at self -display in the exhibition 
of superhuman majesty and power, but through His self- 
emptying, self-renunciation and service (Phil. ii. 6). Whilst 
therefore in adopting* the title f the Son of Man ' from Enoch, 
Jesus made from the outset supernatural claims, yet these 
supernatural claims were to be vindicated not after the external 
Judaistic conceptions of the Book of Enoch, but in a revela- 
tion of the Father in a sinless and redemptive life, death, and 
resurrection. Thus in the life of the actual Son of Man, the 
Father was revealed in the Son, and supernatural greatness in 
universal service. He that was greatest was likewise Servant 
of all. This transformed conception of the Son of Man is 
thus permeated throughout by the Isaiah conception of the 
Servant of Jehovah; but though the Enochic conception is 
fundamentally transformed, the transcendent claims under- 
lying it are not for a moment foregone. If then we hear in 
mind the inward synthesis of these two ideals of the past in 
an ideal, nay in a Personality transcending them both, we 
shall find little difficulty in understanding the startling con- 
trasts that present themselves in the New Testament in con- 
nexion with this designation. We can understand how on 
the one hand the Son of Man hath not where to lay His 
head (S. Matt. viii. 20), and yet be Lord of the Sabbath (S. 
Matt. xii. 8) ; how He is to be despised and rejected of the 
elders and chief priests and scribes and be put to death (S. 
Luke ix. 22), and yet be the Judge of all mankind (S. John 
v. 27). 

It has been objected that S. Matt. xvi. 13, S. John 
xii. 34 prove that the Son of Man was not a current designa- 
tion of the Messiah in the time of Christ ; but no such con- 
clusion can be drawn from these passages; for in the older 
form of the question given in S. Matt. xvi. 13, the words 
' the Son of Man' are not found: see S. Mark viii. 27 ; S. 



Appendix B. 317 

Luke ix. 18. In S. John xii. 34 it is just the strangeness of 
this new conception of this current phrase of a Messiah who 
was to suffer death, that makes the people ask, ' Who is this 
Son of Man? we have heard of the law that the Christ 
abideth for ever/ 

On the other hand, though the phrase was a current one, 
our Lord's use of it must have been an enigma, not only to 
the people generally, but also to His immediate disciples, so 
much so that they shrank from using it ; for, as we know, it 
is used in the Gospels only by our Lord in speaking of 
Himself. 



APPENDIX C. 



THE GIZEH GREEK FRAGMENT OF ENOCH. 

This important Greek fragment of Enoch was first made 
accessible to scholars under the editorship of M. Bouriant in 
October, 1892, though discovered as early as the winter of 
1886-87 at Akhmim by the Mission Archeologique Franchise 
at Cairo. The work is done in a scholarly manner, but is not 
quite free from defects. Some of these have been repaired by 
Mr. Bensley, who has recently collated the MS. at Gizeh, and 
from his note in the Academy of Feb. 1 1 six passages omitted 
through homoioteleuton in M. Bouriant's edition have been 
restored in the text that follows *. 

Unhappily the greater part of the present edition was 
already in type before M. Bouriant's work reached me, and 
I was thus debarred from making extensive changes. Happily, 
on the other hand, the many new readings I had introduced 
into the text under the guidance of the MSS. GM were 
almost in every instance in perfect accord with the new Greek 
text. By the permission of the Delegates of the Press I was 
allowed to make such additional changes as would not inter- 
fere materially with the type already set up. But excise as I 
would, I could not at times make sufficient room for the fresh 
material, and so it occasionally happens that a text is followed 
in the Translation, the justification of which is given, not in 
the Crit. Notes which are immediately below, but in the 
Appendix. 

1 Since the above was written I have received M. Lods' list of corrections 
from the facsimile of this Greek MS. which is about to be published, and 
corrected M. Bouriant's text accordingly. 



Appendix C. 319 

Before I enter on the criticism of the relative merits of 
the Eth. and Gk. MSS. I wish to call attention to further 
emendations of the text which are not followed in the Trans- 
lation, but will be, should the present work reach a second 
edition. These new renderings will be found in the following 
Crit. Notes. They are preceded by the readings they are 
intended to displace and are always printed in italics. 

In my Introduction (pp. 3-5) I have dealt briefly with the 
question of the Ethiopic text and the corrupt type of MSS. on 
which Professor Dillmann's text is based. I called attention 
to this fact in the Academy of Nov. 26, 1892, and as that 
scholar has since amply admitted this fact (Sitzungsberichte d. 
Kgl. Preuss. Ahad. d. Wiss. zu Berlin, 1892, li-liii. pp. 1039- 
1054, 1 079- 1 09 2) it is not necessary to pursue this question 
at any length. In these articles, Din. enters on the criticism 
and emendation of the Eth. and Gk. texts, and bases many of 
his new readings on two new MSS. These MSS., however, 
appear to fail him in some crucial instances where G M or G 
are more than satisfactory. I have read these articles with 
great interest and found that our emendations in the main 
agree : in a few instances I have adopted his suggestions with 
due acknowledgements. In many points, however, I have felt 
obliged to differ, and in many others, on which he has not 
touched at all, the right solution, I think, is offered in the 
following pages. 

In the revision of this Appendix, I have also had before 
me the excellent work of M. Lods. This is a most scholarly 
and suggestive book, but M. Lods has throughout had the 
great disadvantage of basing his criticism on a corrupt Eth. 
text, i.e. Dln/s, and thus more than one-third of his book is 
already antiquated. Besides, the undeniably inferior character 
of this Eth. text as against the purer Giz. Gk. text has 
naturally blinded M. Lods to undoubted excellencies of this 
corrupt text, and to readings where it is clearly more ancient 
and correct than the Giz. Gk. 

In the Academy of Nov. 26 last year, just after the publication 



320 The Book of Enoch. 

of the Giz. MS., I stated shortly the relative positions and 
values of the Eth. and Gk. texts. As all my subsequent study 
has only served to confirm these, I will restate them with large 
additions and supply confirmatory evidence where necessary. 

The materials for the textual criticism of Enoch are drawn 
from three versions or sources — I. Latin, II. Greek, III. 
Ethiopic. As the first of these is of very minor importance, 
we will indicate very briefly the contributions made by this 
source to the restoration of the text, and pass on to the others. 

I. The Latin documents are — 
iv Ezra [vi. 2] as contributing 

to the restoration of . En. lx. 6 (see Crit. Note, p. 



vii. 32 as contributing to 

the restoration of . . En. li. 1 (see Crit. Note, p. 



154). 

li. 1 
140). 



Tertullian, Be Cultu Fern. i. 2 : 

Metallorum opera nuda- 

verant En. viii. 1 (see Crit. Note, p. 

66). 

Be Idol, iv En. xcix. 7 (see Crit. Note, 

p. 285). 
Latin Fragment of Enoch cvi. 

1-18 See, for full treatment, pp. 

372-375- 

II. S. Jude 14, 15 . . . . En. i. 9 (see Crit. Note, p. 

3*7\ 
Greek Fragment published from 

Vatican MS. by Mai . En. lxxxix. 42-49 (see pp. 

238-240). 
Fragments from Syncellus . . En. vi. i-x. 14 ; xv. i-xvi. 1 

(see pp. 62-75; s 3-$5)- 
Gizeh MS En. i-xxxii. (see pp. 326- 

37°\ 

III. The Ethiopic MSS. enumerated on p. 2, which are 
fairly represented by Dln.'s Ethiopic text as corrected in my 
Crit. Notes according to G or M or GM, &c. These corrections 



Appendix C. 321 

are close on six hundred. The following criticism is limited 
to a comparison of the relative merits of the Ethiopic and two 
Greek versions of chaps, i-xxxii of Enoch. 

i. Each of these versions preserves true readings over 
against corruptions in the other, or in the other two where 
these exist. So Eth. in vi. 8 (see Crit. Note, p. 64) ; vii. 1 
(see Crit. Note, p. 331); x. 5 (see Crit. Note, p. 337) ; x. 19 
(see Crit. Note, p. 340) ; xv. n 2 (see Crit. Note, p. 350) ; xvii. 
3 (see Crit. Note, p. 352). So Syn. Gk. on vi. 6 (see Crit. Note, 
p. 63) : ix. 10 : x. 1 OfyirjA (see Crit. Note, p. 336) : x. 14 6s 
av . . . KaraKpiOfj (Crit. Note, p. 339) : xv. 9 t&v avOp&imv 
(Crit. Note, p. 349). So Giz. Gk. v. 5 ra In? ttjs aTroAeias 
vn&v (see Crit. Note, p. 60) : ix. 4 ayiov k. \xkya k. evXoyr^rov 
(see Crit. Note, p. 334) : xiii. 4 avayvv (see Crit. Note, p. 343) : 
xiv. 2 irvevixaTL tov oTo'/xaros jxov (see Crit. Note, p. 344). See 
also Crit. Notes on xviii. 4; xx. 2, 6, 7. Observe that Giz. Gk. 
has no unquestionably true reading over against Eth. and Syn. Gk. 
combined, whereas Eth. and Syn. Gk. have each many such true 
and independent readings. 

ii. These versions taken in pairs attest true readings over 
against corruptions or omissions in the third. So Eth. and 
Giz. Gk. in vi. 2 kcu IfodVourai .... ovpavov : vi. 5 (large 
omission) : viii. 1 or^Sets: ix. 7 hpyziv: x. 9 jua^/oeovs: xv. 10. 
So Eth. and Syn. Gk. in vi. 1 avrois : ix. 4 fiaaCkevovToav : 
ix. 8 kv rats O-qktiais : x. 9 d$ aA.ArjA.ovj ff avr&v ets clvtovs : 
x. 10 : xvi. 1 ws. So Syn. Gk. and Giz. Gk. in ix. 6 : ix. 8 ttjs 
yrjs (see Crit. Note, p. 70) : ix. 10 hvvarai : ix. 11 ea? clvtovs : 
x. 7 iao~(ovTai tt]v irX^yrfv : xv. 1 1 dAA.' aairovvra. 

It is thus clear so far that each of these three versions has 
an independent worth of its own, though apparently the Giz. 
Gk. is less original than the other two. 

iii. We have next to determine the relations of these 
versions to each other. Even the most superficial study 
makes it clear that the Eth. and Giz. Gk. are more closely 
related than the Eth. and Syn. Gk. or the Giz. Gk. and Syn. Gk. 
For evidence that this holds generally we might point to the 



322 The Book of Enoch. 

following passages (see notes) : vi. I, 2, 4 ; vii. 1 ; viii. 1, 2, 3; 
ix. 4, 6, 7, 9, IO, lij x. 1, 2, 7, 9, 10; xv. 10, 12. But the 
decisive evidence on this question is found in the fact that the 
Eth. and Giz. Gk. present the same ungrammatical or corrupt 
reading in x. 14 KaTaKavOfj against Syn. Gk. KaTaKpiOfj : xiv. 7 
kou 1X7) XaXovvres : xv. 9 avaripaiv against Syn. Gk. av6p(6irav : 
xv. 1 1 v€(f)iKas against Syn. Gk. ft/tufpeva : xviii. 5 /3aora- 
(ovtcls h ve<j)£kr) for (ZaaTaCovTas vifcXas (?) : xxii. 4 €iroir](rav 
for €TTOLfj0r)(rav. As no such phenomena are observable in the 
combinations Eth. + Giz. Gk. and Giz. Gk. + Syn. Gk., it is 
clear that of the three versions the Eth. and the Giz. Gk. are 
bound together by a close relationship — in which they stand 
to each other, either as parent and child, or as children of the 
same parent. That the former rather than the latter is the 
case we must infer from the conclusion already arrived at in (i), 
i.e. that the Giz. Gk. preserves no unquestionably true reading 
over against the other two versions, whereas the Eth. pre- 
serves many such. When I say that the Eth. and the Giz. 
Gk. stand to each other in the relation of parent and child, 
I mean, of course, that the Ethiojoic version was made from a 
text which was the ancestor of that preserved in the Gizeh MS. 
This conclusion will receive further confirmation in the sequel, 
iv. The relationship existing between the Eth. and the 
Syn. Gk. can be traced with tolerable certainty from the facts 
already before us. For, in the first place, not only does the 
Syn. Gk. preserve many true readings over against corrup- 
tions in the Eth. and the Giz. Gk., but it also preserves 
true readings over against the same corruptions in these texts 5 
and, in the next instance, it does not agree in any instance 
with the Eth. in presenting the same corruption over against 
the true text in the Giz. Gk. Hence, clearly, it is not 
derived either from the Giz. Gk. or from the Gk. parent 
of the Eth. text which we may designate x, but stands on 
a position of equality with x. Finally, as there is repeatedly 
an exact verbal agreement between the Syn. Gk. and the 
Giz. Gk. which is the descendant of x, the Syn. Gk. and x 



Appendix C. 323 

proceed from the same original. Further examination shows 
that x preserves a purer form of text than the Syn. Gk. 
Hence the genealogy of the above documents might be 
represented as follows : 



Original Greek Translation from the Hebrew 



I 
Syn. Gk. 



Eth. Version Giz. Gk. 



v. We shall now deal shortly with the general character 
of the Giz. Gk. and the Eth. on the score of additions, omis- 
sions, and corruptions. 

Whilst the undoubted additions in the Eth. are few and 
trifling in viii. 1 ; ix. 4; xvi. I ; xx. 6 ; xxii. 12 ; xxiv. 2, there 
is a large list of such in the Giz. Gk. — in i. 3, 5, 6, 8, 9 ; 
ii. 2 ; v. 1, 2, 6, 8 ; viii. 1 ; x. 1, 8 ; xiv. 4, 20 ; xv. 1 1 ; xviii. 
15; xxii. 13; xxiv. 3, 4; xxvii. 2. 

As to omissions, the Eth. is almost certainly guilty in i. 1, 9 ; 
v - 4, 5 \ ix - 6 ; xui - 8 ; xl v. 25; xv. 1 1 ; xx. 7 ; xxii. 2, 5 ; xxvi. 1 : 
but the list of these in the Giz. Gk. is many times larger in 
ii. 3; all iii and iv except six words; in vi. 1, 2, 5, 6, 8; 
ix. 1, 5, 8 ; x. 10, 16, 19, 21 (?); xii. 3 ; xiv. 3, 4, 14; xv. 2, 

4, 8, 9, 10 ; xvi. 1 ; xviii. 3, 11 ; xix. I; xxi. 9; xxii. 5, 8; 
xxiv. 1, 2 ; xxvii. 1. 

As regards corruptions, both versions are much at fault, 
but the Giz. Gk. more so. In the Eth. these corruptions are 
either native to the Eth. text or are due to the error of the 
translator or are derived from x. There are found in i. 9 
£(\% for dliO 4 ; ii. I, iii. 1 and v. 1 m?«fe for mj&<& ; viii. 1, 3; 
ix. 1, 4, 8 rt«flX for Wlft; 11 translator mistaking eas avrous 
for ra ds avTovs : x. 7 ; xii. 1 ; xiv. 2, 18, 31, 22, 23, 24; 
xviii. 4, 7, 9; xix. 2; xx. 2, 6; xxi. 5, 6, 7, 9 J xxii - J > 2, 3, 

5, 8, 9; xxiii. 4; xxiv. 2, 3; xxvi. 3, 4; xxvii. 5; xxviii. 1; 
xxx. 1, 3; xxxi. 2, 3. The corruptions in the Giz. Gk. 
however, are more numerous and deep-seated : i. 2, 3, 9 ; v. 1, 

Y 2 



324 The Book of Enoch. 

5, 6, 8 ; vi. 8 ; viii. 3 \ ix. 4, 6 ; x. 7, 9 (ixaCqpeovs a much less 
correct transliteration than that given by Eth.), 10, 11, 14, 19, 
20; xi. I ; xii. », 6 ; xiii. 1, 10 ; xiv. 2, 6, 8, 13, 15, 18, 19, 23 ; 
xv. 8, 9, 1 2 ; xvi. 3 ; xvii. 3, 6, 7 ; xviii. 3, 4, 5, 1 1 ; xx. 4, 5 (?) ; 
xxi. 3, 7 (?); xxii. 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 11, 14; xxiii. 2 ; xxiv. 3, 4(?); 
xxv. 3, 5; xxvi. 2 ; xxvii. 3; xxviii. 2, 3; xxxi. 2, 3; xxxii. 2, 3. 
There is another interesting class of corruptions character- 
istic of the Giz. Gk. from which the Eth. is comparatively- 
free : i. e. transpositions of the text. These are found in i. 2 ; 
vi. 8; x. 19; xii. 4; xiii. 1, 10; xiv. 15; xv. 12 ; xxv. 3, 5; 
xxxii. 2. In the Eth. in ix. 8 ; xvii. 4 ; xix. 1 ; xxi. 9 ; 
xxviii. 3 ; xxxi. 2. 

I have remarked above that the corruptions in the Giz. 
Gk. are very deep-seated. In fact, without the help of the 
Eth. it would be impossible to retrieve the original text in 
such passages as x. 19; xiv. 15; xvii. 3; xxviii. 2, 3 and 
others. The Eth., on the other hand, is by no means in such 
an evil strait. Hence the conclusion to which all the pre- 
ceding facts point is that the Eth. preserves a more ancient and 
trustworthy form of text than the Giz. Gk. : that it has fewer 
additions, fewer omissions, and fewer and less serious corruptions 
than that text. 

The results at which we have thus arrived are in perfect 
harmony with the external history of the Giz. Gk. text and 
the Eth. version. The former cannot be earlier than the 
eighth century, and may be as late as the twelfth: It is 
possible, therefore, that it is a descendant of the second 
or third degree from x. This of itself would account for 
some of the corruptions; but the real explanation of its 
vicious orthography and syntax and of its very numerous 
and serious corruptions is that the Book of Enoch was from 
the fifth century onward practically a proscribed book and 
under the ban of the Greek and Latin Churches. Accord- 
ingly, it was copied without care, and the way was opened 
for every kind of depravation of the text. The Eth. version 
(circ. 500 A. d.), on the other hand, was, so far as we know, 



Appendix C. 325 

regarded from the first as a canonical book of the Old Testa- 
ment in the Ethiopic Church, and thus it was transmitted 
with the greatest care and accuracy through successive copies 
till the sixteenth century. After this date the text suffered 
much from ignorant corrections. 

vi. In my Introduction (pp. 21, 22) I have treated the 
question of a Hebrew original as one now practically settled. 
In the case of chapters i-xxxii this view is now established 
beyond the reach of controversy. The translator has trans- 
literated Hebrew words which were not intelligible to him : 
i.e. in x. 19 juafr7peoi>s="M?P ; in xviii. 8 (fyovKa^^B; in xxviii. 1 
and xxix. I p.avbo^apa and (3aftbr)pa=~\'2' 7 !p ; in x. 19 ftarovs 
= rfi; in xxxi. 1 <jappav = ^? : [and x a ^fi avr l = n 5??C] » anc ^ 
strangest of all, in xxvii. 2 yr\ = H% where this word has been 
taken as a proper name, as occasionally in the LXX. (cf . 
Ezek. xxxix. 15 ; 1 Sam. xiii. 88). 

In the following Critical Notes, Eth. = Ethiopic text of 
Din. ; Giz. Gk.=text of Gizeh Greek fragment; Syn. Gk.= 
text of Syncellus' Greek fragments. A, B, C, &c. designate 
the Ethiopic MSS. described on p. 2. The English render- 
ings intended to replace the corresponding passages in the 
Translation are always printed in italics. The list of variants 
given in the notes is not exhaustive, but no single variant 
of any importance is omitted. Words bracketed ( ) are 
supplied by me, and that almost universally from the Eth. 
The source will be found in the Notes. Such words are to be 
regarded as original constituents of the text. At times such 
omissions are not supplied but are marked thus .... Words 
bracketed ( ) may be original, but are without a parallel in the 
Eth. Words bracketed [ ] are corrupt additions. When the text 
has called for drastic remedies, attention is drawn to the 
emendation by a f placed in the margin. Such emendations 
are made almost universally on the authority of the Eth. 



326 The Book of Enoch. 



1. I. Aoyos evXoytas 'EvatXj KCtflo)? evXoyrj&ev ZkXcktovs 
biKaCovs oltlvzs ZcrovTai et9 rjpipav avayKrjs efcipat irdvTas rov? 
kyOpovs, (/cat aoaBr\(Tovrai 8i/catoi). 

2. Kal ava\afi<s)v tt\v irapa(3o\r)V avrov elirtv 'Ei>cb)( andpcairos 
hUaios* "Rcrriv opaais e/c Oeov clvtS avevyixivr}, /cat kdpa rr)v 
opaaiv tov ayiov /cat tov ovpavov rjv thei^av juot ciyyeAot {ay tot) 
/cat rjKOvaa [ayye'Acoy eya) /cat w? r/Koixra] Trap' avT&v navra Kal 
eyvoav eya) Oeaip&v. koi ovk ets rrjv vvv yeveav (hizvoovp.r)vy 
dAAa eVt noppoa ovaav yevedv* 3. Kal irepl t&v e/cAe/crcou vvv 
Ae'ya> Kal irepl avT&v av£\afiov tt)v •napafio\.r]v (/xov). 

Kat ecfeAewerat 6 ayto? [/otov] 6 /ueyay e/c TT79 Karot/crfo-ea)? 
avrov, Kal 6 Oebs tov ai&vos 4. e7rt yrjv iraT-qo-ei till to 2ti;a 

opos Kal (fravricrtTaL e/c 7-779 TrapepLJSokrjs avTov Kal (fravrjatTai h> 
rrj bvvafiei ttjs loyvos avTov otto tov ovpavov (tG>v ovpav&v). 



I. I. e£ape 2. Aivax — # w — nv ^X (av T V V opaaiv rov ayiov Kat tov 

ovpavov cSetf er /wot /tai ayioXoycuv ayiorv — Otopojv — is — enei — eya) aXXw 
3. eyXeurcov — 6s 4. 67rci — ent t ro aeiva — <paivijaerai — iraptvfSoXrjs 



I. i. After ixQpovs Eth. adds /cat rovs daefcls. 2. After 

hO^P'h add S^litF as in Gk. dvaXaftcbv r. 7rapa(3o\rjV avrov. Cf. 
ver. 4 ; and for ' answered ' read uttered his parable. opaais . . . 

dvcayptvr). So Eth. M. Lods denies this meaning of Gk., but 
unreasonably. Cf. Aristot. de Anima, iii. 2, Diod. i. 59, for 
opaais = faculty of seeing. However, Gk. as it stands is in favour 
of 8pao-is= vision. We have in this verse an example of trans- 
position and corruption which we shall frequently meet with in 
the sequel : cf. x. 19 ; xii. 4 j xiii. 1, 10 ; xiv. 15 ; xv. 12 ; xxv. 3, 5. 
First, in ?)e e^ow ttjv opaaiv, fye* is a corruption of edopa : rjv has 
been removed from its place before edeigev. Next, the Kal before 
ayioXoycov should be written before fJKOvaa. Finally, ayye\a>v eyco /cat 
cds rjKovaa is a false addition. The text thus restored to syntax and 
meaning=Eth. literally, but that Gk. adds dytot after ayyeXot, and 
for Kat rov ovpavov Eth. reads rov iv roils ovpavols. ycvedv = Eth. 

^Ta*£V,C:, the true text underlying eyo> aXX». 3. See Crit. Note, 
p. 58. o ayios [fioul 6 fxeyas. Eth. reads Kal for pov. 4. cVt yrjv. 

Eth. = *ai eW0ei/. For e/c rrjs nap. read with Eth. /arret ttjs nap. 



Appendix C. 327 

5. Km <pofiri6ri<rovTaL rrdvrts, kclI [rno-revaovcTiv] ol eyp-qyopoi 
Fkcii q<rov<nv dnoKpv^a kv i:a<Tiv rols aKpots rr\s (sic) /cat] aeicrdri- 
aovrai [irdvra ret aKpa rrjs yrjs] Kal A^jwfrerai avrovs rpo\xos Kal 
(f)6(3os fxeyas ^XP L T * v irepdrojv rrjs yi]s, 6. kclI aeicrO^o-ovraL 
(^Ka\'n€aovvTaiK€ilhiakvdr]<TOVTat y ) opt] vtyrikd, kclI rai^uvmO-qaov- 
rai fiovvol wfnikol [rod biappvrjvaL 0)077] Kal raKr\(rovrai a>? Ktipbs 
&7rb TTpovtoTTOv irvpos [ev <£A.oy£]. J. kcu hiaaryj.crBrio'erai 7) 

yrj ((r^to-juapaywSes-), kcu irdvra oaa earlv irrl rrjs yrjs cnroXeiTcu 

KCU Kpl(TL9 <-<TTCU Kara 7TaVT(fiV. 8. KCU pi€Ta T&V SlKCuW TYjV 

dp-qvrjv 7roi?jo-ei, kcu inl rovs €k\€KTovs ecrrat crvvrrfprio-ts [kcu 
elprjvri] kcu e7r' avrovs yevr\{<re)rai. eAeos, kcu eaovrai Havre's rov 
Beov, kcll rrjv evboKtav b<oo~€L avrois kcu [iT&vras] €vkoyr\(T€i [kcu 
TiavrMV dvrikrnjL\jf€raL kcu fiorjOrjcrtL r)iuv\ kcu (fiavrjo-eraL avrois 
<f>m [Kal 7rot?7(ret en - ' avrovs elprjvrjv]. 9. on tp^rat o~vv rols 
[xvpiao-Lv [avrov Kal rots] ay Lois avrov iroirjaaL Kpiaiv Kara iravrodv, 
Kal ai:oXi(T€L (iravras} rovs acrefiels, Kal (^Ae'yfei iraaav adpKa 
Tiepl rravrcov epyojv {rrjs d(re/3etas) avr&v <5l> rjo-tfirjo-av (xat 
crKXrjp&v &i> iXdkricrav Xoyotv Kal rrepl navrmv &v Kartkdkrro-avy 
Kar avrov ap-apraikol do-e/3ets. 



5. aaaxnv — ffiaOrjaoprai — ^ 6 XP et & ct-oOrjOOPTcu — <p\oyft 7- P*'t*& ( * 

— 67ret — tore 8. fteya — Si/ceow — Ov — evSoiceiav — apreiXtjixif/erai 9. orei 

— ayeiois — \(v£h — eoefirjaav — aaefiis 



5. Full of Christian (?) interpolations. 7. See Crit. Note, 

p. 58 : after ndpratp Eth. adds kcu irdprayp t£>p diKalap. 9. For on 

read with Eth. and Jude lt)ov. o-vp rols . . . aylots. An expansion of 
the original Q^X^V^^J fr&Al : Jude h aylais pvpidaip avrov. For 
h£(Vft read (tittra*l KV^i with Giz. Gk. and Jude; and for 
'ungodly' read all the ungodly. For a7roXeV« . . . o-dpKa Jude 
reads eXeygcu ndpras rovs do-epels. For it A*! H7»fl4« read H*rt«j 7»fl£: 

Cfl'JfJ'ffD 4 , iravrcop epywv rrjs dae^eias avrtop Giz. Gk. and Jude. AtM* 

is an undoubted corruption of &ft(h=weprio-av. Hence my ren- 
dering ' ungodly committed.' The last bracketed clause is probably 

an expansion of kcu ivepX iraPTCOP rap o-KKrjpcoP hp eXdXrjaraP. So Jude. 

Hence after tfiO< add (DdKi-fi Itfc ^Wt: Hitttt«. Hence for 
1 all that the sinners . . . committed ' read all the works of their 
godlessness which they have ungodly committed and of all the hard 



328 The Book of Enoch. 

II. I. Karavo-qo-are irdvra ra epya ev rto ovpavQ* tt&s ovk 
r)\\oi(oarav ras obovs avrcov, Kai tovs (fxoo-rijpas tovs ev rco ovpavio 
a)? ra irdvra avareWei Kai bvvei, reraypiivos e/caaros ev too reray- 
/xeVco /cat/oco (/cat rats koprais avr&v (fyalvovrat) Kai ov 7rapa/3at- 
vovcriv rrjv (IbCav) tcl£lv. 2. there rr\v yrjv koX biavorjO-qre 

irepi r&v epyav ev avrfj yivopLeva)v air' dpxrjs M e XP l re\eL(aa e(os 
[elalv <f)6apTa], cos ovk dhXoLovvrai (ovbev t&v eirl yrjs aAAa) 
navra epya deov {vpXv} (paiverat. 3. there rqv OepeCav /cat 

rbv yew&va- HI. I. Kara^dOere Kai there navra ra bevbpa, 

V. I. irm ra <j)v\ka x^copa ev avrols o-Keirovrat to. bevbpa /cat 
[way] 6 Kapnbs avr&v \_els ripJqv /cat bo£av\ biavorfdnre, (/cat yv&re} 
nepl iravTcov {t&v epyav avrov}, Kai vorjo-are on [debs (&v~] 
enoincrev avra ovtcas Kai Q «ts [7rai>Tas] tovs al&vas 2. Kat 

to. epya avrov [irdvTa ocra eiroCno-ev els tovs atco>as] airb eviavrov 
els eviavrov yivop.eva [iravra ovtcos] kol navra [ocra] a77oreAo{)crti/ 



II. 1. Karavorjaerai — -qXKvoaav — Terayfievo Kepw — res eoprrjs — <pevovrat 
— irapaf3evvov(riv — ciSttav 2. eidcre — diavorjerjrai — yavofievcov — fxexP^ 
TeXiojffeojs — aWvovvrai — eirei — Ov — cptverai 3. Oepiav — row x^^va 

III. I. KarafiaOerai — iSerai 

V. 1. CKeTTovra — Tcifxrjv — 8iavo7]6r]Tai — yvarrai — vor\aarai — 6s 2. 

yuvofieva — 



things which ungodly sinners have spoken. Eth. wrongly adds 
/cat between apaprcoXol and do-eftels. 

II. 1. KciTavorjo-arc As M. Lods has already observed, m?<&= 
Karevorjira is a corruption of m£«fe ; c f. also ci. 1. For ' I observed ' 
read observe ye. The Eth. translator read ol <j>a><ni} P cs oi instead of 
Kai t. cpaxnijpas r. ra£iv. So G P'd^OO*. Din. gives ^XHHOD*. 
2. For (paiverat the Eth. translator read (paivopcva. 3. Bulk of 
verse omitted. 

III. 1. KarapdBere ko\ tSere. Eth. gives 'I observed and saw ' : 
cf. ii. 1 . For ' I observed and saw ' read observe ye and see. Giz. 
Gk. omits this chapter and the next with the exception of six words. 

Y. 1. For ' I observed' read observe ye. I read o-KewovTai for 
(TKiiiovra with Din. For 6 Kapnos avTav Eth. gives KapTro(})opov<ri. Kai £7} 
spoils the force of the argument. Eth. which reads 6s $ is undoubt- 
edly best. For \ttrao* we should probably read *un>"H =oiW 
2. Eth. preferable : Giz. Gk. very corrupt. naura oo-a . . . alavas 



Appendix C. 329 

avT<$ tcl epya Kat ovk aWoiovvTai \glvt&v tcl epya\ dAA' uxrirepel 
Kara €7riTayr)v . . . tcl navra yiverai. 3. i5ere 7ra>s rj 6d\aa<ra 
kol ol TTOTafxol a>s 6/u,ota>s aTTOT€\ovcnv (koX ovk aWoiovviv avTutv 
tcl €pya and twv Ao'yooi/ avrov). 4. vp,eis 8e ovk ei/e/x€tj>are 

ov5e cTrotTJo-are Kara rds erroAas clvtov, dAAd a7reVrr]re kcu Kare- 
AaArjo-are /xeydAous kol o~Kkr)povs koyovs h> oro'/LAart aKaOapaias 
vfx&v Kara rijs fxeyakocrvvrjs avrov. 

("Otl KareAaA^orare kv rots \j/€Vfxaa-iv ujokSz;), aKkrjpoKapbLOL, ovk 
carat dpr\vi) vpXv. 5* Totyap rds rjpipas vp,(av fyxets KaTapao~€o~de 
kol tcl €ttj njs Cgotjs i>[JlQv aTroAetre, kol (tcl €ttj tt)s d7ra)Aetas vfJL&vy •(- 
TrkrjdvvOrjcreTaL iv KCLTapq alotvow, kol ovk tcrTai vpxv eAeos {xal 
dprfvrjy. 6. totc carat rd ovofxara vfxcav eis KdTapav ai&viov ttclctlv 
rots SiKatots, Kat cz> vjuii> Karapda-oz/rat ttclvt€S ot Karapw/xeroi, 
xat 7rdz;r€s ot d/xaprcoAot [Kat dowels ez> fyuz> d/xowrai. Kat Trdvrcs 
ot (av)afidpT7}TOL xaprfo-ovTCLL, kol carat avrots Awns dfxapTL&v Kat 
ttSz; eAeos Kat etprjz;^ Kat eirtetKeta* carat avrots (TCDT-qpCa, a3<3s 
dyadovy kol clvtoI Kkr)povonr\o~ovo~iv tt)v yrjv. kol itclo-lv vpXv rots 
d/xaprcoAots ot^ virdp^t a-cor^pta, dAAd C7it 7rdz>ras vjxcls KareAev- -f- 
(rerat Kardpa], J. kol rots CKAcKrots carat <£<Ss kol x^pis KaL 

dprjvrj kcll clvtoI K.kr)povop.r\o~ovo-iv Tr)v yrjv' vfxiv 8e rots do-efiio-iv 
carat Kardpa. 8. ro're Soflrja-erat rots CKAcKrots [tfjws Kat x^P ls j 



aWvovvrai — eireirayrjv — yeiverat 3. €i8ere — OaXacra — aKKvovffiv 

4. vfiis — ok — wefjuvaTcu — eiroirjaarai — awearrp-ai — KanXaXTjaarai twice — 
Groiiarei — CKK-qpuKapbiot — eare ipTjvrj 5. vliis KarrjpaaacOai — /caret ( = tfai 

ra err]) — airoXnai — am) — airoXias — cctc 6. diieeois — affefiis — o/xovrat — 
afxaprrjTOi — afmpreiuv — eireiei/ceta — tiret — KaraKvaiv Karapav *j. cyXutTois 

— cere before wrap. 8. eyXefcrois twice — 



has crept in from preceding verse, axrirepel (? &o~nep ml). Eth. Ka6<bs. 
After eTTiTayrjv add Beov with Eth. 3. a>s o/xoias. Eth. Sfiov. 

4. Kara ras evToKas avrov. Eth. rrjv ivroKrjp rov Kvplov. 5* * have 

emended Kara rr)s C<orjs into Ka\ ra errj rfjs C<»^ with Eth. : see Crit. 
Note, p. 60. 6, See Crit. Note, p. 6l. ndvres oi mr. . . . dfxap- 

rwXoi gives the wrong sense unless we take these words in the 
vocative, 'all ye blasphemers/ &c. The question here does 
not concern the cursing of sinners by sinners but the cursing of 
sinners by the righteous. 7. x"P l$, « Eth. **J v 'h i X a P^ 8. For 
<Dliao% read WhTZY. fas . . . k& ma itk repeated from first parts 



330 The Book of Enoch, 

koX avrol Kk-qpovofxricrova-LV ttjv yrjv. Tore ho6r\o~€Tai iraaLv rot? 
6KAeKTOtj] (ro(f)ia, Kal TrdvTes ovtol (jiarovTCti Kal ov fj,r} a/xapr?j- 
(rovrai en, ov kcit aaefieiav ovre Kara VTT€pr](f)avLav, (kol Icrrat er 
av0p(£>7T<i> ir€<p(i)TLo-fx4v(D (p&s Kal av6p(£>TT(a ZTturTrwAovi ro'77/xa.) Kal 
ov /xt) Tr\r]fXfX€\ri(rovo-Lv 9. ovbe fxr] a/xapra) <tiv irdcras rets rjfxepas 
rrjs <J«)7Js ovt&p, Kal ov jut) aTroQdvaicriv kv opyfj dvfxov, aAAa rbv 
apiOfjibv avr&v C M V$ fjpcp&P Tr\.r}pd>o-ovo-LV, Kal rj £07/ avr&v av£r)dr)~ 
o-erat kv clprjvri, Kal ra trr) ttjs x a P^ s avT&v Tt\y}6vv9r\o-€Tai kv dyaA- 
Aidaei Kal elprjvy al&vos kv Tidaais rat? fjfxepais Trjs fa)rj? avr&v. 
VI. 1. Kal eyivtro, ov hv £ir\r)6vvQY]crav 01 viol t&v av6pun:u)V. 
€v €K€ivats rats 7?/x€pai? zyevvrjOrjcrav (avrois) Ovyaripes a>pcuai Kal 
KaXaC. 1. Kal kdeavavTo avras ol ayyeAoi viol ovpavov Kal 

tircdvfjirjo-av avras, Kal eilirav irpbs dAArjAous' AeSre eKAe^oj/xefla 
eavrots yvvaiKas a-nb . . . tG>v dvOpiairoav Kal y£vvr)o~(j&\xzv eavrols 
T€Kva. 3. Kal eilitev 2e/xeia<[as upbs avrovs, bs ijl* ap\u>v avr&v' 
4>o/3oi;p;at jar) ov OeXrjo-rjTe Troirjcrai to irpaypLa tovto, Kal eVo/mai 
eyo) fxovos d^eiAeni? a^aprias /ueydAris. 4. aTreKpiOrjcrav ovv 

ai)T(3 irdvTes' 'O/xoo-cojuiey opKto irdvT€s Kal dz>a0ejaarto-a)/xez> [iravTcs] 



co<piav — 6T€t — /car a\rj9(tav — avito) twice — eitnarijuovei 9. nacres res rjfxepes 
VI. I. vuoi — avirow — e/cetves res rjfiepes — wpcai 2. vioi — ey\e£o- 

fie$a — avirctiv — yevvrjeropev 3. OeXTjcrerai — 0(p€iKt]TT]S a/xaprems 4. airt- 
Kpetdrjaav — avaOeptaTeiffopiev — 



of vv. 7, 8. Kar da-e^€iav=dd.CLO- We might also emend Kara 
Xt)6t]u. Kal ecrrai . . . vorjfxa is more difficult than Eth. and suits 
the context better : cf. cviii. 13. 9. apdpr<ao-ii/. Inferior in sense 
to J&^ty>$J. « will be punished/ iv opyfj 6vp.ov. flffD^U*^^; 
Wh.(\0 Di i : V = ev opyfj pr\r iv 6vpa. 

VI. i. ov av should probably be emended into ore = reading of 
G, X1H. After eycw^Brjo-av read (ivtoZs with Eth. and Syn. Gk. 
kcu KaXai. So Eth. Syn. Gk. omits. 2. Syn. Gk. against Eth. 

and Giz. Gk. omits Kal c'dedaavTO . . . ovpavov and adds oi iypfjyopoi 
koX dircn\avr)dr)o~av diricra) avrav after ineO. avrds. devre omitted by 
Syn. Gk. Before t5>v dvOprnTrav add with Syn. Gk. tS>v Bvyarepav : 
cf. Eth. Xy°ahfc& (MX, which we should emend into &? v h f P&i& 
A*flX='from among the daughters of men.' Kal yew. . . . rUva. 
Syn. Gk. omits. 4. After avr<» navres Syn. Gk. and Eth. add 

Kal elrrov, but G omits. dvad. ndvres. Eth. and Syn. Gk. omit iravres. 



Appendix C. 331 

aA.A77A.OVJ \X7] CL7T0(TTp€\l/aL TT]V yv(ap.K]v ravTrjv, ^XP LS °v av T€ ^*~ 
0-ft)/X€l' aVTTJV [KCU 770Lrj<T(ti]JL€v] TO TTpCLyfXa TOVTO. $i TOT€ &[XO(TaV 
7T&VT€S OfJLOV KCU aV€0€fxdTt(TaV dk\l]X0VS €V CLVTto .... 6 

7. Kal raCra to. ovojiara tG>v dpyovToiv clvt&v' 2e/xia£a(s) — ovtos 
r/z> apyjMv clvt&v — , 'ApaOaK, Ktu/3pci, Sa/x/xavrj, Aavtirjk, 'Apeap<S?, 
2e^tr}A, 'Iw/otetTJA, XcoxapirjA, 'E£eK6ijA, BarptrjA, 2a0i7/A, 'ArpirjA, 
Ta/zcrjA, BapaKirjA, ' AvavQva, ©coznrjA, c Paat?jA, 'Ao-eaA, 'PaKeir/A, 
Tovptr^A. 8. ovtol eio-tv ol SeKap^oi avr&v (kclI ol XoittoI 

iravTzs aer' avT&v). 

VII. 1. Kal ZXafiov eavrois yvvaiKas' €Kao~TO$ avr&v IfeAefavro 
kavrols yvvaiKas, Kal tfp^avro elairopevecrOaL irpos avras Kal 
fjLiaiveadai Iv avrals Kal zbiba£av avras ^ap/xa/cetay Kal iiraoLbas 
Kal pt(oTOfxCas Kal ras j3ordvas eSrjAaxrazJ avrals. 

%. At be iv yacrrpl \a(3ovo~ai ertKOo-av yiyavras fxeydXovs 



anoarptxpi — iroirjoo/xev 5. Ofxooav — avaOcparaoav 7. apxov — acreaXpa 

Keii]\TovpiT)\ 8. apx € ovroiv 01 8e«a. 

VII. 1. yvveieas before /cat — fitievecOcu — avrts twice — etiraoiSas — peifaro- 
puas 2. tv Se — yaarptv — yciyovras — 



p^XP 15 . . . rovTO. Eth. = Kal reAeVat Trjs yvaprjs ravTrjS ttjv npagiv. 
/cat -rroirjo: . . . tovto. Syn. Gk. omits. 5. Before dWrjXovs late 
Eth. MSS. insert ftlra* ' all/ but G M with Syn. Gk. and Giz. 
Gk. omit. As D*F=eV at™, for 'to its fulfilment' read upon it. 
Giz. Gk. omits rest of verse and ver. 6. 7. I have followed 
G in giving Kokabiel and Armaros instead of Akibeel and Armers. 
Read Ezeqeel instead of Zaqilo, and Zaqilo instead of Zaqebe. Eth. 
and Syn. Gk. agree in main as to the names against Giz. Gk., which is 
very corrupt. 8. See Crit. Note, p. 64, where I should have added 
that I had emended the evident corruption OftJ^i" in G into UAJ&1\ 
VII. 1. Syn. Gk. adds at beginning of verse iv r<» x l ^ loa " r ^ 

€KO,TOO-T(0 €J3doUT]KOO~TCp €T€L TOV KOO~(lOV. fKaaTOS OVTCOP . . . yVVOlKaS. 

Syn. Gk. omits. This clause merely repeats the preceding one. 
Eth. = ege\egaTo eKao-Tos eaur<5 filav alone preserves the true reading 
here. (laTropeveaOai n. av. Kai. Syn. Gk. omits. fitaivfo-Bai. Eth. 
•f£aD$. < united.' After wv avrals Syn. Gk. makes an important 
addition, eW . . . peyaXeiorrjTa avrwv : see p. 65. avras. Syn. Gk. 
gives eavrovs Kal ras yvvaiKas iavTav. Kal pi£. . . . avrals. Syn. Ork. 
omits, ras pordvas. Eth. wOBah, < of trees,' should be read (D0B(D, 
and trees. We should expect (D^Od, 'and herbs/ 2. Syn. 



332 The Book of Enoch, 

Ik irr]X<*> v Tpioyikitov, 3. otrives KaTrjo-Qocrav tovs kottovs t&v 
dvdpcaircov' o>s 8e ovk ibvvrfOrjcrav avTols ol avOpamot, kiuxopTiyziv, 
4. ol yiyavres CTokpLrjaav £1? ai)Tovs Kal KaT-qadCoaav tovs av0p(&- 
ttovs. 5* Kai Vp&VTo apLaprdveLV kv toIs 7r€retz^otj koX toIs 
drjpiois Kal €pTT€Tols Kdl toIs ix6vo~iv KCLL dkkrjkoiv rets crdpKas 
KaTeaOUiv, kclL to alfxa ittivov. 6. tot€ rj yrj evirv^v kclto, 

t5>v avo'fjL(tiv. 

VIII. I. 'ESidafez; tovs avOpcoirovs 'Afa^A. ptaxatpas Ttoitiv 
kcu oii\a koX ao-iribas Kal OatpaKas, [bibaypLaTa ayy£koiv\ Kal 
virtbei^ev avTois to, jueraAAa Kal tt\v tpyavLav avT&v Kal x/re'Xia 
Kal k6o~[aovs Kal ort/3etj Kal to KakkL(3k£<papov Kal iravToiovs 
kiOovs €KkeKTOvs Kal TcL /3a$iKa. 1. Kal cyivtTo ao-£(3eia 



t piGx* l ^ l0iV 3* oiTeives KareoOocrav — avnuv — aviroi eTretxoprjyiv 4. /care- 
aOioaav — avnovs 5 . rjpiois — x^ vaiv — tcareadeieiv — cpa emvvov 

VIII. 1. avirovs — fiaxepas — acrrreiSas — vttc8i£€v — fxeyaKa — Koa/ios — 
OTti&eis — eyXeKTOvs 2. aat&ia — 



Gk. omits the rest of this chapter. Before Ik nrjx&v Eth. inserts 
a)$q»aD*— kcu rj rjXiKta avrwv. 3. For Jirt* read K(i with Giz. Gk. 
oirtves. tovs kottovs. Eth. inserts ' all.' ws be. This may have 
been €<os. So Eth. fifth 'till/ 4. eToXurjcrav. Eth. iYfDj&m* 

' turned.' 5. to alfia. Eth. adds X^lY, ai>TG>v. 

VIII. 1 . tovs avBpanovs. So Eth. Syn. Gk. omits. For 'Afc^X 
Syn. Gk. reads irpG>Tos 'A£ar)\ 6 bemros t5>p dpxovTcov. oTrka. Eth. 
ffDTOfh^JT = ' knives/ on\a kcu dcrnibas, Syn. Gk. nav ctkcvos 
noXefiiKov. biddyfiaTa dyyeXav. A gloss ; not in Eth. or Syn. Gk. 
VTrebeigev avrols. Syn. Gk. omit3. to. ueraWa. See Crit. Note, 
p. 66. After /zeraXXa Syn. Gk. adds ttjs yr/s ml to XP V0 ~' L0V ' Kai 
tt)v ipyacrlav ovt5>v. Hence read with E WjF°'7([G(f D *- kcu \jre\ia 
Kal koctuovs. So Eth. Syn. Gk. kcu iroirjacocriu ai/Ta Kocruia tois 
yvvaigi Kal top apyvpov. Kai arTifieis. So Eth. : see p. 66. Syn. 
Gk. e5et|e be avTots Kal to crTiXfieiv. KaWifiXecfiapov. So Eth. 
SiPirj t£H!t 'the beautifying of the eyelids/ Syn. Gk. 
KaKXcoTTi&iv, navroiovs XiOovs ckKcktovs. Syn. Gk. tovs ckXcktovs 

Xidovs. Eth. 3wif: far°ltfci K<fti tiOt& a)^^i=\ieovs TipuoTdrovs 
Kal €K\eKTG)TdTovs. To. pacpiKa. Eth. inserts H"ft° 'all/ and adds at 
end of verse ' and the world was changed/ Syn. Gk. adds Kal 
enoiTjaav . . . dyiovs : see p. 66. 2. eyevero dcre'fieia ttoXXt;, Kal 



Appendix C. 2>Z2> 

TtokXr}, kcu e-Kopvevcrav kcu aTreirkavriOvcrav kcll rj<j)av£<rdr)(rav kv 
Traorcus rats 65oty clvt&v. 3. 2e/xiafas ibCba^v iirafo^bas kcu 

pcCoTOfAias, 'Ap/xapcSs kiraoibQv XvrfjpLov^ 'PcuarjA. acrTpokoyCas, 
Xa>xx 1 ^ T< * crrnicuonKd, 2a(^i)rjX aarepoa-KOiiiav, 2e/H7)(A.) crekvv- 
aycoyas. 

4. T<3z; ow av0p<oTTO)v cnrokkvpiivGiV fj /3o(r)) ets ovpavovs avefirj. 

IX. 1. Tore irap(a)K.v\l/avT€s Mt^a^X Kat Ovpir]k /cat ^Pacparfk f 
xat ra^ptrj(A.) 5 ovrot ex ro£ ovpavov k\6edcra(y)TO al\xa trokv Zkxw- 

«pavia6r}aav 3. affrpcoXoytas — orjfJLeiUTCuca — affTfpoOfcoiretav — aeKrjvovayias 
4. rov vow av-nwv. 

IX. I. or . . .rj\ ( = Ov/>n)\?). 



cnopvevo-av. G reads aflph £(\/f\\ OCVil <D«0H7h: mHaoca*. Here 
0(1?: <D is an intrusion. Hence translate on p. 66 : there arose 
much godlessness and they committed fornication. Syn. Gk. omits 
kcu iiropv. kcu an-errX. and adds eVi rrjs yrjs. 3. Syn. Gk. inserts 
before Sfpiafas, tri 8e kcu 6 7rpa>Tapxos aireov. 2e/ua£as=Eth. h^ZHMl 
or fitf^.H-£ft (G). Amiziras. This is corrupt. inaoibas kcu pi£o- 
Touias. Eth. H*A°; OOtMOfli (DaD?C£\\ ^"CP^TrdVras enaoidovs 
kcu piCoropovs. Syn. Gk. elvai opyas Kara rov voos, Kai pi£as fioravS>v 
rrjs yrjs. 'Ap/xapcos=Syn. Gk. Qapuapos. Syn. Gk. adds before this 
6 fvbtKctTos, and after it ediBa^e cj)apixaKelas cnaoidias, aortas Kai. 
'PaKifo. Eth. A£$9£t, Baraq'al. aorpoXoyms. Eth. = aorpoXdyouy. 
Xa>xX l ^X. Eth. fflVfl&^V, Kokab^l. crrjuficoTiKd. Syn. Gk. ra crrjueia 
rfjs tfs. 2a^X. Eth. TSr°h,h, Temel. 2ep^X. Eth. ?ifl^^^^V 
creA^ayeo-yas (so I have emended treX?;i/oyaytas) = Eth. 4*B1"! fl'C'J 
'the course of the moon/ Syn. Gk. ra o-riptia rrjs aeXfjvrjs. Syn. 
Gk. adds names ovroi . . . avr&v '. see p. 67. 

VIII. 4 — IX. 4. For this part there is a doublet given by 
Syncellus, which we shall designate Syn. Gk. 1 and Syn. Gk. 2 . 

VIII. 4. At beginning of verse, Syn. Gk. 1 adds /uera be ravra 
rjp^avro . . . dv6pa>ira>v : see p. 67. After dnokk. Eth. adds ftCrh* = 
cfiorjo-av. Syn. Gk. variants very wild. Syn. Gk. 1 km rjp^avro . . . ivomiov 
Kvpiovl see p. 67. Syn. Gk. 2 Tore i^orjcrav . . . rrj fieyaXocrvvr). Yet 
these may be more correct than the shorter text of Eth. and Giz. 
Gk., as these repetitions (cf. ix. 2, 3) are natural in Hebrew writing. 

IX. 1. For CbCJ?*i G reads frCh>l\, an obvious corruption of 
frC&£V. For (Dh*C£7i, which G omits, read Mh&i with Giz. 
Gk. and Syn. Gk. land2 . Hence, for ' Surjan and Urjan' read Uriel 
and Raphael. Syn. Gk. km aKovo-avres . . . rov ovpavov (see p. 67) 



334 7)i* Book of Enoch. 

v6}A€v(ov) em ttjs yrjs (kcu iraaav avop.iav yivo\xevr\v eirl ttjs yrjs). 
2. kol etirav irpos dAArjAovj* (jxavri (3o&v t&v iirl ttjs yrjs ^XP l 
irvX&v tov ovpavov. 3. kvTvyyavovcriv al xj/vxp^ tG>v avdpa>ir(ov 
XeyovTw' Filaaydyere Tr)v Kpianv r)p.S>v irpbs tov v^narov. 

4. Kat €LTTa(v) tg> KvpCio (t&v ala>v(Dv)' 2u et Kvpios rS>v KVpimv 
kol 6 debs t&v 6eG>v Kat fiao-tkevs t&v fiaaikevovTOiiv. 6 Opovos 
ttjs bo£r)s (tov els irdaas tols yeveas tov al&vos, kol t6 6vo\xd 
(tov to ayiov /cat p.eya kol evkoyrjTov els iravTas tovs al&vas. 

IX. I. efia — €irei 2. irpo — tcu — eiret — f**XP €l 3- oinrwv — eiaayayerai 
4. tcov — ks — $s — aicuvcuv ( ■= fiaatXevovrow) 



= Giz. Gk. rare . . . ovpavov. Eth. agrees with Giz. Gk. After 
yrjs I have added Kat irdo~av dvofxiav yivofievrjv enl rrjs yrjs with Eth. 

<Ditiri oao*ii n&inaci osn: r>#c. So also Syn. Gk. iand2 

but that before ytvopevrjv they add Kat daifteiav. 2. ko\ tlirav— 

Syn. Gk. dveXBovres clnov. Syn. Gk. omits the rest of verse, and 
Giz. Gk. is imperfect, and should probably be <j>a>vrjv (3oS>v avratv 
yvpvr) ftoa rj yrj i cf. En. lxvii. 2; lxxxiv. 5. 3. Eth. adds at 
beginning : <0jB.XH>i; AilOD 4 : h^Mll ([<*?&= <a\ vvv, npbs ipas, 3> 
aytot tov ovpavov. evrvyxdvovaiv . . . Xeyovrcov. Syn. Gk. on ra nvevpara 
Ka\ ai ylrvxai (Syn. Gk. 1 ) arevd^ovaiv ivrvyxdvovra koI Xeyovra (Syn. 
Gk. 2 ) ivrvyxdvovai o-revdfrvra koi Xeyovra. Here ra nv. Kul al \jf. or 
ra 7tv. tS>v ylsvx&v is the true text against both Giz. Gk. and Eth. : 
see Crit. Note on ix. 10, p. 70. KptW. So Eth. and Syn. Gk. 1 : 
Syn. Gk. 2 gives fcrjaiv. After v^io-tov Syn. Gk. 1 adds koX rr)v aVco- 

Aetcw . . . pfyaXaavvt] (p. 68). 4. After Kat Syn. Gk. 2 adds npoaeX. 

oi t. dpx- ra Kvpioi t5>v ald>va>v. So Syn. Gk. l virtually supported 
by G M CWVH^hO^l (iilV 3 ^ = ra> Kvplco tS>v fiacriXevovrav. ra>v 
ald>veov, being early corrupted into to>v Paa-Ckevovrav in the Gk. 
parent of Eth. text, was omitted later in Giz. MS. Hence for 
* their Lord the King ' read the Lord of the ages. av. So Syn. Gk. 
Eth. Xliao, which as Din. points out should be /H1\ After paai- 
\ev6vT(ov which I have emended from cdmvmw, Syn. Gk. 1 adds na\ 6e6s 
rS>v alwvoiv, and Syn. Gk. 2 ml 6e6s tS>v dvdpa>7ra>v. The former reading 
may have dropped out here both in Eth. and Giz. Gk. ayiov m\ 
fieya Ka\ ev\6yr]Tov els tv.r. amvas. Syn. Gk. land2 omit Kat ueya. Eth. 
is here slightly corrupt. In ' blessed and glorious art Thou/ the 
' Thou ' (Ki'f) belongs to the next verse, the ' and glorious ' is an 
intrusion ; and the term 'blessed' should be connected with 'name.' 
Hence for ' Thy name holy ... art Thou ' read Thy name holy 



Appendix C. 335 

5. (TV (yap) eiroLrjaas ra iravra Kal iraaav rr)v €$ovcrCav €\o)v, 
Kal iravra evannov arov (f>avepa Kal aKakvirra, Kal iravra (Spas Kal 
ovk eariv b Kpvfirjvai ae hvvarai). 

6. [2i>] 6pq$ a cTTOirjcrev 'AfarjA, wy ihiba^ev iraaas ras 
dbiKLas eirl rijs yrjs Kal €brjka)(rev ra pLva-rrjpia rod al&vos ra kv 
rw ovpavio (a) £irirr)b€VOVo~iv yv&vai avdpcoiroi, J. [/cat] 

2e//tafa?j a> rrjv k^ovaiav ebcoKas apyeiv rG>v crvv avr& a\xa 6vt(dv, 
8. Kal €7Topev9r](rav irpos ras Ovyartpas rS>v avdptoirwv rrjs yrjs 
Kal avveKonxrj6r](Tav avrais Kal (ez> rat? 07/A.euu?) ipLLavOrjaav Kal 
€bi]ka)(Tav avrais irao-as ras ap.aprCas' 9. Kal al yvvalKes 



5. aoi — eiroiTjcres — evwrrciov 6. os — adeucias eirct — cniTedevovaiv eyvwaav 
aviroi 8. avnow — avres before iraaas — a/iapruas g. e fvveKes — TeiT<uvas 
— aSeiicaas 



and glorious and blessed unto all the ages. So Giz. Gk. Syn. 
Gk. 1 adds at close roVe 6 {ty-io-ros . . . ttjs Kpiaecos: see p. 68. 5* y*P* 

Eth. omits. ndo~av tt)v e^ovaiav. Syn. Gk. iravTcav tt)v egovo-iav. 
So Eth. After ml iravra I have added with Eth. and Syn. Gk. 
6pas . . . hvvaTai, 6. Spas. So Syn. Gk. Eth. ChAb, which we 
should emend into Ch.fl, and for 'see them' read Thou seest. 
After 'A£a?jA Syn. Gk. adds ml oaa eio-rjveyKev. a>s. So Eth. Syn. 
Gk. oaa. After ddi<ias Syn. Gk. adds ml dpaprias, and after 
yr)s adds Kal ndvTa doXov «ri tt)s £r)pas. Kal e$r)\a>o-€V . . . ovpava. So 

Eth. Syn. Gk. gives a better sense : ib&age yap . . . ovpavti : see 

Crit. Note, p. 70. a emTrjdevovo-iv yvSavai avOpoarvoi. Cf. Syn. Gk. 
eniTTjdevova-i 8e . . . dv0pa>7ra>v '. see pp. 69, 70. Eth. hOD&l ft'fiOFt'j 
corrupt for 't'ODVd.l Mtih = £mTT)bevovo-iv yvcovai dvOpcoiroi. 7. mi, 
G and Syn. Gk. omit. The words hav& li'dO^f should be connected 
with preceding verse. 2€pia(ds, «J. Syn. Gk. ra 2f/ua£a. apx"v. 
So Eth. Syn. Gk. e^eo/. 8. See Crit. Note, p. 70. m\ efxidvBr]- 
a-av. Giz. Gk. defective here. After mi Syn. Gk. gives iv rais 
BqXeiais, which is supported by Eth. 9°l\(i\ XMh KWV * with those 
women/ where, however, the <D, 'and/ has been wrongly trans- 
posed. Hence, for ' have slept . . . themselves ' read have slept 
with them and defiled themselves with those women. nda-as. So 
Syn. Gk. Eth. Xft°lt ' these/ Read with Din. H-frcn*, and for 
' these sins ' read all sins. After dpaprias Syn. Gk. adds ml 
edidagev avTas piarjTpa iroielv. 9. After mi Syn. Gk. adds vvv Idov. 

al yvvalKes iyevvrjaav. So Eth. Syn. Gk. ai BvyaTepes . . . viols (p. 70). 



336 The Book of Enoch. 

cytvvqcrav tltclvcis, v(f)' &v o\rj f) yrj €TTX.rj(r6r] atjuaros kcli abiKtas. 
IO. kol vvv Ibov (Bo&cnv al \jsv)(al tu>v T€T€\€Vttjk6t(ov kclI ev- 
Tvyy&vovcriv ^\P L T ^ v ^vXiQp tov ovpavov, koX avefir] 6 artvayixbs 
avr&v kol oi) bvvarai e^eXOelv dirb TTpoo-(oirov t&v tirl ttjs yrjs 
yivofxivaiv avofjLTiiJLaTaiv. 1 1 . kol av iravra olbas irpb tov avra 

yevecrOai. kol (rv opqs ravra koX eas clvtovs kol ovbe f)puv Xiyeis 
tC bet iroielv clvtovs irepl tovtmv. 

X. I. Tore v\jncrTos (ei7rez;) [7re/)i tovto)v\ 6 {xeyas ayios, 
(Kat) eXdXricrev [kol &Ttev~\ kcu i-TrepLxjfev 'IorpaTjA. irpbs tov v\bv 

IO. uSov (Saxaoiv — t€ttj\€vtt]Kotq}v — f**XP €l — €7r€t — yeivoficvuv 1 1. oi8es 
— aias — \cyis ret 
X. I. irepei 

Tiravas. Syn. Gk. ylyavras. So Eth. Before oXr) Syn. Gk. adds 
KifiSrjXa . . . eKKexvTca mi, alparos ml. So Eth. Syn. Gk. omits. 
10. fioSxriv. So Eth. Syn. Gk. omits, at yJAvxal. See Crit. Note, 
p. 70. Correct J5^T into i 5^1* with Gk., and for ' souls which ' 
read souls of those who. M. Lods (p. 115) here points out that 
$S3 simply means ' person/ Thus !"!£ n^S3 = • dead persons.' 
Hence the use of the peculiar expression ' spirits of the souls of 
those who have died ' (see p. 70) to denote the continuance of the life of 
the spirit after death, dvvarai. So Syn. Gk. Eth. supposes dvvavrai. 
M. Lods defends bvvarai and urges that the question here concerns 
the souls of the dead, and not living men, and translates : ' il (leur 
gemissement) ne peut sortir [de 1' entree des portes du ciel] a cause 
des iniquites/ But as dvvarai egeXQelv probahly represents fiK2fp ??¥•, 
it would be better to render '(their lamentations) cannot cease 
because of/ &c. Hence, for ' they cannot escape from ' read can- 
not cease because of. 11. iravra. So Eth. Syn. Gk. avra. 
opqs. Eth. "thfC ' thou knowest/ ravra. So Eth. Syn. Gk. 
avrovs. ias avrovs. So Syn. Gk. Eth. HHTilPoi* 'everything 
affecting them/ Here the translator confused ra ds avrovs with 
eas avrovs. Hence, for ' everything affecting them ' read and Thou 
sufferest them. rjplv. So Eth. Syn. Gk. omits. 

X. 1. Before roVe Eth. adds ml. After &0«£V add £ft with Giz. 
Gk. and Syn. Gk. ircpX tovtuv. Eth. and Syn. Gk. omit. ml 
Jmv. Eth. and Syn. Gk. omit. 'Itrrparjk. Eth. hCllM&tC, 
fcACfc eXfcC (G). Syn. Gk. rbv olprijk. After Aipf* Eth. 
reads a?£fl>fr>: Q(V; but G omits £flfft° with Giz. Gk. Hence, 
omitting CD, for 'and said ... in My name' read tell him in 



Appendix C. 337 

Ae/xex' 2. Elirbv avru kin ro> ejuw dvdfxari' Kpv\f/ov creavrov, 

kclI brj\(ocrov avT& reAo? irrepxopLevov, otl r) yrj airoWvTai. 
iraara kclI Kara/cAvo-jads fxekkei yivtaOai irda-rjg Trjs yrjs Kal 
d-noh£o~€i rravra oaa iarlv avrfj. 3. kcu biba£ov avrbv ottcos 

€Kcj)vyr) Kal {xevel to arreppia avrov els rrdo-as rds yevtas tov 
ai&vos. 

4. Kal rw 'Pac/mrjA ciirev' Arjaov tov 'AfarjA irocriv Kal ytpalv 
Kal /3aAe avrbv els to o~kotos. Kal dvoi^ov rr)v €pr)\xov rr)v ovcrav 
cv rw Aabovrjh, KOLKel fidke avrov, 5* Kai viroOes airy XlOovs 
rpa^els Kal 6£eij Kal €TnKakv\J/ov avza to ctkotos, Kal ou^o-arco 
€K€t els rovs al&vas, Kal rr)v 6\jnv avrov TratpLaaov, Kal </)<Ss fxr) 
flecopeirco. 6. Kal iv rfj r)p,ipa Trjs fJLeydk-rjs rijs Kpiaem ditayj- 

6r\artTai els tov €[MTTVpLo-[x6v. J. Kal laOrjo-erai r) yrj rjv -qcpdviaav 
ol ayyeAoi, Kal tt)v lacnv Trjs yrjs brJA(oo~ov, tva lacroavrai rrjv 



2. ttirojv — enei to — ovo/xaret — SrjXoffov — fxe\?u yetveaOai 4. avv£ov — 

rjprjfAOJV 5. \ei0ovs — o£ts — cireiKa\vif/ov — avro t<u — oiKrjffaro — dewpiraj 
6. Kpctaecus — (virvpiffpiov 7. (ia6r/ff€Tai — ecpavciaav — laffovrai — 



My name. After Ae/x f X Syn. Gk. adds Aeywi/, tv. re. r. Naif. 2. 

After irao-a Kal Syn. Gk. adds elnov avrcp otl 00-a eariv avrfj. So 
Eth. Syn. Gk. diro npoaoynov Trjs yrjs. 3. After Kal Eth. adds 

vvv. avTov. So Eth. Syn. Gk. rbv dUatov Aapex. Syn. Gk. 

after Aa/j.ex adds Ka\ rrjv yjrvxrjv . . . <rvvTr}pr)o~€i. 6na>s fKfpvyg . . . 

avTov. So Eth. Syn. Gk. Ka\ eK$eu|erat . . . aTaOrjaerai. 4. After 

Kal Eth. adds ttoKiv 6 Kvpios. After elnev Syn. Gk. adds nopevov 
'PacfrarjA Kal. 7roo~\v /cat x € P aiv - Eth. and Syn. Gk. x e P amiv Kai iroo-iv. 
After x € P (T ^ v Syn. Gk. adds o-vp.n68io-ov avrov. r<S AaSovfo. Syn. 
Gk. 777 €prjpa> AovbarjX. After Kaxet Syn. Gk. adds 7ropev6els. 5. 

vnoOts. So Syn. Gk. But Eth. supposes (and rightly) ivifcs, £&i 
^[OCitV*. ' rpaxels Kal o^eiy. So Eth. Syn. Gk. ogeh k. rpaxfls. 
6. rf) rjuepq r. peyaKrjs r. Kplaecos. Syn. Gk. omits r. peyaXrjs. Eth. 
read r. pLeydXy rjpiepa rrjs xplo-ctos. dirax 6r\ arerai. A technical use. 

So Syn. Gk. Eth. ^lI\(D- is bad : the translator should have used 
(D(\&, X. 13. Syn. Gk. adds at end tov nvpos. 7. ladrjo-erai rjyrj. 

We should emend this with Eth. and Syn. Gk. into lao-at rr)v yrjv. ay 
yeXoi. So Eth. Syn.Gk.e'-yp^yopoi. yrjs. So Eth. Syn.Gk.TrAqyj)*. 
Idaavrai. So Syn. Gk., better than Eth. hch&'P, Ido-opai. Hence 

z 



338 The Book of Enoch. 

Trktiyqv, Xva fxr] a-nokuvTai iravTes oi viol t&v avOptoiwv ev rw 
f fivoTT-qpico 6\(t> w eirerao-av ol eypr\yopoi kcll eht(ba)£av tovs vlovs 

clvt&v, 8. Kal i]pr)p.udr) iraaa rj yrj \a<\>avio-6&(Ta\ ev rot? 

epyous tt)s oi5a<TKa\ias 'Afa^A.' Kal en airy ypaxf/ov ras a/xa/maj 

irdcras. 

9. Kal rw Ta(3pL7)\ elver 6 Kvpios' Uopevov M tovs ixaQqpeovs, 

em tovs Ki/38rjXou? Kal tovs vlovs ttj? iropveuas, Kal airoXecrov tovs 

vlovs t&v eyprjyopaiv cltto t&v avOpcoircov. Trefx\jrov avTovs ev 7roXe/x<f> 

dimkeCas' p.aKpoT7]s yap r}p.ep&v ovk eorai avT&v. 10. /cat 

f 7rao-a ope&s (ovk) ecrTai toIs TtaTpacriv avT&v [xal] irepl avT&v, 

otl ekTti(ovo~iv (rjo-aL fa>Tjz/ alcoviov Kal otl (rjaeTai eKaa-Tos avT&v 

eT7] TtevTaKoaia. 



\a\v airoWuvrai — avirwv — eirara£av (for aire<f>r)ffav ?) 9. twv — ks — eirei 

twice — tceifibeXovs — avimv — air<u\tas — eanv 10. epyeats — aicaveiov 



read fthfrOk. ttXt^. So Syn. Gk. Eth.=y^. I withdraw my 
suggestion in Crit. Note, p. 73, and accept TrX^y^i/ as original. 
Hence, for 1 1 will heal the earth ' read so that they may heal the 
plague. Before tva Eth. and Syn. Gk. insert Kat. t<» pvo-r^pia 
o\<o. I have emended ^M'OU.i ltd 1 , ' the secrets of everything/ 
into S^^dlCl ltfc=T<o pvarrjpl(o oka. Hence my translation. 
firercurav. So M. Bouriant for endra^av. Perhaps dire^o-av would 
be better. Syn. Gk. ehov. 8. d^aviaOelaa. Omit with Eth. and 
Syn. Gk. rols epyois r. MaaKaXias. So Syn. Gk. Eth. = T17 

bi8ao-Ko\la tS)v epyav. avrto. Syn. Gk. avrfj. 9. 6 Kvpios. Eth.'God/ 

Syn. Gk. omits. After nopevov Syn. Gk. adds ra/3pt??A. ua^peW. 
This is a corrupt transliteration of "WO. Eth. more correctly 
<«>TH&*i. Syn. Gk. wrongly ylyavras. eVt r. Kifi8r)\ovs. So Syn. 

Gk. Eth. wCl?°Wi ' and the reprobates/ Before tovs vlovs r. tt. 
Syn. Gk. adds iwL Eth. = /«u hrl. rrjs itopveias. So Syn. Gk. Hence, 
for IF7, ' of the fornicatress/ should be read "Hod^, which was 
first corrupted into H* 7 ?^, pi. of H°7. After cmokeo-ov Eth. adds 
rovs vlovs rrjs TTopvcias km. tu>v dv0pa>7ra>v. So Eth. Syn. Gk. 7w 
vlav t. a. Before neptyov Eth. adds e^airoareiXov avrovs Kai. After 
avrovs Giz. Gk. defective : cf. Syn. Gk. and Eth. fit dXXrjXovs, e£ 

avTcoif els avrovs. ev 7roXe'fxco dnaXelas. Syn. Gk. ev ttoX. Kal ev aTraX. 

Eth. ev jroXefjLcp dnoXavrai. panp. yap. So Eth. Syn. Gk. Kat pa<p. 
avrav. Syn. Gk. avTols. IO. ope£is eorai. Syn. Gk. epa>Tr)o-ts ovk 

eo-Tt. So Eth.: see p. 74. ™\ irepl avT&v. Syn. Gk. omits. Eth. 



Appendix C 339 

II. Kal elirev (rw) Mixa^'A* ITopevot; /cat brj\a»rov 2e/xta£a /cat 
rots \olttols rots avv avT<$ Tate yvvaiglv jouyeta-t (tov) fJuavOijvai f 
ei> avTals Zv Tfi aKaOapcria aiir&v' I %. /cat oray KaTao-fyay&o-iv 

oi viol avT&v /cat Ibaxriv tt)v airvheiav t&v ayamp-Qv, [icail brjcrov 
avrovs kfiboiMJKOVTa yeveas els ras v&iras rrjs yrjs jue'xpi ypepas 
/cptcrews aurcoy /cat avvreXeo-pLov, etos TeXeaOrj to Kplpa tov al&vos 
T&v aluvcDV. 13. ro're airaxOrjo~ovTaL els to xaos toO irvpos 

sat ets r^y fiaaavov Kal els to beorpaoTripLov o-vyKkelaecos al&vos. 
14. Kat os ay KaTaKpiOfi Kal a(f>avL(rdfj curb tov vvv fxer avT&v f 
ojtxoi; £e0?Jo-ozrrat jote)(pt reAetcoo-ecos ye^eas. 

15. 'Airokeo-ov iravra ra irvevpLara t&v Kij3brj\(ov Kal tovs vlovs 
t&v eyprjyopaiv bia to abiKija-ai tovs avOp&iiovs. 16. Kal 



1 1 . yvve£iv fiayevras — avres 1 2 . eiSoocrtv — atroXiav — av avrovs = avrovs — 
fi(XP* 1 *3- T0 fe<r to 5efffj.orr]piov ovvicXiaecos 14. orav KaraxavaO-q — 

/z€ fier — T€\iaacws 15. trvara — avvvvs 



omits Kal. 11. After eh™ Eth. adds 6 Kvptos. Before MixarjX add 
r© with Eth. and Syn. Gk. After nope tov Syn. Gk. adds Mi^A. 
<at 8t)\o)(tov. So Eth. Syn. Gk. &)o~oi>. rals yvv. piycio-i. So Eth.= 
Syn. Gk. tovs avppiyepras rals Ovyarpdcri, rcov avOpoanoav. Before piavd. 
Syn. Gk. adds rov. Before 777 aKadapala Eth. adds 7rdarj. 12. ku\ 
orav. So Syn. Gk. Eth. omits /cm. Karaar<j)ay. So Syn. Gk. Eth.= 
avro\ eavrovs Karaacfrdgoao-i. Before oi viol Eth. adds ndvres. After 

dyaTTTjTcov Eth. and Syn. Gk. add avra>v. Omit Kal before brjo-ov with 
Eth. and Syn. Gk. After avrovs add inl with Eth. and Syn. Gk. 
vdnas= hills : cf. LXX. Is. xl. 12. So Syn. Gk. and Eth. ksA o-w- 
rfXeapov. Eth. adds avra>v. Syn. Gk. pe\pi fjpepas reXcioao-eas re\(or- 
fxov. 13. rore. So Syn. Gk. Eth. = eV eKelvais rals fjpepais. ana^O. 

(see x. 6 note). Eth. ' one will lead off.' Syn. Gk. dncvexOwovrai. 
W should be added after Kb*? with Syn. and Giz. Gk. avyKXelo-eas 

alcovos. Syn. Gk. rrjs cr. rov aieov. Eth. arvyKXeidrjo-ovrai els rovs 
alcovas rcov alavcov. A9rt.cn> should be struck out. 14. os av. 

So I have emended with Syn. Gk. : see Crit. Note, p. 75. Eth. 
A&y^TdVe, a wrong vocalisation for (l(blfr=oTav. KaraKpiOfj. See 
Crit. Note, pp. 75, 76. SfMov. So Eth. Syn. Gk. omits. yeveds. 
Syn. Gk. adds avrwv. Eth. yeveds yeveds. 1 5. Before diroX. Eth. 

adds Kal. nvevpara ra>v Ki^8rj\(x>i: Hence, for i^PAi'i 'f'(D-i :: t' read 
tfi>V$ft1*: y"}.^; and for 'lustful souls' read spirits of the 
reprobate (or illegitimate). 16. Ka\ div6\. Eth. omits mi. 

Z 2 



340 The Book of Enoch. 

dirokcaov rr\v dbiKiav irao-av airb rrjs yrjs, kol ttclv ipyov irovqpias 
€K\€nr€T(a. k<u ava^avrjra) to qbvTov ttjs biKaioo~uvr\s kol tt}s 
aKr]6eias (els rovs al&vas) fxera x a P^ $VT£v(6r\)(reTai. 

17. KOLl VVV iraVT€S OL blKCLlOL €K(f)€v£oVTai, KOL <-(TOVTai (&VT€S 

&os yevvrjo-axTLV x^adaj, ^at Traaas ras fydpas veoTrjTos avr&v 
kol ra o-<£/3/3ara avr&v pL€Ta elprjvrjs TrXrjptocrovo-iv. 1 8. Tore 

€pya<rdrio~€TaL Ttacra f] yrj ev hiKaiooijvr), kol KarafyvTevd^azTai 
bivbpov h avrfi, kcu 7rA.Tjo-077O-erai evXoyCas. 1 9. *at iravra to. 
t bevbpa Trjs ayaWida-ecos (fyvrevdrja-eTai, kcu ZcrovTai (pyrevovres 
dinrekovs kol f] afnrekos tjv av (f)VT€VO~(ti(nv Tioi-qo-ei irpoxovs olvov 

f KOI (TTTOpOV (rOV (TTTapivTOS €Ka(TTOV \l£TpOv) TTOLrjO-ei X^ldbaS KCU 

$Ka<rTov fxirpov ekaias 7T0i7J(rei ava fidrovs beKa. 

20. Kat av Kadapicrov ttjv yrjv duo irdcrrjs aKaOapaCas kcu airb 



16. SiKeoffvvrjs — aXrjOias 17. SiKtot — iraffai ai rjixepe — ipTjvrjs 18. Sikco- 

cvvrj 19. 777s aya\taffovTCU — <pvT€VOVT€Vovrcs — at — nonjaovaiv irpoxovs 

oivov xt^iaSfs Kai anopov iroirjffu Ka$. 



Eth. omits els rovs alavas. After almvas add with Eth. 'labour 
will prove a blessing: righteousness and uprightness/ omitted 
through hmt. Qvrevd. Eth. jB.*ttirt* = (pvTevo-ovo-i : cf. ver. 19. 
17. €K(f)ev£ovTm. So G J&7-JE.?.. Din. J&7W, corrupt. 18. Kara- 
(jivr. 8. iv avTJj. Eth. 'it will all be planted with trees/ 19. rfs 
dya\\. This emendation in accordance with Eth. is necessary, 
as Din. and Lods have already recognised. After duneXovs Eth. 
adds ' on it.' The emendation of at into *cat is necessary. Before 
01/Tfvo-. Eth. adds 'on it.' For Qla in Dln.'s text read W&t 
with G. So Giz. Gk. oXvov. Eth. renders irpoxovs freely by A8*X1 . 
Gk. is confused and defective; but it agrees word for word 
with Eth. save that it omits ItCti HCXi H£H£X; %SM\ Zihti 
aoftLC*? with the exception of the second word=o-7ro'pov. It 
preserves the verb and ace. of this clause, i.e. noi^o-ei x^Sas 
= s Vl'dCl X&&. Ka6 is a corruption of wL Such disarrange- 
ments are frequent: see i. 2 (note). For 'ten thousand' read 
thousand. 7rpoxovs=ge(rTr)s (sometimes), fidrovs is a rendering of 
rD. Hence, instead of 'press' translate bath or vat. A 'bath'= 
8-7 gallons nearly according to Josephus or 4-4 according to 
Rabbinists. 20. aKadapalas cannot be right: perhaps fiLas or 



Appendix C. 341 

7racrTj9 abulias /cat airb (770)0779 djua/may, Kat ao-efteCas, /cat 7rdVa? 
ras aKadapvias tcls yivo^vas eVt tt}s yrjs efdAet^oi/. 21. . . . 

/cat eawrat ttclvtcs XaTpevovres ol Aaot Kat cvkoyovvres ir&vres 
e/xot Kat TTpoa-KVvovvTes. 22. Kat Ka6apio-6r\a-eTai nava ^ yfj 

dud 7rai>To? jottao-juaros Kat cbrd 7rao-r;s aKaOapaias Kal opyrjs Kal 
judartyos, Kat ovk£tl iripLxjfca eV airov? ets 7rdcras rd? yeveas tov 
al&vos. XL I. Kat rore avoi£a> to, ra/ixeta ttjs evkoy [as ra 

ovTa iv rw ovpavco, tov KaTtvtyKeiv avra M ra epya, tirl tov 
kottov t&v vl&v tQv avOpunnov. 2. Kat Tore dA?j0€ta Kat dprjvr] 
KOivwqvova-iv ojjlov ets irdo-as ras rjfxipas tov al&vos Kal ets irda-as 
tcls yeveas t&v avdp(air(ov. 

XII. I. Ilpd TovTUiv tS>v koyoav €\ruJL(f>0r] 'Ez^Xj «al ov8et? 
t<2i> av6p(aira)v eyvoa irov eXrjfxQOr) Kal irov ccttlv Kal tl iyivero 
avr<3. 2. Kat tcl tpya avTov juerd r<3z/ typrjyopotv, Kal /uterd 

r<3z> dytW hi fjpiepGiv avTov. 



20. yeivo/x€vas €7rei 21. irpoffKoivovvres 22. ovkctci 

XL I. avv£cu — ra/ita — /cat Karevevtciv — €7r« twice 

2. aXeQeia — £^771/77 Koivovqoovoiv — avtrwv 

XII. 1. Awa>x — ovSts — ai^w 2. auray — at rjfiepe. 



piao-fiov. Cf. Eth. 7£0 ' violence/ Before axnfrias Eth. adds ttoo-j;?. 
After e£dA. Eth. adds otto t^s yip. 21. Before «xi eo-oj/rat Eth. adds 
koL ea-ovrat iravres ol viol tS>v dv6pa>ir(ov bUaioi. Perhaps omitted in 
Gk. through like beginning. navres ipol koL Eth. implies k. it. e. 
22. dKaOapaias. Eth. ^flL/tir 'sin.' After 7repfa> corrupt Eth. 
MSS. insert h£$ « a deluge,' but G omits. For eV avrovs Eth. 
reads £A>Y ' upon it.' For tov al&vos Eth. reads wXftfc MAT". 

XI. I. After KdTCveyKelv Eth. adds eVi ttjv y?jv. After epya Eth. 
adds 'and.' 2. feat toY*. Eth. omits. aX. /cat tip. Eth. et/>. /cat 
a\. tS>v avBp. Eth. My" ' of the world '—a confusion of ald>va>v 
and di>0pa>7r<»*>, as M. Lods points out. 

XII. 1. Before rrpo Eth. adds koL tovtcov t5>v. Eth. Ittt 'all/ 
a corruption of fcrt\ Hence, for 'all these things' read these 
things. iMa^Or,. Eth. th-OT ' was hidden.' This— the usual 
Eth. rendering of npb, ptri&i***, and A#Aj, in connexion with 
Enoch— is due to the influence of the Enoch myth. r&* dvOp. 
Eth. = tS>v vlav tS>u dv6p. 2. iypr^yopcov and dyiW in inverse order 
in Eth. Observe two emendations of Gk. in accordance with 



34 2 The Book of Enoch. 

3. Kal (eoro)?) "jpL-qv, 'Ez^wx, tvXoy&v t<3 Kvpbo rrjs p.eyaXo- 
<rvvr)s, tw (3a(TL\€i r&v alatvov. Kal ibov ol €ypr\yopoi (tov aytov 
tov jueyaAov) zkclXovv jute ('Ej^x tov ypayL^iaria koi elirev ep.ol)' 
4. 'Erwx 6[t] ypapL[iaT€vs ttjs btKatoa"vvr]s, iropevov Kal ei7re rois 
iypr^yopoLs tov ovpavov, oirives, aTroXiirovTes tov ovpavov tov 
v\lrq\6v, to aytaa-fxa ttjs orafxea)? tov al&vos, p*€Ta tG>v yvvaiK&v 
ifxidvOrjcrav KaC, wo"nzp ot viol ttjs yrjs iroLovatv, ovtois ko.1 avrol 

"J" ttolovo-lv Kal eXafiov kavTols yvvalKas, Kal a<$>avio-p.bv p.4yav 
rj<j)avLO-av tt]v yrjv, 5* KC ^ °^ K €orai vpXv elpr\vr) ovt€ a(p€o-is. 

Kal nepl 8>v yaipovo-iv t&v vl&v avT&v, 6. tov (povov t&v 

ayaTrrjT&v avr&v oxj/ovTai, Kal eirl Trj ctara)A.eia tS>v vl&v avT&v 
o-Teva£ovaiv, Kal h€r)6r}aovTai et? tov al&va, Kal ovk eorai avrols 

f eAeos Kal clprjvt}, 

* XIII. I. e O 8e 'Ez>a>x T(o 'A(arjX iropevdeh elirev' Ovk iarai 



3. Aivax — ko) — fiaatXi 4. Atvcox — SiKfioffWTjs — vvov = ovpavov — ovpavarv 

— vxprjKcuv — yvvetcojv — yvveKas a<paviop.ov fieyav icai ij^aviaare 5. €<tt€ — 
iprjvrj — a<f>t]o~is — x € P 0Vfflv 6. eva — airoXeia — viov — core — (is fXtov 

ttai iprjvrjv 

XIII. 1. einev tropfvov — tare — 



Eth. 3. After ml Eth. adds ' I ' and omits i<rrw. r© Kvpltp 
ttjs ncyaXovvvrjs. Eth. AX7Rfc: OfljEL « to the great Lord.' But 
Gk. is right, and the error lies in the vocalisation. Hence read 
AX7H.fi: Ofl£, and translate to the Lord of greatness. Before 
tw /3ao\ Eth. adds 'and/ For t&v alwav Eth. reads ^Ay°, tov 
alaivos. rov &y. rod pey. Eth. omits. Gk. omits through like 
beginning { Enoch the scribe, and spake to me/ which Eth. pre- 
serves. 4. koi elne. Eth. h£>&fy = brjXaxrov. G with Gk. 
omits (D before 9»<$*¥ao. Hence for ' and the holy ' read the holy. 
to dyiao-pa t. ardaeois r. alcovos. Eth. seems preferable : y^^Toro; 
$&t\ (or *&#}); HAMS", tvs yfc. Eth. A*lX of men.' But 
Gk. is right, as scribes confound Wlft and A»flX : cf. ix. 8, Crit. 
Note, p. 70. Hence, for * children of men ' read children of earth. 
Trjp yrjv can stand as a Hebraism with dcf). ply. r)<pav. Eth. ' on the 
earth.' 5. For vp.lv read avroT? with Eth. Before elpr)vrj Eth. 
adds €7rt tt)s yrjs. Kai nepl lav x a *-P ov<Jtv > See Crit. Note, p. 78. 
Dln.'s text destroys the sense by inserting a negative. 6. For 
ds eXfov kcu (Iprjvrjv I have read ZXeos k. clprjvrj with Eth. 

XIII. 1. 'A£aTjX. Eth. Azaze"!. nopcvdels cfaev. Emended in 



Appendix C. 343 

(rot dpr\vr]' KpljJLa jxiya igrjXQzv Kara (rod brjaai ere, 2. Kal 

avo^r] Kal €p(tiT7]o-ts vol ovk lorat 7t€pl &v I8ei£a9 abLK-qpLOLTOiV KOL 

7T€pl TTCLVTOiV T&V €pyO)V T&V CUT e/3ciCO> Kal TT]S ablKLCLS KCU TT}$ 

apiaprias, o<ra viribei^as T019 av6pu>irois. 

3. Tore TioptvOtls tipr\Ka irao-iv avTols. Kal avrol iravres 
e^o^rjO-qo-aVi Kal tXafitv avrovs Tp6p.os Kal cpofios, 4. Kal 

rjpa>Tr)(rav 077009 ypdyj/o) avrols VTTOjxvrJiJLaTa ZpcaTrjo-em, tva ykvtyrai 
avTots a(f)€(ns Kal tva €yw avayvGt avrois to vTTopLvqjjia ttjs eoGorrj- 
crea)9 ivunnov KVpiov rod ovpavov' 5* °' TL avrol ovk4tl bvvavrai 
XaXrjo-ai ovbt iirapaL am&v tovs 6(p6aXp,ovs els tov ovpavov enro 
alo~yyvr)$ irepl &v r]p.apTr\Keio-av Kal KareKpCOrjo-av. 

6. ToVe eypatya to viropLvrjixa ttjs eowrrja-ea^ avT&v Kal tcls 
berjo-eis irepl tG>v TTvevfxaTcov avT&v Kal irepl &v biovTai otkds air&v 
yiv(ovTat acpeais Kal fxaKporns. 7« Ka * voptvOels €Ka0io~a iirl 

t&v vba.TO)v Aav ev (yf)} Aaz>, 77719 kaTlv €K be&oiv 'Ep/xaweieiju 
bvcreGds. aveyivtoo-KOv to vTrofjivrjiJLa t&v berjaeoDV avT&v €a>9 f 
(KOLfxrjd'qVf 8. Kal Ibov oveipoi eV ejxe fjXOov, Kal bpacras eV 

e/xe tTriiniTTOv, Kal Ibov opaareis 007779, (Kal rjXOtv (pcovr) Aiyovo-a)* 



iprjVT) Kpcifia — 8r)<re 2. eSifas — aoifiia)v — viredi£as — avirois 3. iropevOis 

4. yevovrcu — avayvot — kv 5. Svvovrat — ode eirapt avrov — tax w V s 

6. denffis — irvaTOJV 7. voptvOis — aveytvaxT/ccov — ojs 8. ov-qpoi — opaais twice 
— iSctiv = iSov — 



accordance with Eth. drjerai <re. Eth. '(Rufael) shall bind thee. 

2. Omit <D9°iti£ft with G and Giz. Gk. Hence for 'intercession 
and mercy ' read intercession. Strike out a*A\£ with G and 
Giz. Gk., and for 'the children of men' read men. 3. After 
irao-iv Eth. adds 'together/ rpopos k. cpopos. Eth. (p. k. t. 4. After 
rjpcoTrjo-av Eth. adds ifU, avayvS). This is better than Eth. K0C7, 
which supposes a reading avdyco. evwmov. So G ¥.£0° : Din. 
1Q. Hence, for 'take their petition into the' read read their 
petition in. KVpiov. Eth. X7HMfkC = food. 5. ovde enapat. 

Eth. (DYiShP'h: Trepl %>v rjpLap. k. kutck. Eth. h&Wa&i H1*h°JJ.= 
t£)V &papna>v avrav bia as KareKpiOrjcrav. 6. ras derjo-eis. So Eth. 

G hM'd^'P^' Din. reads ras berja-as avrwv. I have omitted the 
(D before flXlt with Giz. Gk. 7. yy. Eth. omits. Before dvey. 
Eth. adds kol. 8. koL rj\6ev (pavy \eyova-a. Eth. omits wrongly : 
cf. xv. 2. Hence, for ' to the intent . . . recount ' read and a voice 



344 The Book of Enoch. 

Et7iw to Is viols tov ovpavov tov eAeyfat avrovs. 9. /cat 

j-£vTTvos y€v6p.€vos tf\0ov irpos avrovs. /cat iravres crvvrjypivoL 

€Ka6-qvT0 tt€v6ovvt€s [a*]«> 'E/3eAo-ara, tJtls kaTLV ava piiaov tov 

Aipavov /cat 2i€Vio-rj\, 7r€pLK€Kakvpp.€voL tt]V o\j/iv, IO. /cat 

| kvcoiriov avT&v avrjyyetka [avrots] iraaas tols opderets a? elbov 

Kara tovs vttvovs* /cat rjp^apLWv kakeiv tovs koyovs rijs biKcuoo-vvrjs, 

kkiyx<*>v tovs kypyyopovs tov ovpavov, 

XIV. 1. Bt/3Aos koyoiv hiK.aioo"6v7)S /cat kkiy^eots kyprjyopcov 

t&v and tov ai&vos, Kara tt\v kvrokrjv tov ayCov tov p.€yakov kv 

TavTrj Trj opacrei. 

2. 'Eyco etbov Kara tovs vttvovs fxov o[i>] vvv Aeyco kv yA.coa-0-77 

o-apKLvrjj kv rw Tivevp^ari tov crrofxaroy jxov, b ZbaiKev 6 p,eyas toXs 
-j- avdptoiroLs kakelv kv avTois /cat vorjaat Kapbiq, 3. co? (e/crtcre 

/cat e8co/ce rot? avdp&iroLs /cat efxot voelv tovs koyovs ttjs yvu>o~€(os 



e\ev£€ 10. (vomov clvtwv km — avrjvyt\a — opaois — \a\iv — \oyo<t — BiKeo- 
awrjs — tos = tovs before eyp. 

XIV. 1. ZiKioavv-qs — e\ev£eos — opaffi 2. tiSew — cov vvv — aapKHvrj — 

ttvclti — avirois \a\tv — vorjau Kapdias 3. os — e/CTeifftv — edaev — 



came to me saying : that I should tell. elnov. Eth. Iva iiira>. tov 
e\ey£ai. Eth. km ckeyga. 9. 'E/3eXo-ara. Eth. Ublesja61. 2cvkttj\. 
Eth. S6n6ser. 10. koto, tovs vnvovs. So G (llvy. Hence, for 
' in my sleep ' read in sleep. ikiyxmw. Eth. wKH £\.£ = km 
tkeyxew. 

XIV. I. fiifiXos Xoycov di<aioo-vvr]s /cat iXeygeas. Eth. "HffDftvfiCp; 
^iil 9l&V\ fl)HA4«, ovtos 6 /3t/3Xos Xoyor btKMoavvrjs /cat 'fXeygis. Kara 
ttjv ivToXrjv. Eth. Qhcn>; /iHH, Ka6(i>s 7rapr}yyeXK€. Before tov fiey. 
Eth. adds km. 2. Before iv ra irv. Eth. adds km. h r<5 nveviiaTi 

tov o-TopaTOs ixov, o eb<oKev 6 fieyas. Eth. a)flffl>l£ft?; 11(01/(1; OflJ^I 

h&~ ; transposed and corrupt, but easy to restore by reading hL. 
before HcDVd and attaching the suffix to it. Next strike out Of 
with D. Thus we have (lm>"RA; tt*S H(DUa; 0(1^, a literal 
rendering of Giz. Gk. and supported by lxxxiv. i. Hence, for 
' and with my breath which the Great One has put into the mouth 
of men ' read with the breath of my mouth which the Great One has 
given to men. iv avTois. Eth. 0*P ' with it/ Better read Pffi* 
with them. 3. After a>s I have restored, with G, the clause 

(exTto-e km e8o)/c€ . . . km if**) lost through hmt. After AfrflX add 



Appendix C. 345 

Kal e/xe) eKTiaev kclI ebo)Kev ekey^aaOai eyprjyopovs tovs vlovs tov f 
ovpavov. 

4. 'Eya) T7\v £pa>Tr)(nv vpi&v [r&v dyy£k(&v\ eypaxjra, Kal ev ttj 

6pd(T€L pLOV TOVTO ibeC^!]' KOI OVT€ Tj €p(aT7]CTL9 Vp,G)V TTapebe^Ol] 

5* ^ va 1*1*^"* *ls tov ovpavov avafirJTe eirl ttolvtcls 

tovs al&vas, Kal ev tols beapiOLS ttjs yrjs eppeOrj orjcrai vjjlcls els 
irdcras tcls yeveas tov al&vos, 6. Kal lvcl irpb tovtcov t8r/re tt\v + 
aiMtikeiav t&v vlQv vpi&v tG>v aycnrrjTGtv, kclI otl ovk eorat vpuv 
ovrjo-Ls avT&v, dkka ireo-ovvTai evv-niov vfi&v ev p,ayaipa. J. Kal 
rj kpuiT7]cns vp*G>v irepl ai)TG>v ovk. cotcu ovbe irept vpi&v. Kal vfieis 
KkaiovTts Kal beopievoi Kal jutj kakovvTes ttclv prjfxa airb ttjs ypa(f)TJs 
rjs eypa\jfa. 

8. Kai epiol eft opdaet ovtcos ibelxOrj' Ibov veqbikat iv ttj dpdo~ei 
€Kakovv, Kal 6fjLi-)(kai p.e e(f)(ovovv, Kal biabpofxal t<ov acrTepoiv Kal 
biao-Tpairai p,e KaTecmovbafyv Kal e0opv(3a£6v pie, Kal avepiot ev ttj 
opdaei piov aveirTepao-dv /me Kal eiTrjpdv pie avca 9. Kal elo~- f 

rjveyKav p.e els tov ovpavov. Kal elarjkOov j^xpis rjyyicra Teiyovs 



eicKegaaOai 4. avye\<uv — opaat — edixOq 5. ava&rjrai 6. trtpi — 6(877x6 
— attoXiav — eare — irtaovvTc tvamicw — jxax^po- 7* v f iis vXeovrts 8. opaai 
thrice — iZixOrj — ve<pe\e — ofiox^* — ecpovovv — StaSpofxe — diaarpave — fiat = 
Hi — egeireraaav 9. eHTrjvrjvicav — yuai = jue — opavov — tixovs oiKodofxrjS — 



(Dd.'f with G. Hence, for ' created man and given to him ' read 
created and given to man and me. Omit i in a)(Dl)(\i. with G 
and Gk. 4. rovro eSet'^^7. Eth. ovtcos e'Sei^^?/. koi ovre . . . 

napedexOrj. Eth. 'that your petition will not be granted/ After 
7rapeSe'x&7 several clauses have been lost through hint., which can 
be supplied from Eth. ' throughout all the days . . . granted to 
you/ 5. tva. Eth. Kai dno tov vvv, iv rot? deafiois rrjs yrjs. Eth. 

iv rfi yfj. In my Trans, this phrase should be connected with ' shall 
bind/ yevcds. Eth. = ^e'/)ay. 6. koi ha. Eth. Kai. 7rp6 (a neces- 
sary emendation). So Eth. ovrjais avr&v. Eth. T^tlPcn* ' have 
them in . . . keeping/ Free, but admissible. 7. See Crit. Note, 
p. 80. 8. i<f> opdo-ei. Eth. opaais. iqbavovv. Eth. ,££»CD«(M.. 

KaTco-ir. <at iOopvP. Eth. WfrO*i.l fD^^O**. ' drove and impelled 
me/ idopv(3a£ov is difficult, dv^ripoaaav. A necessary emendation 
= Eth. avo) appears in Eth. after eloyveyKav in next verse. 



346 The Book of Enoch. 

<$Kobo\a\p.lvov kv XlOols yaXa(j]s Kal yXcocraais irvpbs kvkXm avr&v' 

KOi r[p£aVTO €K(f)0^€iV fX€. 

IO. Kal elarjXdov els tcls yXdaaas rod irvpos, Kal rfyyiaa ds oIkov 
H&yav (OKobofjLr]ix€vov ev XlOols yaXa(r]s. Kal ot Toiypi rov oXkov 
g>9 XLOaiirXaKes, Kal ita<rai r\aav Ik )^l6vos, kcu, ebdcpt] ^lovlkol, II. 
Kal at are'yat a>s bLabpofxal aaTepcav Kal aorrpairai. Kal fxera^v avr&v 
yepovfilv TTVptva, Kal 6 ovpavbs avr&v vb(op. 12. Kal irvp <pXeyo- 
[xevov kvkXm tG>v Totyjav, i^al Ovpai irvpl KaiojxevaL. 13. elo-r}X6ov 
els tov oIkov eKelvov 6epp.bv a>? irvp Kal xj/vxpbv a>? yi(*>V Kal 

j- iraaa rpvcfrr) &!$ °^ K V v & clvt(S. <j)6fios p.e eKaXvxjsev Kal rpofxos 
jjl€ eXafiev, 14. Kal rfp.r]v aeLopLevos Kal rpepicov, Kal eireaov 

(eirl irpocrcoTTov jjlov Kal) eOewpovv ev ry bpacreL (fxov), 15. 

-f Kal ibov aXXos oIkos iazl&v tovtov Kal oXrj ff Ovpa (avrov) 
av€(oy[xivr] Karevavri jxov Kal <pKobopL7)pLevos ev yXdoo-crais irvpos, 
16. Kal oXos bta(f)€p(iiv ev bo^rj Kal ev ri/xrj Kal ev fxeyaXoo-vvy 
(Sore fxr} bvvao-Qal \ie e£eLirelv vpuv irepl rrjs bo£ris Kal ire pi rrjs 
HeyaXoovvqs avrov. IJ. to ebacjyos avrov r\v irvpos, to be 

Sivcorepov avrov r\o~av ao~Tpairal Kal biabpojial darepuiv, Kal fj areyr] 
avrov r\v irvp <pXeyov. 



yXaiffffrjs — eKcpoffiv 10. rjvyeiffa — oiKodofirjfievov — x i0V€lKa **• acrTtpov 

12. TVXWV KfOfifVOt 13. 01 OIKOV TpO(p7] OK = OVK /idl = fit twice 

14. cfit]v ffiofievos — rpe/xov — eOeopovv — opacri 15. aXXrjv Ovpav avfcayyavqv 
Karevavri p:ov Kai o oikos ptifav tovtov mi oXos oiKodoptifievos — y\wa<rqs 
16. deia<p€pa>v — THp.rj — axTTat — fiai=fi€ 17. avoiTepojv 



9. yXaaarais irvpos. So Eth. Hence I should have translated more 
literally tongues of fire instead of 'a fiery flame/ 10. navai. 

We should from Eth. expect XiSot. 13. Before elarjXBop and 
Bepjiov Eth. adds km. Tpv(f>r] not rpocpr), as Din. and Lods have 
already recognised. Tpvfyl) far}s. See Crit. Note, p. 81. 14. rj^rjv. 
Eth. omits. After e'neaov I have added with Eth. «rt irpoo-ayrrov 
fiov Kai 15. Gk. corrupt. Arranged as given above, it equals 

Eth. exactly. : cf. x. 19 for a similar dislocation of the text. The 
Gk. o\?7 r] dvpa necessitates a change of translation. For ' all the 
portals of which' read the entire portal of which. 17. Before 
r6 !d. Eth. adds Kai. nv P 6s. So G HVtt*: Bin. hh : V=nvp. 
Hence for 'fire' read of fire. rj trre'yj? olvtov. Eth. adds 'also.' 



Appendix C. 347 

18. 'EOe&povv be Kal elbov Opovov v\j/r}\6v } Kal to etbos avrov o>? 
Kpvo-rdkkivov, Kal Tpo\ps ws fjklov kdpLirovros not o^ecas yepovfiiv. f 
19. Kal vttokclt(o tov Opovov etjeiropevovro iTOTajjiol iTVpbs qbkeyo- f 
ixevov, Kal ovk ebvvdcrOrjv Ibeiv. 20. Kal rj bo£a fj jieydkn 

€Ka0r)To en airy' to irepifiokaiov avrov [a>? eiSos] fjklov kap.irp6- 
repov Kal kevKorepov irdo7]9 \i6vor 21. Kal ovk ebvvaro iras 

dyyekos irapekOelv (et? tov oIkov tovtov) Kal Ibeiv to Trpocraiirov 
avrov ha to evrip,ov Kal evbo£ov. Kal ovk ebvvaro irao-a aap£ 
ibeiv avrov. 22. to irvp obkeyop^evov kvkAg), Kal irvp p.eya irapeur- 
Tr]K€L avTip, Kal ovbels eyyi^ei airy. KVKk(a fxvpCat piVpLabes eoT?j- 
Ka(o-tv) evcomov avrov, Kal ttcls koyos avrov epyov, 23. Kal ol 
dyiou t5>v aylcov ol eyyL&vTes avr£ ovk d-noyoapovo-iv wktos ovre f 
a(f)(o~TavTai avrov. 



l8. (0€OpOW OHTV KpV<XToXklVOV opOS I9. <p\€yopl€VOl — idiv 20. wcpi- 

(JoXeov 21. eidetv — t5iv avrov 22. irapicrrrj/cu — ov8is eyyifr — p.vpic 

23. ayyeXoov — evyi£ovres — atyiaravr* 



18. After eBewpow Eth. adds iv avrS. oyffeoos. So I have emended 
opos. Eth. $*& implies 6n6s, 'the voice/ and so points to o^ecos. 
Hence, for 'the voices' read a vision. 19. Omit 0&£ with G 
and Giz. Gk., and for ' great throne ' read throne. ibwdadrjv. 
For ftjtflfc read hJZ>X\l\. Hence, for 'it was impossible* read 
/ could not. 21. els tov oIkov tovtov. Eth. omits. Kal Idelv. 
So G wChH. Din. gives corrupt reading &X?. 81a r6 evnpov 
Kal evdogov. Eth. AftfbCi (DftOrfh * of the Honoured and Glorious 
One.' But the Eth. is wrong. A should be changed into A 
with which it is constantly confounded. Thus we get an exact 
rendering of Gk. Hence, for 'the face of the Honoured and 
Glorious One ' read His face by reason of the magnificence and 
glory. 22. kvk\(o. Eth. 'around Him.' After avrw Eth. adds 

Xi^&A ' of those who.' Kal iras koyos avrov epyov. Eth. absolutely 
dissimilar, but the former is found in the Slavonic Enoch ; Eth. 
may therefore be presumed to be corrupt. For ^ftd G reads 
^JlC. Hence Eth. may have been Wltfcl L$>&\ a>3&\ fldC : 
cf. Pss. xxxiii. 9 ; CXV. 3 = Knl irav OeXrjpa. avrov epyov. 23. 01 ayioi 

ra>v aylcov. G reads fcMTi <P&(fi ' the holiness of the holy ones,' 
and this I have followed in my Trans. Better, however, to read 
ty&t\\\ frMl, and translate the holy ones of the holy, i. e. the 
archangels. ayiW. This is an emendation of dyyeXcov with Eth. 



348 The Book of Enoch. 

24. Kdyo) rjfjL-qv em tovtov em irpoo-coirov jjlov (3e(3XrjpLivo$ kcu 
rpifjLMV. kclI 6 KVpLOS 7(3 OTo'juan clvtov eKaXeaev fJLe Kal elirev not' 
TlpoaeXde (5oe, 'Ei>to)(, kcu tov Xoyov [jlov clkovo-ov. 2$. (nal 

7rpoo~€\6a>v fxoi ets t&v ayimv r\yeLpev /xe) Kal eaTiqaev p.e Kal 
TTpocrrjyayev pL€ fJLeyjpL r *7 s Ovpas' eyco he to Trpoaomov fxov kcltg) 

€KV(f)OV. 

XV. l. Kal airoKpiOtls elitev [xot [6 avdpaiiros 6 aXr]0Lvbs avdpo*- 
ttos rrjs aXtjOelas 6 ypafxpLarevs] kol ttjs (fxavrjs clvtov ijKOVcra' Mr/ 
<\)ofir\Qr\s 'Ev&x avOpaiiTos clXt^Olvos Kal ypa^arevs ttjs aXrjdeias, 
7rpoo~eX6e c55e Kal ttjs (fxavrjs fiov clkovo-ov. 2. TTopev6r]TL kol elire 
(rots Zyp-qyopoLs tov ovpavov) tols 7repL\j/ao-Lv ae (tov irepl clvt&v 
epoiTrfcrai)' epcorrjcrai vpias ebei irepl t£>v avOpunraiVj kol /uit) tovs 
avOptoiTovs irepl vpL&v. 3. 6ta tC aneXiiteTe tov ovpavov tov 
vxj/rjXdv tov ayiov tov al&vos, Kal /xera t&v yvvaLKcav eKoipL-qOrjTe, 
Kal juera tG>v OvyaTepoav t&v avOpcoiraiV epnavdr^Te Kal eXd^ere 
eavTols yvvalKas (kol) uxrirep viol ttjs yrjs eTroiija-are, Kal eyevvrj- 
craTe eavTols [reKva] vlovs yiyavTas ; 4. Kal vfjLels tJtc ayioi 



24. ks 25. tov ayiov — fcayco 

XV. 1. aKrjdeivos 2. avOpojiTQ} 3. air€\€in€Tou — &cvfiT)d7]Tcu — ekaPcrcu 



See Crit. Note, p. 82. wktos. So G. Din. adds 'and day/ 
24. PePkrjfievos. Eth. 7£v0fl>, i.e. 7repip\r)pa, but probably a cor- 
ruption of 7£V(M1 = nepififfiXrjpevos (?) or 7T€piKeKaXvppevos. As is 
clear from ver. 25, Enoch is prostrate. pefiXrjpevos, therefore, is 
to be accepted. Hence, for ' I had had . . . trembling ' read I had 
been prostrate on my face and trembling, clkovo-ov. See Crit. Note, 
p. 82. For Xoyov fxov a.Kovo-ov Eth. has Xoyov pov ayiov, where ayiov 
is a corruption of aKovo-ov. Hence, for ' hear My holy word ' read 
hear My word. 25. kol 7rpoo-€Xda>v . . . pe may be a gloss. 

XV. 1. 6 av6pa>7ros ... 6 ypapparevs. An erroneous repetition of 
later words. Add CD before fl£»rt* with Gk. and connect the words 
as in Gk. Hence, for ' with His voice : " I have heard, fear not," ' 
read and I heard His voice: * Fear not.' 2. Before nopevd. Eth. 
adds Kai, and omits it after it. After dire I have added with Eth. 
rot? eyprjyopois tov ovpavov, and after ae, tov it. av. epeoTrjaai. 3. Before 
&cnrcp I have added Kal with Eth. iavTols. Eth. omits wrongly. 
Strike out tckvo. 4. ay tot Ka\ irvevpaTa. G preserves this order, 



Appendix C. 349 

kcu 7n>€V/xa(ra) £<£>vra atcozna' kv t<5 atjtxart tG>v yvvaiK&v e/ouaz/- 
flrjre, Kat ez; affiari aapKos eyevvqa-are, kcll Iv atjmart avOptoirodv 
€iredv[JLri(raT€ (jccu €7roi7](rare) Kafla)? Kat avrot 7rotoi;o-tz; crdpKa kcll 
atjua, otrtz>es aTroQvr\(TKOV(Ttv Kat airoKkwrai' 5* ^"* toSto 

ebaiKa avTols OrjXeias, tva aireppLaTLaovcnv els avras kcll tckzxw- 4- 
(rovcrtz^ lz> aurats Ttnva, ovtcds tva jxrj eKAetTret clvtoIs irav fpyov 
cttI rrjs yrjs. 6. vjutets 8e vitripyerz irvevfjiafra) £&vra alcavia 

kcu ovk cnto6vr\(TKOVTa ets Trdaas tcls yeveas tov at<Sz>os. J. Kal 
bid tovto ovk iiroCrja-a ev vpXv 6y]\tias. tcl Trvevfxa^Ta) tov ovpavov 
€V rw ovpavto f] KaTOLKr}o~LS avT&v. 8. Kat vvv ol yiyavres oi 

yevvrjOivres dub tG>v 7:v€V[xdro)v Kal <rapKb$ Trvevfxa^Ta) Icrxypa 
(Kkr\6rio-ovTai) €7rt rrjs yrjs, Kal kv ttj yfj r) KaToiKrjo-is avrStv e<rrat. 
9. TTV€VfjLa(ra) 7Tovr]pd efrjA0oz> airo tov (rw/xaroy air&v, <5toVt airb 
t&v dv6p(OTT(t)v lykvovro Kal €K t&v dytodv kypiqyopuiv 77 dp\r] tt}$ f 
Krta-€ft)s avTav Kal apxv 6ep.c\iov (nvevpiaTa irovripd iirl ttjs yrjs 



4. e/JuavOrjrai — eyevqaare — airoW vvre 5 . OijXias — airepfiari £ovoiv — avrots 
6. virepxer* vfiuv 6r}\ias 9. e£c\6cw — avrco — avorepav — 



but Dln.'s text inverts. For nveufiara Eth. read irvevpariKoi. iv 
r» alftari. Eth. (l«£(l ' with/ Lods takes (l£(l as a corruption of 
(\£.ao = iv t<» aifxaTL. Before Kadas I have added with Eth. kcu 
inoirja-are. 5. reKvaxrovaiv iv aureus ri<va. £D«rt\£ of G supports this. 
Hence read J&a>«£v&, and for 'children . . . borne' read beget children, 
ha uf) . . . epyov. See Crit. Note, p. 83. Correct (llOfUPl into tpao*. 
6. After fie Eth. adds nporepov. 7. Before irveupara Eth. adds 8t6n. 
ra 7rvevpara r. oup. (&>\&Att*£~\, a corruption of OD*i&.(\lft m ?&. 
Hence, for ' spiritual ' read spirits of heaven. 8. emh ra>v nvevudroiv. 
G reads X^ }^^ (so read in Crit. Note, p. 83) = cmb rav \jruxwv. 
Better to vocalize thus : &avttft ! V. l(T X vpd. Probably a scribe's 
error for vKkrjpd : see ver. 1 1 . Eth. and Syn. Gk. 7rovrjpd, which is pre- 
ferable. After laxvpd I have added Khrjdrjo-ovrcu with Eth. and Syn. Gk. 
Kat iv 777 yfj. Syn. Gk. on eVi r.y. 9. Before irveupara Eth. adds Kat. 

i£rfk6ov. So Eth. Syn. Gk. ecrovrai ra nveupara ige\r)\v6oTa. aapa- 
ros avreov. So Eth. Syn. Gk. o-tt/xaros rrjs aapKos aurayv. rcov avarepaiv. 

So Eth. This I have, with Syn. Gk., emended into rS>v dv6p<a7ra>v. 
Hence, for ' from above ' read from men. iyivovro. So Syn. Gk. 
Eth. i*£T4«, which is bad. Better 1*0)£l.S«. 17 d Px fi rfs ktiWos 
aurcov. So Svn. Gk. Eth. omits r. KrLrtm. After 6eue\lou I have 



350 The Book of Enoch. 

Zaovrai)' Trvzvuara Trovrjpd KXrjOrjo-erai. 10. irvevp.a(Ta) ovpavov 
iv Tw ovpavu) rj KaroU^cris avr&v eonrou, kcu to. i7V€vy,ara [e7ri] ttjs 
yrjs to, yevvrjOivra im rfjs yijs (iv Trj yfj) 6 /caroi/c^cris clvt&v eorai* 

1 1. K.al tcl TrvevjJiaTa t&v ytyavroov vecf)ikas dhiKOVvra, dcpavi^ovra 
kcu tiATTLTTTovTa kcu crvpnraXaiovTa kclI crvppLTTTOvra inl tt]s yrjs 

•f [TrvevfAaTa <rK\r]pa yiyavrcav], kcu rp6p.ovs iroiovvra kcu fjL7}b€v 
iv6(,ov(Ta), (dAX' aa-iTovvra) .kcu outy&VTa kcu Trpoa-KOirrovTa 

12. kcu 7TV€Vfxa(ra) i^avao-rrjaeL ravra as rovs vlovs t&v avdpcoiriav 
f kcu tcls yvvcuKCts, otl i£ekr}kvQacriv an clvt&v XVI. I. a-Tro 

f}[j.4pas crcpayrjs kcu aTronXtias kcu Oavdrov (t&v yiyavTi&v) a<$> 

(aV TCL TTVeVpLaTa iKTTOp€VOpi€Va €K TT]S ^X^S T7JS (TCtpKOS CLVT&V 



k\t]$t](T€T€ 1 1 . evmirrovra — avviraXfovra — avvpmrovra — dpopovs — eaOuov 
= eaOtovT. — Stupowra 1 2. irvivpa /cat — efavaorijai — tojv yvvaiKouv 



added irvtvucvra irovrjpa. eVt tj)s yr)s caovrai, with Syn. Gk. and Eth. 
Before TrvevpaTa irov. Eth. adds KaL. vvevp. nov. Kk7]6r)(reTai. So Eth. 
Syn. Gk. omits. io. Syn. Gk. omits entire verse. Omit kiri 
after irvevfxara with Eth. After yrjs I have added iv tjj yg with Eth. 
?otcu (at close). Eth. omits. n. vecpeXas. So Eth.: a manifest 

corruption. See Crit. Note, p. 84. nveupara <tk. yiy. A gloss. 
For 8p6fiovs of Giz. and Syn. Gk. I have with Eth. IHi read 
rpopovs. dXX' acriTovvTa. So Syn. Gk. Eth. omits. After dcri- 
rovvra Syn. Gk. adds kcu (pdcruara ttoiovvtcl. diyjs&VTa. So Syn. Gk. 
and M. Other MSS. add a negative, but now I think with Lods 
and Din., wrongly. irpovKoirTovra. So Syn. Gk. Eth. J^^VOcD^t. 
This, as Din. shows, is a corruption of JE^T0W« = npoaK&nTovTa. 
Hence, for ' they will take no kind of food . . . invisible ' read they 
will fast and be thirsty and cause offences. 12. kol irvivaara. 

I have transposed with Syn. Gk. and Eth. ravru. So Eth. Syn. 
Gk. omits. For t£>v yvvaiKwv (so Syn. Gk.) I have read ras yvvalKas 
with Eth. After <D0& I have added K^WPao* with Giz. and Syn. 
Gk. dV avrcov. For fi<n> we should read Xy° as Din. proposes. 

XVI. 1. Before dno Syn. Gk. adds /cat. After Bavdrov add with 
Syn. Gk. and Eth. tS>v yiydvTw. After yiydvrav Syn. Gk. adds 
a gloss Nac^^Xei'/x . . . dvopaaToi. dtp' hv. Eth. ' whenever.' Syn. 
Gk. omits. Before eKnop. Syn. Gk. adds rd. ck ttjs ^vxrjs rrjs o-apxbs 
avTOiv. So Eth. See Crit. Note, p. 85. In Syn. Gk. the text 
is transposed. d7ro rrjt y^vx^s avr&v a>s £k ttjs aapKos should be read 



Appendix C. 351 

(o>s) ecrovrai aqbaviCovTa yapis KptVecos ovtcos a(j>avi(rov(riv /xe'xpts 
rjfjiipas reA.etcoa-ea)s rrjs KptWcos rrjs /xeyaArjs, h fj 6 aluv 6 joteyas 
TeAeo^o-erat. 

2. Kal rw typrjyopois rots irepL\f/a(TLv <re epconjo-at 7rept avrcSr, 
otrti/es e*> ovpavu r\crav' 3. i5yotets &> tw ovpavu ?]re, Kat 7ra^ 

fjLva-Trjptov [o] ovk c\v€Ka\v(j)6r] vpXv Kal [xvcrT-qpLov to Z£ov9evr)jjL€vov f 
cyrcoTe, Kat roSro kp.7]vvaare rats yvvai£iv kv rats crKkr]poKaphiais 
vpi&v. Kal €v tw fxvaT7]pC(D TOVT(j> irX-qOvvovo-Lv at 0?jA.eiat Kat 01 
avOpanroi ra kclkcl eirl r?)s yfjs. 4. et7roz> ow a^rots* Ovk !otii> 
etp^r;. 

XVII. I. Kat [?rapaA.a/3dVr€s] /ue ets rt^a tottov cnTrjyayov, Iv 
a> (ot oVres) eKet yivovrai a>s 7rvp (f>X4yov Kal orau 6iku)(nv 

(jiaiVOVTCLL 0)0-€t OLvOpOiTTOL. 



X.VI. 1. carat a<pav€i£ovTa — a<pavr)o~ov(riv — T€A*tu(t«us 2. aura/ 3.** 

row 6v yty€vr][ievov — e^evvffare — tovto = toutcu — OrjXiai 
XVII. I. f*ai = fie — <p\eywv 



dno Ttjs fax^s €K (*? Kat) rrjs crap/cos avToav cos. After avrcov add cos with 
Syn. Gk. and Eth. A. See my restoration of Eth. text on p. 85, 
where for Mi, read it \%, and for last two words read l*^ 17 ?!*: 
ttili OfljE. with Giz. Gk., and for * day when the great consumma- 
tion ' read day of the consummation of the great judgment. iv j. 
Bo Syn. Gk. Hence, with Din. for >v9 ot i(i9 v read Xlti "kCtf". 
With Giz. and Syn. Gk. strike out fcytWfc WlAfi. Hence, 
for ' day when . . . godless ' read day of the consummation of the 
great judgment in which the great age will be consummated. After 
T€\ea6r}(T€Tai Syn. Gk. adds e(j> arra^ 6fiov TeXeadrjo-erai. These words 
may be original. After tdM G adds Itfc £ i r4 9&°i h^^Yli 
(Dd(L0*ll Itfcl h9 v! t"b t i*l. 2. After drives Eth. adds nporcpov. 
3. I have omitted (D&X)hl, ' and now/ with Giz. Gk. nav 
fivarrjpiov [6] ovk avcKctkvfyBr) vfiiu. The sense is contrary to the 
Enoch tradition. By omitting 6 we get a text agreeing with Eth., 
and with the words of Clement oa-a re els yvaxriv avrcov atyiKTO. See 
p. 86 (note). to e< rov 6v yeyevrj/xevov I have emended into 
e£ovdevr}pevov=~Eth. 9*hA . These * worthless' secrets relate to the 
various arts of embellishing the human face, working metals, &c. : 
cf. viii. 1. 

XVII. I. dnrjyayov. Eth. J/"fr ' took away/ 01 ovres. Eth. 



352 The Book of Enoch. 

2. Kal airi\yayov fM€ els yvocjxabrj tottov kcll els opos ov f] K€(j)a\rj 
a(f)LKV€LTo els tov ovpavov. 3. Kal Ibov tottov tgjv (jxaaTripaiv 

[koi tovs 6r]o-avpovs t&v darepcoy] /cat tu>v fipovr&v [*at] etj ra 

f aKpa fiadr) ottov to£ov irvpbs Kal to. fieXrj Kal al diJKat avr&v 
. . . Kal al aaTpairal iracrat. 

4. Kal airriyayov jxe M^Xl 01 v§a™v (vvtuv Kal pe^pi irvpbs 
bvo-em, 6 kcrriv [/cat] Trapeyov irao-as tcls bvo-eus tov tjXlov. 5. /cat 
rj\6ov ju^x/ 01 noTaixov irvpos, ev a> KaTaTpe\ei to irvp o>s vbcop, Kal 
peei els Odkaao-av pLeyakrjv bvaecos. 6. Ibov tovs pieydkovs 

iroTafxov(s), (/cat /ue'xpt tov \xeydkov TTOTapiov) Kal /ue'xpt tov 
peyakov (tkotovs /carij imjo-a, Kal airrjkOov ottov iraaa o~ap^ [pv] 

t TTepnraTel. 7. Ibov tol oprj t&v yvocjxov to, xeip.epiva Kat tj}v 



2 . pai — {ocpwb'e — a<J>iKWTO 3. Orjffavpos — aepofiaOr) — ras Orjicas — ras 

aarpairas iraaas. 4. fJtai = /i€ — jrapexuv — Svais e,. T)\6ofxev 6. tovs 

ave/xovs — tovs x* l l i *P lvov s 



omits. 2. ypocpabrj. This is a happy emendation of M. Lods. 

As yv6<pos = ' turbo ' as well as ' caligo/ we have the explanation 
of Eth. ' the place of the whirlwind.' ov fj Ke<j>a\rj. Eth. supposes 
ov rj Kopv(pr) rrjs Ke(f)a\rjs. 3. tottov t. c/)o>ot. See Crit. Note, p. 87. 

Omit Kal before els with Eth. els to. aKpa fidOrj ottov. So G : O^ti'fi 
KRS&A 0m>*! 1(1 but that I have read h%S&. for ZRSGl 1(1. 
For ras 6rjKas and ras ao-TpaTras read with Eth. al OrJKai and ai 
do-TpairaL Hence, for ' at the ends . . . fiery bow ' read in the 
uttermost depths where were the fiery bow' &c. After avrwv Eth. 
adds Kal fxdxaipav nvpos. 4. After &vtwv Eth. adds a gloss 

H&tfilC 'so-called/ irape X ov. This is right. See p. 363 (notes). 
Eth. as napadexofxepov is wrong. 5. Bvo-eoos. Eth. = 7Tpos tt)v 

8vo-tv. 6. Before 'Ibov Eth. adds 'and/ Before tovs Eth. adds 
' all/ Kal pexpi tov peyaXov TroTafxov = the Styx. Eth. omits. 
Unless we are here dealing with a description of Hades, this 
clause is an interpolation. But as the whole context points 
to Hades, the words seem original, and for the same reason we 
must strike out ov after o-dpg with Eth. 7. Before tdov Eth. 
adds * and/ I have emended tovs avepovs into ra 6pr) } as these words 
seem corrupt, and are without the support of the context or any 
parallel : cf. lxxvii. 4, where the mountains of the hoar frost are 
mentioned. Possibly there is also an allusion to Jer. xiii. 16 



Appendix C. 353 

€Kyy<riv Trjs a/3v(T(Tov ttclvtcov vbaTcov. 8. tbov to crrofxa Trjs 

yrjs 7r&vT(6v t&v ttotcliicov Kal to o~TOfxa rrjs afivcro-ov. 

XVIII. i. "Ibov tovs 6t]travpovs tcov avepaov ttAvtcov. tbov on 
iv avTols iKoafxriarev nacras tcls kt((T€ls, kclI tov Otfxikiov Trjs yrjs, 
2. Kal tov kiOov tbov Trjs ycovtas Trjs yrjs. Ibov tovs reWaoaj 
aveyovs Tr\v yrjv fiao-T&CovTas Kal to orepeco/xa tov ovpavov 3. . . . 
. . . Kal avTol lo~Tao~iv pL€Ta£v yrjs Kal ovpavov (ovtol elcnv 01 
o-rvkoi tov ovpavov). 4. tbov avefxovs tcov ovpavcov aTpicpovTas 
Kal bvovras tov Tpoxpv tov fjkiov Kal iravTas tovs ao-Ttpas. f 
5. tbov tovs em Trjs yrjs avtfAOvs (3aaTa£ovTas tcls v€(pikas' (tbov f 
tcls obovs t&v ayyikcov') Ibov (irapa to) irepaTa Trjs yrjs to o~Tr\piyna \ 
tov ovpavov Ziravto. 

6. Uaprjkdov Kal Ibov tottov Katofxevov vvktos /cat fjpLepas, ottov 
to. kiTTa opr) airb kCOcov irokvTekcov (rpta) et? avaTokas Kal Tpia 
ds votov (fi6.kXovTa) . J. Kal Ta fiev Trpbs avaTokas cltto 

XiQov Yjoco/xaros, to be rjv cltto XiOov jxapyapLTov, Kal to airb kCOov 



XVIII. 2. \i$o — tiiavtvovras 3. eiaraciv 4. (So 5. iv v&pcXr] 

GTfpiyna 6. iceofievov — iroKvTckoj — rpis — fiaWoras 



&|5?} Y yn 'the mountains of darkness/ which might readily be 
regarded as mountains of Hades : cf. last clause of ver. 6. 
8. Before tbov Eth. adds ko.1. 

XVIII. 1. Before tbov (1st and 2nd) Eth. adds koL 2. After 
yr/s Eth. adds kcu. 3. Before Kal avroi add with Eth. koL tbov 
cos 01 avenoi i^eravov to v\jros tov ovpavov, omitted through hmt. 
eio-Taaiv emended in accordance with Eth. yijs k. ovp. Eth. trans- 
poses. After ovpavov I have added with Eth. ovtoI . . . ovpavov. 
4. Before tbov Eth. adds Kal. dvepovs tcov ovpavcov trTpecfiovTas. The 
Eth. text has been transposed. Hence read i^flfc Art^Jfc; 
Xft; J&dDj&m-, and translate the winds of the heaven which turn, 
bvovras. So I have emended with Eth. 5. Omit (D before 

ChJb in Dln.'s text with G and Giz. Gk. ras vccpeXas. This 
emendation is very doubtful as it has both G and Giz. Gk. 
against it, i. e. dfijaott = h vecpeXij. After ve(j>e\as -add with 
Eth. tbov . . . ayyehcov. Before nepara I insert irapa to. with Eth. 
6. /cat tbov tottov. Eth. read irpos votov Kal. The text has evi- 
dently been transposed and corrupted. wktos k. fjuepas are 
similarly transposed. fidkkovTa. Eth. omits. 7. XiOov radcv. 

a a 



354 The Book of Enoch. 

TaOev, to be Kara votov and kCdov irvppov' 8. to be pLeaov 

avT&v r\v els ovpavov &o~Tiep dpovos Oeov and kiBov <j>ovkcl, kcu fj 
Kopv(f>rj tov Opovov dnd kiOov aanfye'ipov. 9. Kal nvp Kaiopevov 

ibov Ka(neJKeiVa T&V 6p€(OV TOVTOiV. TO. TOnOS loTlV, Tl&paV 

t TTJs pieydkrjs yrjs' exet avvTekeo-Q^crovTaL ol ovpavoi. II. Kal 

1801; y&o~p,a \kkya ev tols {arvkois tov nvpds tov ovpavov Kal tbov ev 

t avTols) orvkovs tov nvpbs KaTafiaLvovT as' Kal ovk r\v [AtTpov ovre 
els (3a0os ovt€ els v\fros. 12. Kal eneKeiva tov yao-p.aTos tov- 
tov tbov tottoV) onov ovbe orepeoo/xa ovpavov endv(a oijTe yrj f/ 
TeOefxekKOjAevrj vnoKCLTO) avTov ovre vbap rjv vnd avT<2 ovre 
neTeivov, dkka Tonos rjv eprjpLos Kal fyofiepos* 13. eKei tbov 
eiTTa ao~Tepas w? opt] fxeydka Kaiofieva. 

Ylepl &v 7TW0avoixev(o /xoi 14. etnev 6 6.yyekos' Ovtos 

ecrTLV 6 tottos to Tekos tov ovpavov Kal (tt}s) yrjs' beo-p.(£Tr\piov 



8. avT<u — Qvos 6v — ffa<fx]>ipov 9. Kcofievov 10. irepas II. fts tovs 

ctv\os ( = avrois arvkovs) 12. yrjv 77}v TcOefxeXicunevrjv — avro = avT(u 13. 
Kcofteva — irvOavojxaiov fxoi 



Eth. X»flf: &SD*l\ ' antimony ' or ' stone of healing/ raBev is 
possibly a corruption of dxar^rrtaip, the agate. Eth. seems to 
rest on an emendation of radev into idrov or larpelas. 8. Xidov 
(frovKa. We have here a transliteration of ^3 : cf. 1 Chron. xxix. 2. 
9. Ka(iv€)K(iva. So M. Lods emends and, so far as I can see, rightly, 
but he connects them wrongly with the next verse. Eth. <DHUA°: 
ahft't=Kcu o ia-Tt iv seems wrong. Correct H"rt*, 'all/ into Xrt*, 
1 those/ with Gk., and for ' which was in all the mountains ' read 
also beyond those mountains. As M. Lods observes, the translator 
does not seem to have understood eneKeiva : cp. xviii. 1 2 ; xxiv. 2 ; 
XXX. 13 ; xxxi. 2. IO. tottos iaTiv. Eth. Kal'ldov inel totvov. ovpavoi 
See Crit. Note, p. 89. 11. x&rpa pcya. See Crit. Note, p. 89. 

After peya I have added with G o-tv\ois tov irvpos tov ovpavov ml l8ov 
(v avTols, omitted through like beginning. «$■ tovs. A corruption 
for iv toIs. Omit with G the second rt^YJfc, and for ' heavenly fire 
fall' readme fall, perpov. Eth. •J^^V^ ' number.' 12. eneKeiva. 
Eth. £(l ' over.' See ver. 9 (note). Kal fofcpos. These words are 
wrongly connected with ver. 1 3 by Eth. Hence for ' waste . . . 
horrible' read waste and horrible place. 13. / saw. For nepl 
a)v nvvOavopevco poi Eth. = kcu a>s Trvevpara Trvvdavopevd pov. 14. 



Appendix C. 355 

tovto kyivtro rot? aarpoLS Kal ratj bvvdpLto-LV tov ovpavov. 15. *at 

Ot CL(TT€p€S 01 KVkl6pL€V0L €V T(3 TTVpl OVTOL €l(TLV ol 7Tapa(3aVT€S 

TTpoarayixa Kvpiov kv dpxjj ttjs avarokrjs avr&v, [ort tottos e£a) 
rod ovpavov Kevos eartz/j ort ovk i^fjkOov h rot? Kaipols clvt&v. 
16. Kal wpyiadt] avTols Kal tbno-ev avTovs p>£XP L KatpoS reAetwo-ecos 
[avra>i>] ap.apHas avr&v, iviavT&v pLVpionv. XIX. 1, Kat 

tlitiv [aol Ovpirik' 'EvOdbe ol payivTes dyyekoi rats yvvai^lv o~rrj- 
crovTai' /cat to. Ttvevp.ara avT<av, TToXvpLopcfra yevopieva, Aujuaiyerat 
tovs dvOp&irovs Kal irkavricrei avTovs €ttl6v€lv toIs baipioviois (a>s 
dcols) /xex/ot (rrjs fjpLcpas) ttJs fxeydkrjs Kpiaem, h fj KpiBr^crovraL 
els aTTOTekeiaicriv. 2. Kal at yvvatKes avr&v, t&v irapafiavTav 

ayyikoov, els o-etprjvas yevqaovTat. 

3. Kdya> 'Eva^ tbov ra Qeo>pr\p,ara fxovos, rd irepara irdvTioV 
Kal ov per} Iby ovbe els dvOpcaiHav a>? eyoa tbov. 



1 5. KoiXiofxevoi — irapa^ovns — kv 16. opyiaOr] — TcXicocecws 

XIX. I. kvjxevcTai — irkavrjoi — airoreKtouoiv 2. oipqvas 3. G 2 

avOpctiirov os ioj eiSov 



After hTfrflt=acrrpois omit (\°H^ with G and Giz. Gk. Hence, 
for 'stars of heaven' read stars. 15. For )\9°$S:ao read 

\avty£.aD — iv dpxjj, and for 'before their ri&ing' read in the begin- 
ning of their rising, ort tottos . . . io-Tiv. A gloSS. 1 6. eviavrav 
pvptW. Eth. (WOD-Fl y D ^*'aLC = eVtai;Ta) pvoTT/piov. xxi. 6 sup- 
ports Giz. Gk. Hence, for ' in the year of the mystery ' read ten 
thousand years. 

XIX. I . See Crit. Note, p. 90. Kai to. ttv. avrav, 7ro\vpop(f)a. Eth. 
wrongly transposes the CO, 'and/ and prefixes it to •OH^. 
Xvnaiverm. Eth. hClfrftPav. This is a bad rendering. After 
daifiovlois I have added with Eth. as Oeols. After pe'xpi I have 
added Ttjs Tjpepas with Eth. (Is dnoT(\(ioaaiv. Eth. = /zexP* aTTOTeXe- 
adrjO-ovTai. 2. rcov irapafiavTatv dyyeXoov. Eth. Corrupt. First, with 

G strike out A^Jfc, ' of heaven/ and read m>4tart\ For AftrM-1 
read ftdhfl. Thus we have an exact rendering of Gk. (If 
o-eip^vas. G hm>; (Mntt = cos clpr)vaiai, but this clearly has 
arisen from a misunderstanding of tls o-eiprjvas or from the loss of o- 
in aaprjvas. Hence read the verse thus: And the women of those 
angels ivho went astray will become sirens. As M. Lods points out, 
the <r*ipi)v and the Lilith or female demon are here probably identi- 
fied. 3. After 'tdrj GM add UChJtb—o Wov. As M. Lods points 

a a 2 



356 



The Book of Enoch. 



XX. I. "AyytXoL t&v hvva- 
jiecov. 2. OvpLrjX 6 €ts t&v ayioav 
ayyikoav 6 cttI tov Koafxov kclI 
tov Taprapov. 3. 'Pa(f>ar]\ 6 ely 
t&v hymv ayy4X(t>v 6 iirl t&v 
TTV€VfxaTa)v t&v avOpwTroav. 4* 
'PayovrjA. 6 els t&v ayicav ayyi- 

t \(*>V 6 €KhlK&V TOV KOa-fXOV T&V 

cj)(a(TTrjpo)v. 5- Mixar)A. 6 el? 
t&v ayiwv ayyiXoav iirl t&v 
tov \aov ayaO&v Terayfxivos 
t [*at] iirl r(o Aaw.. 6. 2aptr)\ 6 
els raw aytcov ayyiXozv 6 kiii 
t&v TrvevfJLCLTOdv oXtlvcs em t& 
77V€VfxaTL apLapTdvovcriv. J. Ta- 



XX. %. 6 et? raw ayiW ay- 
ytXoav 6 €7rl rot; Kocrpiov koX tov 
TapTapov. 3. *Pa^)ar)A. 6 el? raw 
ayitov ayyiXotv 6 e7rl twv irvev- 
fj.6.T(i)v t&v avOptoircov. 4. c Pa- 
yovrjX 6 els t&v aymv ayyeXoov 

6 €KblK&V TOV KOO-fJLOV T&V <()(£>&- f 

TiqpaiV. 5- Mt^ar)\ 6 ei? raiz; 
ayioav ayyikmv bs €irl t&v tov 
\aov aya6&v reVa/crai [/cat] ZttI 
tw A.aa>. 6. SaptrjA. o els raw f 
ayttov ayy£\<£V 6 eiii t&v irvev- 
fJLO,T(OV otTLVtS €7[\ t& irvevfxan 
cLfxapTavovaLV. J. Taj3pLT}\ 6 



XX. I. TO) 4. efcStlKOJV TO 

em tov tov — x acu 



XX. 2. os — orei 3. ayycXuv — 

67T€t ITVVTOiV aVTTWV 4. TOV 

€K€kojv 5. firjxarjK o as tov — eim 
tov tov — x ao) 6. to ay tov — irvaTOiV 
oiTeivcs eiret toj ir . . . ti 



out, the quotations from Clement and Origen given in my note 
p. 91, are not derived from this verse. 

XX. 1. ayyikoi tQ>v dvvdfieav. Eth. ' And these are the names 
of the holy angels who watch.' 2. See Crit. Note, p. 91. 

3. 6 hti Eth. H, (the angel) ' of/ 4. €k8ik5>v. So emended in 
accordance with Eth. See, however, note on xxiii. 4 below. 
t. Koa-fxov t&v cj)a>o~T. Better than Eth. t. Koa-fxov uA t. (fxoo-Trjpas. 
Hence for ' world and ' read world of. 5. Omit km before M 
with Eth. I have emended x a(0 ) which is a vox nulla, into Xa& 
with Eth. 6. 2apir)\. Eth. Saraqael. tS>v nvevpaTav oItivcs Ir) t<5 
Wei/pan afiapTdvova-iv. Correct and Eth. corrupt, but easy of emenda- 
tion. First, for cn>££ftt" read mx^fl^ with G, and strike out as 
a gloss X3A; Xavfhfa).. Next, for Htn><T$ftt read Hn<n>C$n* 
and ?*f T& with A B C D E. We have thus an exact rendering 
of Gk. These angels are possibly the Satans who sinned through 
pride. The other angels sinned through lust, i.e. through the 
body. Hence, instead of 'spirits of the children of men whose 
spirits have sinned' (this rests on an emendation) read spirits 
which have sinned in spirit. 7. See Crit. Note, p. 92. dpaKovrcov. 



Appendix C. 



357 



/3ptrj\ 6 et? t5>v aymv ayyikuv ei? tS>v ayCav ayyikoav 6 eVt 

o[?J e7rt roS Ttapabziaov Kal t&v tov 7rapabeCa-ov Kal tQv bpaKov- 

bpcLKOvTav kcu x^pov(3iv (apyay- tow Kal x^povfiCv. ('Pe/uetTjA (6) 

yikoiv ovofxara eTrrd) . XXI. I . € ^ ™ * Ayfrw ayytkoov bv fragev 

Kal tydbevaa eW rrjs aKata- * e *° s *** r<Sz; avtara^vaiv ovo- 

o-Kevdarov, 2. k&kci iOeaxrAmv P aT *C &PX*YY&a»>>. XXL I. 



cpyoi; <j)ofi€p6v ecopa/ca otrre 



Kal €<p(abev(ra fx^xpi rrjs aKara- 



o-Ktvao-TOV, 2. kol e/cet e0ea- 
ovpavov tiravo) ovre yrjv re- , y 

, n , ,■" &&MP epyov <£o/3epoV UpaKa 

fleauat re0eueAta)uej/ni>, aAAa v , N , , v 

J r owe ovpavov eiravo) ovt€ yrjv 

roirov aKaraa^acrrov Kal <\>o- red^kico^v, aAAd rSirov 

/3epoV 3. Kal €K€l re0eV«i aKarao-Kevaoroi; Kal c^epoV 

cnra [r<Si>] aa-ripas rod ovpavov 3. Kat eW re0e'a/xat f aorepas 

bebefxivovs [Kat ept/xjixeVous] ez> ro ^ ovpavov bebefxivovs [Kat 

t avra> (o/u,oi3) 6>otW opea-tz; jue- *P*W*&«H*3 ^ a$r# (6>oi5) 

ydAots Kal fe irvpl Kato/xeWs. ****** ° V/}e(rti; **>«&<>« *«* ^ t 



4. roYe etiroz;' Aid iroiav alriav 



irvpl Kaiofxtvovs. 4. TOT€ zittov' 



Ata 7rotai; atrtai; eirebid-qcrav 
€TreO€drjo-av ; Kat ota rt <S8e ept- v fe v , , , , ,, 

r Kat ota 7T0t.av aunav epuprfo-av 

facrav; 5. ro're to Jtoi O*- 3^. 5# K al eZire'z^ot Ofy^A 
pt??A, 6 ets t<Si> dytW dyyeAcoz; 6 flj tw dyiW ayyz\uv 6 /xer' 
6s /xer' ejutoi; 772; Kal avros ^yetro e/ioC a>y Kat avroj avr<3z/ ^yetro 

7. ayy(\o) — irapadtaov — dpaKovroj- — 7. Tov — irapatiiaov — tov Spa/covTcov — 

Xepovfiu J s — €tt« 

XXI. 3. affrepcuv — opaaiv — /ceo- XXI. 1. [i*XP H — o-KaTara&Kivaarov 

pAvovs 4. tiraibiOrjaav 2. ore 3. reOeapua — opaoei pteyaXrj 

— /ceopievovs 4. aiTuav ein]dT]9r)<Tcv 
5. tov ayiov — rjyiro —<- 

These are probably winged serpents or D^Qlb' Seraphim mentioned 
in Is. xiv. 29 : xxx. 6 (see Delitzsch in he). The subject will 
recur in the Slavonic Enoch. After x e P ov & v Eth. omits 'PefiurjX 
. . . eWra : cf. xc. 21. These clauses seem original. 

XXI. I. ecfiuidevcra. Eth. fc&lh= eKi/KKoocra. 2. iirava>. See Crit. 
Note, p. 92, where for erroneous (Dll([ tn ?& read (Dfu([ at iP>. 

3. Kal epififievovs seems a gloss due to ver. 4. After auT<5 add 6p.ov 
with Eth., omitted before 6p.oiovs. Strike out \l(fl> in (Dhcn> with 
G and Gk., and for ' flaming as with fire ' read flaming with fire. 

4. alriav (? for dpLaprlav). Eth. f (llift * sin ' : cf. ver. 6. 

5. ^yeiTo avrav. Eth. j&in>CUt 'he led me' a corruption for 



358 



The Book of Enoch. 



ai5rcoj>,K<n€i7rez;fxoi- *Ev<*X i V€f>L 

tlvos epoiras ; r) irepl tlvos ttjv 
aXriOtiav fyiXocmevheis ; 6. ov- 
toL el<nv tG>v aaripcdv tov ovpa- 
vov ol TiapaftavTes tt)v Z-MTayriv 
tov Kvpiov Kal thiO-qaav <S8e 
/jte'x/ot tov TrX-qp&araL [ivpia errj, 
tov xpovov t5>v aixapTripLaToav 
avr&v. 7. KaKeWev tytobevaa 
ds aXXov totiov tovtov (fyofitpco- 
Tepov, Kal T€0iafiai epya (pofie- 
p(oT€pa' TTvp \iiya e/cet KCUOfAevov 
Kal (frXeyoixevov' Kal btaKOir^v 
d^v 6 TOTTOS ecos ttjs afivcrcrovj 
+ 77X77/0175 (ttvX(*)v Ttvpbs pLtyaXcov 

KaTa(j)€pOfxivO)V' OVTtfJLeTpOVOVTC 

ttXAtos 7\hvvr\0r]V ihtlv ovhe ei/ca- 
o~ai. 8. tot€€itiov' '£2s (frofiepos 



Kal ZlltZV pLOL' 'E^wx, K€pl TWOS 

€p(tiTq9 rj TT€pl tlvos TTjv aXr]6€Lav 
(piXocmevbtLS ; 6. ovtol elo-iv 
t5>v aaTtpcxiv tov ovpavov ol 
■rrapafiavTes tt\v eirtTay-qv tov 
KVpCov Kal Zb{dr)o~av (58e /xe'xpi 
irXrjptodrjvaL pjupia erTj, tov \po~ 
vov t&v apLapTTipLCLTaiv ai)T(OV. 
7. KaKeWev i(p(abevcra els b\XXov 

TOTTOV TOVTOV <pofitpOiT€pOV Kal 

re^ea/xat i-pya cf>o(B€pa' irvp p.£ya 
eK€t KaLopLtvov Kal (f)Xey6pL€V0V m 
Kal biaKOTT-qv eix €r ° tottos €ods 
ty)s a(3vo-(rov, TrXrjprjs o~tvX(ov 
irvpbs pLeydXcov KaTa^po\xiv<aV I 
ovt€ pirpov ovTe p.£ye6os i)hv- 
vrjOrjv Ibeiv ovtc eiKaorai. 8. 

TQT€ €LTTOV' *12? (froficpOS 6 TOTTOS 



6. kv 7. Kcofxevov — arvWcov — 

fieya\ov KaTCKpaipojJtevov 8. opaat 



a\r)9iav — <pi\ooirevdis 6. ks — 

/JieXP €t 7- TcOeajAC — otvWojv — fieya- 
\ov Karcupepon — Tjtiv . . . 6r}v — ub*w 
8. enro — <po&T)pos — 



QavClPaQ* ' was chief over them ' : cf. xxiv. 6 ; lxxii. i ; lxxiv. i . 
Uriel is over Tartarus, xx. 2. Hence he is in charge of these 
punished angels. ir^pi ™W rrjv akrjfciav (p-ikoanevdets ; Eth. corrupt. 
First strike out (D^liKPi with G. We have then flXW; en>J.; 
^fn»jE#; (D^ftVty. Here *V(ll>&P is manifestly a corruption of 
Tf% = Triv d\r]6eiav. Hence for 'why dost thou enquire and art 
curious ' read wliy art thou eager after the exact truth ? 6. errj. 
Eth. 9Ay° 'age/ clearly a corruption of 'iF 'a year/ Hence 
for 'ages' read years. top xp° vov ' Eth. =6 dpiB^os tS>v fjfiepwv. 
7. SiaKoirrjv eixcv 6 tokos. See Crit. Note, p. 93. After ovdi add with 
Eth. Ovpfaj*. In Eth. llXilbi \%C\ 0&h, ' I was not able to see its 
origin,' \KG is an intrusion and 0£J« is a corruption of (M^P= inf. 
of 0?t (=6ticaff«» in Wisdom ix. 16). Hence for ' was I able to see 
its origin' read cou Id I conjecture. 8. dcivds. Hence for rh^yy 
I have read thv*9° with G. 9. After airtKpWt) pu I have added 



Appendix C. 359 

6 TOTTOS KCU G)S btLVOS T7} 6pCL(T€L. OVTOS KCU 0)? bttVOS TYf OpdcTtl. 

9. Tore &S€Kpl(6ij) jjlol (OvptrjX.) 9. Tore cmzKpidir] fxoi kcu €L7T€v 

6 el? t&v ayCcov ayy£\a>v 05 [xer 

efxov tfv, kcu elirev 

fxot' 'Eva>Xi ^« tl tcpofiridris ovt(i)s kcu iiTToriOrjs ; kcu aTteKpi6r)(v)' 

llept T0VT0V TOV <po(3€pOV (toTTOv) KCU TT€pl T7J9 7T/)0Cr0\/reft)S TTJS 

beivrjs. IO. Kal enrey* Ovtos 6 tottos Seo-jLuorrjpioz; c\yy4\(»v. 

w5e avcryjeOrio-ovTCti (jue'x/H kvbs} els tov ai&va. 

XXII. I. KaKtWev icjxabevaa et? akkov tottov, kcu eSeifeV jxol 
TTpos bva-fjLas [aAAo] opos piya kcu v\lfr}\bv (kcu) irirpas oreped?. 

2. KOL T€(T(Tap€S T07T0L €V CLVT<i) K0IX.OL, fi&6oS (kCU TtX&TOs) €\0VT€S 

kcu Kiav Aetot, (r/)etj avr&v (TKoretzW, kcu el? cf)(OT€Lvos, kcu 
irnyr] vdaTos ava \xk<rov avrov. Kal eiirov'} II<3s Aeta ra KOtXcofxara 



o) ( = wy) 9. G 1 6(7T6 — G 2 ends with ciitcv — aire/cpadrj 10. SeapwTrjpicuv 

XXII. I. €<po8evffa — ciffrepeas 2. \etav Xioi rpis — chtkotivoi — (pwrivos 

— Xia — 

with Eth. ' Uriel/ Kal emeu. Eth. = dne KpiOrf p.oi Kal eine'v fioi. 

Here Eth. has transposed the words ml dircKpidrjv and placed them 
before Kal efoev. Hence omit ' answered and/ place the note of 
interrogation after alarm, and for ' at this horrible . . . pain ' read 
and I answered : ' Because of this horrible place.' ncpl ttjs irpoa-o^as 
rfjs deivtjs. Eth. seems corrupt or a mistranslation. *$£:aD\ 7&: 
A"H; th^t? . Better render with Gk. because of this hideous 
spectacle, QXIfH; 19t\ chv*?°. 10. After eh™ Eth. adds poi. 
Before Sfic Eth. adds Kal. 

XXII. 1. Before nerpas Eth. adds mi. 2. koXKoi. Eth. 

W^f*?, 'beautiful/ wrongly reading koXoL We must further 
change the punctuation of Eth. text and begin ver. 2 with (D§. 
After pd6os add with Eth. Kal nAdros. Omit (D before (lahli'fct 
with Gk. Hence, for 'four beautiful places . . . perfectly smooth,' 
read there were in this (mountain) four hollow places, deep, 
wide, and very smooth. After Aeloi Eth. omits through hmt. 
rpels avrcov (tkotcivoL, Kal els <j)a>Teiv6s, Kal Trrjyrj vdaros ava p.£(rov avrov. 
Kal elirov. Hence, insert after 'very smooth '(see note on preceding 
verse) Three of these were gloomy and one bright and there 
was a fountain of water in its midst. And I said. ivws Xctd = 
Eth. hff»; £VffI*R\ to. KoiXufiara ravra. Eth. Hf*ifo>dltG implies 



360 The Book of Enoch. 

Tama Kal oXofiadea Kal o~kotzivol rfj 6pd(T€L. 3. Tore aireKpCdn 

'Pac/mrjA, 6 els r&v aytW dyye'Acoz/, 6s juer e/otov 172;, Kat eureV /mot* 
Owot ot roVot ot KotAot, fo>a €7rtcrwaycoi;rat ets avrous ra irvevpLara 

t rci>i> \j/vx&v tQ>v v€Kp£>v, ets avro roCro CKTio-Orjo-av, c58e kTnavvayea-- 
Bai iraaas ras ^uxas t&v dvOpcairoiv. 4. Kal ovrot ot tottol fit 

t €inavcrx* (Tt ( j; ) clvt&v knoiriOno-av /bte'xpi ttJs fj^pas ttjs KptVecos 
avT&v Kal /mexpt roS biopta-fxov Kal bLcopKTfjLtvov XP° V0V *v <o ^ 
Kpicris fj /xeyaA?7 carat ez; avrots. 

t 5» Te0ea/utai (77J>eSjLia) avOpvirov veKpov (ivTvyxdvovros) , Kal 
fj (fxtivrj avrov pLtXP 1 T °v ovpavov trpoifiaivev, Kal £v€Tvyxav€V 

t 6. /cat riptoTrio-a 'Pa^arjX tov ayytXov, 6s /xer' kfxov fjv' Kal etua 

f airy' Tovto to TrvevjjLa (to tVTvyxdvov), tlvos £<ttIv, ov ovrcos fj 
<\>oavr\ avrov 7r/)o/3atVet Kat ivrvyxdvei (eW tov ovpavov) ; 7. Kal 
cnrtKpCdri juot AeyaW Tovto to Trvevpid €o~tlv to ZgeXObv cltto y A/3eA, 
ov tyovevo-tv Kdeiv 6 d8eAc/>o's. Kat ( v A/3eA) evrvyxdvet irepl avrov 



oXofiaOr) — opaai 3. (mffvvayovrai — CKpeiOrjffav — to) = tqjv 4. €m<rvi/(Tx«Ti 

— (TTOirjffav — SiopHTjxtvov 5. avOpunovs vercpovs — wpoe0ivev 6. -qpooTrjaiv 

— 81 o — irpofievvi 7. aircKpeiOrj — efcXOow — 



KvicXapara or KvXlapara, but KotAwpara is right: cf. koIXoi roiroi in 

vv. i, 3. Hence, after 'And I said' (see above) for 'as smooth 
as something which rolls,' read How smooth are these hollow places. 
oXofiadea. Eth. =0a0ea. 3. After aweKpiOri Eth. adds poi. koIXoi. 

Eth. wrongly read kuXoL I have rendered with Gk. to. 7n/eu/zara. 
See Crit. Note, p. 94. els airo toCto. SoG: A°*F; "HH:. After 
yf/vxds Eth. adds rav viS>v. 4. inoi^crav. Here Eth. and Gk. 
agree in giving the same corrupt reading evoir/aav, 7«fl4«. After 
nexpt. tov diopiaixov Eth. adds avT&v. After xp°W Eth. adds a gloss 
fl*X*Fl O&fi. iv a. Eth. = eW, but less good. Hence, for 'this 
appointed period is long, till ' read till the period appointed, in 
which. 5. This verse is defective and corrupt in Gk. and Eth. 
I have adopted M. Lods' emendation in the text. Apparently, 
we should emend Eth. accordingly, i.e. CMbl <n>l£rt; frflX: 
^°ff>*T; XlH; &tllli (D&ib, I saw the spirit of a man who was 
dead complaining and his voice, &c. 6. For <ai Eth. reads 
' this time '= rdre. ov. A necessary correction of 81 o. 7. After 
aneKpier) Eth. adds kcu «W After dbeXQos Eth. adds avrov. 



Appendix C. 361 

jue'xpi rod airokiadai to cnrepfxa avTov airb TTpoo-(oirov ttjs yrjs kcll t 
cltto tov cnripfjiaTos t&v avOptoiroiv acfravio-Orj to cnrepfxa avrov. 

8. Tore ^pcarna-a (ir€pl avrov kclI) irepl t&v /coiA.a)/xar&>z; iravTu>v' t 
Alcl tC e^picrOrjaav kv and tov hos ; 9. kclI aireKpCdr] jiol 
\4y(ov' Ovtol oi rpeis kitoir\6r)(rav x°>pL(€o-6ai tcl irvevpLara t&v 
vtKp&v' kclI ovT<os(€)xa>pLo-Or] ds tcl TTV€vp,aTa t&v biKa£(Dv, ov fj irnyr} 
tov vhaTos {rrjs fcorjs) Iv aura) (/xoreiurj. 10. mat ovtms €ktlo-0t] f 
rots afxapTtoXoLS, orav airoOdvoicrLV /cat Taqb&aLV ei? tt)v yrjv kclI 
Kpio-is ovk tytvrjdri eV clvt&v h rfj (cofj avr&v, II. c55e X 60 /^" 
ferat ra TTV€vp,aTa clvt&v els ttjv pieydXrjv {3do~avov Tavrrjv /xe'xpi 
Tjjs pL€yakr)s fjjJLepas rrjs Kpio-ea>s, t&v fxao-Tiycov kcll t&v (3ao-dvo)v 
t&v KCLTripapLevcov p^xpt a i&vos (kcll) rrjj avrairoboaecos tu>v rnsev- f 
fxcLT(ov' €Ket brjo~€L clvtovs /mexpis ai&vos. 13. kcll ovtcos kyapLo-Or) 
rot? TtveviAacrLv t&v kvTvy\avovT(av, oltlvzs kiupavL^ovaLV 7repi ttjs 



airokeaat 8. KVKKcopxirojv — r\v — aiavos 9. rpis — <p<unvq 10. tojv afiap- 
t<u\<u — Kpiaeis II. x a} P Ci C €Tai — aiwos rjv avrairodaxreis 12. (V(pavi£ovaiv 



"A/3eA. Eth. omits. 8. Before rore Eth. adds 'and therefore.' 
After rjparrjaa Gk. wrongly omits 7repl avrov Kai = QXl'tftU*; CD, 
where avrov refers to the division in which Abel was. Koi\<ap.drav. 
So I have emended KVKkeopdrav ; for (1) the same corruption is 
implied by Eth. text in ver. 2 ; and (2) whereas KvicXapdrcov does 
not give a good sense, Koika>pAra>v is supported by vv. 1,2, and 3. 
See ver. 2 (note). For KoiXcopdrav Eth. followed a corrupt reading 
Kpipdrcov. Hence, for ' I asked regarding him and regarding the 
judgment of all ' read / asked regarding it and regarding all the 
hollow i)laces. I have omitted fflhfk with G and Gk. 9. For 
i(£(lao* read Acn>*}£flcnH = ds ra nvevpara. *H(D«2i*F is a corruption 
of HahX% *aCVTi of »(14Ti or »fl«J = $*rw*. After rov vdaros 
I have read rrjs farjs with G °HR\ chJ^fD^. Hence, for ' and the souls 
of the righteous . . . light above it ' read and thus a division is made 
for the s])irits of the righteous in which there is a bright spring of 
the water of life. 10. koL Eth. (Uim>. 11. Omit CD before 
am with G and Gk. For iGbWa* we should read fn>C$fitlF a* 
with Gk. ra nvfvpara avra>p. Hence, for ' souls ' read spirits (twice). 
/Mc'xpt alaivos (ko\) rrjs dvra7ro86(recd$. So I have emended with Eth. 
For 'revilers' we may equally well translate accursed. 12. I have 
omitted cDXm>Li ahftVi Jt^°^cn); ^Ay° as a gloss. Omit a)(l 



362 The Book of Enoch. 

cnnoktias, otclv (f)ov€v9&cnv kv rats f]p,£pais rS>v apapTis>\&v. 
1 3. (/cat) ovToas $KrC<r&t) toi? TTV€vp.ao~iv t&v dv0pa>7r<ov ocroi ovk 
€(rovTai oaioi dAA.' d/xaprcoAoi oaoi (0A01) dor€/3et?* /cat juerd t&v 
avofMov Zcrovrai fxiroxoL' ra be 'nvevp.aTa [on ol hOdbe 6\i- 
fiivT€s eAarroz; KoXd(ovrai] avr&v ov TLpLcoprjOrio'OVTaL iv rj^pa 
rrjs KpL(T€m ovbe [xr] ixzreyepQ&aiv kvTtvQzv. 1 4. rore rjv\6yr)(ra 
tov Kvpiov tt)s bo&s not eura* EvXoyrjTos et, Kvpte, 6 rfjs bbKaio- 
0~VVT}S KVpL€VO)V tov al&vos. 

XXIII. I. KaneWev ecfxabevcra €ts aXXov tottov irpos bvo~pds 
t&v 7T€paT(av rrjs yfjs' 2. kclI eOeaadpirjv iivp biarpi^ov kclI ovk 
t dvairavofxevov ovbe iWtLTiov tov bpopiov f]p.tpas kclI vvktos dAAd 
biafievov. 3. kcu rjp^Trjo-a Kiyoiv' Tt €<ttlv to p,r} e\ov dvd- 

Travcriv ; 4. tot€ diT€Kp(6r] p.01 'PayomjA, 6 els t&v ayioav 

dyye\(ov, bs /xer e/xoO %v Ovtos 6 bpopos tov Ttvpbs to irpbs bvo-fxas 
irvp to eKbi&Kov eo-Ttv tt&vtcls tovs (fro&o-Trjpas tov ovpavov. 



13. Okeifievres — TeificoprjOrjaovTat 14. kv — ice 

XXIII. 2. Starpex<uv — avaireofievov — evXenrov — cl/m 3. ex<*>v 

4. eKdioo/cav — naras 

before Xrt. with G : cf. drives. 13. Eth. omits k<u before ovroos. 

For l^^OD*, * souls,' we should read twice in this verse ao*\Lt\ao* 
= 7rvei>[j.a<riv, spirits. Before dcrefteh add 6X01 with Eth. QHFth . 
It could easily fall out after oo-ot. peroxoi. Eth. h^lF ao* = 

opotoi avrois or eavroh. on ol ev6dbe BXifievres eXarrov KoXdgovrat. 

' For those who suffer here are punished less/ This is an explana- 
tory marginal gloss thrust into the text. TipayprjOrjo-ovTat. Eth. 
MfWA ' will be slain.' pereyepdao-ip. I. e. ' rise with ' the rest. 
Eth. 'rise.' 14. With G I have omitted OhftV, iMldrVi at and 
fffr*. el Probably wrong. 3rd pers. used almost universally in 
the Enochic doxologies: see xxii. 14 (note, p. 96). For Kvpie, 6 rrjs 
8iKaioo-vvT]s } Eth. read Kvpios pov, 6 Kvpios rrjs diKaioo-vvrjs, which 
is better. 

XXIII. 1. Before tS>v nepdroav Eth. adds %rfih= pexpi. 2. After 
irvp Eth. adds (f>Xey6pevop. dXXd. So emended with Eth. from 
apa. 4. After epov rjv Eth. adds zeal ehev pot. Rest of verse 
difficult. First as to the text. Before 8p6pos Eth. adds HCh.h = 
61/ eldes, and omits wrongly rod nvpos after dpopos. Again, Hj^J^jC* 
is obviously a corruption for H£fl»£\£* = rd endi&Kov. eKdi&icov 



Appendix C. 363 

XXIV. I. (KcLKeWzv icfxabevo-a els aXXov tottov rrjs yrjs) Kal 
*d€i£4v [jlol oprj irvpbs Kcuofjieva. . .vvktos. 2. /cat kireKtiva avr&v 
ei:opev8r\v, Kal edeao-ap^v kiTTa opt] €vbo£a, iravra e/ccxrepa rod 
(Kartpov bcaXXao-o-ovTo, &v ol XCOol €VTip.oi tt) KaXXovfj' KCLL TTCLVTa 
(VTifia Kal k*vbo£a /cat eveibrj. (rpta €7r') avaroXas ccrr-qpiyfjiiva 
(ev) ev rw hfij kol rpla em votov (e^) Iv tw hi. kol (j>apayy€s 
fiaOeiai /cat rpayjeiai, fiia rrj paa ovk kyyi^ovcrai. 3. [/cat tg> 

opet] efibopiov opos ava ixiarov tovtmv, kol vnepzixev tu v\j/ti. opLOtov 
KaOzbpq Opovov kol irepieKVKXov bhbpa avTo evcobr). 4. Kal f 



XXIV. i . e&£«r — fceopitva 2. enefctiva — KaWuvij — (arepiy/xcva — 

(papavycs — rpaxiai — tvyei^ovoai 3. opi — p.eoo — wpi — Opovvov — clvtoj 

tvtitirj 

cannot mean ' pursues ' here, as M. Lods thinks, but ' persecutes,' 
' punishes/ or ' avenges.' This would harmonize with xx. 4. But 
this can hardly be right. The idea of punishing all the luminaries 
is extravagant. It is more probable, therefore, that the author 
derived Raguel not from yjn, 'to chastise,' but from njn, 'to feed,' 
' nourish/ ' govern.' In this case for Giz. Gk. 1 ck8ukcov or Giz. Gk. 2 
eKeMov we should read €k8ioikovv or bioacovv, and not €k8ikS>v. We 
should then translate Raguel — who feeds (or nourishes) the world 
of the luminaries. In like manner in this verse we should take 
£k8iS>kov to be an early corruption for ckSioikovv or hioi<ovv. Thus 
Raguel, whose office is to feed the fires of the luminaries, rightly 
appears here : and the means of so doing is the restless fire of 
the west : cf. xvii. 4. Hence, for ' This burning fire . . . luminaries 
of heaven/ read This course of fire which thou hast seen is the fire 
towards the west which nourishes all the luminaries of the heaven. 

XXIV. 1. Before Ka\ tbnfrv I have added with Eth. KcuceWev . . . 
rrjs yrjs. Before vvktos Eth. adds r)p.epas Kai. 2. eVe/cetra avra>v 

e7ropevdr)v. The Eth. translator, not understanding fccjewa, renders 
frCfbl tn>T7A>0« = or) avT&v eirop. Hence, for ■ I approached it ' 
read I went beyond it. eov ol Xidoi. Eth. read kcu ol XL601. rfj 
KaXXovrj. Eth. read /ecu icaXot. e'vdoga. Eth. = evbo£a els to ddos avT<av. 
cueidrj. Eth. = u*^\£; Ifrao* 'and of fair exterior/ rpaxelai. 
Eth. (lfflf't = a-KoXiai. 3. vTrepel^v t<5 v\jrei opioiov Kadebpq Opovov. 

Eth. corrupt. Emend with Din. \^\ K? v lttrao*l &T fn l(\&. 
Thus, for ' in their elevation they resemble the seats ' read being 
higher than all it resembled the seat. After vnepux^ add irdvrcov 



364 The Book of Enoch. 

t r\v €V avTols bivbpov 6 ovbiiroTt vo-fypavpai. kcll ovbev erepov avT&v 
\r]V(ppavdr{\ Kai ovbev erepov o[xolov avru' 007*77*/ et)(ez> ewoSeV- 
ripav Trdvroiv apoifxaTOiv' kcll tcl (f)vk\a avrov kcll rd avdos kcu to 
bivbpov ov <j)6iv€L ety tov alcova' ol be irepl tov Kapirbv oxret 

(30TpV€S (pOLVLKCOV. 

5. Tore et7iw *12s kcl\6v to bivbpov tovto Igtlv kcu eucooes, kcu 
wpaia tcl <f)v\ka, kcll tcl clvOt) clvtov topaia ttj opdVet. 6. Tore 

aTT€Kp(6ri jjlol MtxarjA, ets t&v ayioav ayyiX(»v, 69 jixer ip.ov fjv, 
kclI clvtos clvt&v fjydTo, XXV. 1. kcll eliriv /xor 'Ei>wx, rt ' 

€p(OTas; (xat tl i6avp.aaas) fa Trj 007x7/ tov bivbpov ; kcll (ota rt) 
0e'Aets tt]v aA.7/0etaz/ fJLaOtlv ; 2. tot€ a7r€KpL0r](v) avT&' ITept 

•navTUiv etoeVat dika), juaAtara be irepl tov bivbpov tovtov aqbobpa. 
3. Kat CLTT€Kpidr] Xiyo)V Tovto to opos to vyjrrjkov, ov f) KopixpTj 
t 6/xota Opovov deov, KaOibpa early ov Ka0ta*et 6 ayto? 6 fiiyas KvpLos 
ttjs oofr?j, 6 /3acrtAeuj tov al&vos, oTav kcltclj3Jj e7rto-Ke\/rao-0at tt]v 
yrjv eV aya0<3. 4. Kat tovto t6 bivbpov evcooias Kat ovbepia 

a <*p£ egovo-Ldv ex^t otyao-tfat clvtov p.i\pL ttjs pLeyak-qs Kptoecos, 



4. ovdeis erepos avroov — evajdearepov — <p0eivt 5. copea — 

XXV. 2. aveKpeiOr] 3. 0v — KaOeifa — peyas ks aytos 



5. cvpea — opaci 

4. evuSeias — 



with Eth. €v<bdr). So emended as in Eth. 4. m\ ovMs erepos 
avTwv rjvcppduBr), ' and no one else has enjoyed them/ The reference 
to the other trees is out of place. Hence, with Eth. omit rjixppdvdr), 
and for ovbels erepos read ovbev erepov. 6o-p,fjv *lx €V ' Hence, for 
HA^OH read with G J&"20*H. ol 8e nep\ rbv KapirSv. Corrupt. Such 
expressions with masc. or fern. art. are personal, i.e. ol nep\ 'Apxlav 
— 'Apxlas. Eth. = 6 be Kapnos Kcikos Kai 6 Kapnos. 5* Before Tore 

Eth. adds Kai as. Eth. iT ' behold/ evades. This seems right : 
cf. xxv. 1. Eth. supposes evcibes, but wrongly. Hence, for 
' beautiful to look upon ' read and fragrant. av6r\. Eth. Kap7ro'$-. 
6. Before tot€ Eth. adds Kai. After dyicov Eth. adds Kai eWifiav. 

XXV. I. Ota ti. Eth. omits. 6e"\eis rfjv d\r)detav = Eth. ^Obf-ft I 
cf. xxi. 5. 2. Omit (D at beginning of verse with G and Gk. After 
avra Eth. adds Xeycov. 3. After aireKpi6ri Eth. adds fioi. After 

opos Eth. adds 6 «Oes. KaOedpa. Eth. adds avrov. 6 ayios . . . 
Kvpios. I have restored the order as in Eth. tov alS>vos. Eth. 
HA^Ay° = alavios. 4. rrjs peyakrjs Kplo-eeos. See Crit. Note, p. 98. 



Appendix C. 365 

ev fj €KbtK7)(rL$ 7ravT(»v kcl(i) reXeiWis /ote'xpis alQvos' Tore Suaiois f 
Kal SaCoLS ho6r\o-zTai 5- & Kapirbs avrov tols €k\€Ktols els 

Ccot^* kol els fioppav iieTatyvTevOriaeTai eV ToVa> ayta), Trapa toj> * 
olkov tov Beov /3ao-iAeW roi; alStvos. 6. Tore ev<ppav6rjo-ovTai 

€v<f>paiv6p.€voi, Kal yapria-ovrai, Kal els to ayiov elaeXevcrovraC 
al do-pal avrov ev rots oareoLS avT&v Kal fa>7)z> irXeCova (jf\o~ovTai 
eiii yrjs fjv e(r]aav ot irarepes aov' Kal ev rats fjpLepais avrStv Kal 
fiacravoi Kal rrXnyal Kal pLacmyes ov^ a^rovrai avr&v. J. Tore 
nvkoynaa tov debv rrjs bo^rjs, tov /3ao-iA.ea rod alS>vos> os r\roi- -\ 

p.aO~€V CLvdpWTTOLS TCL TOlCLVTa biKCLLOlS KO.I CLVTCL eKTLCTeV KOL €17761/ 

bovvaL avrols. 

XXVI. I. Kal eKeWev ecfxabevcra els to fieaov rrjs yrjs, Kal Xbov 
totiov rjvXoyrjpievov, (ev a> bevbpa) eyovra irapaqyvdbas fxevovaas 
kol (3\ao-Tov(ras tov bevbpov eKKOirevTos. 2. /ca/cei reOeapai 

opos aytov, viroKaToo tov opovs vbojp ef avaroX&v' Kal tt\v pvariv f 
elyev irpbs votov. 3. Kal Xbov irpbs dvaroXas a\\o opos injrnko- 



ft*tcr — (k5(i/c7]gis 5. eis fiopav kou — 6v Pacri\,evs 6. x a P l<T0VTai — 

eiffeXevfforai ai off fie — offratois — ftaffreiyes 7. rjvXoyrjffav — 6v 

XXVI. 2. reOeafie — Svfftv 



h $. So M. Lods rightly emends ft 17. rore. Eth. *Hh« ' this.' 
The original, therefore, was rore or robe. 60-iois. Eth. : V(h*$*Ti 
'humble.' 5. 6 Kapnbs . . . fafjv. Eth. 'by its fruit life will be 
given to the elect.' koa els ftoppav. I have thus restored kcu to 
its right position before els. So G : waVYldi avftO. Further, the 
fxera in fxera^vrevd. implies a change of place, 'transplanted to/ 
and thus requires els fioppav. Gk. corruptly reads els fiopav mi =. 
'for food and.' rod alS>vos. Eth. UMCiST , ald>vios. 6. Eth. 
omits kcli before els. els t. ay. elo-eXeva-ovrai. See Crit. Note, 
p. 99. irXctova. Eth. »flH*^ = 7ro\Xrjv. This is preferable. Before 
Ken (3d(ravoi Eth. adds Aum/. 7. tov alcovos. Eth.= alwviov. os. 

Eth. hl\av = oTi or hton. 

XXVI. I. After rjvkoyrjfjLevov Eth. adds koi nlova. ev <b 8eu8pa. 

Eth. omits through similarity HO*?; hOBa*, but to the detriment 
of the sense. Hence, for ' there were . . . grew ' read there were 
trees there with branches which kept shooting forth. 2. Before 
vnoKarco Eth. adds Kal. pvaiv emended from bvo-iv with Eth. 
3. For hm>"H read h^H with Gk., and for 'of the same height' 



366 The Book of Enoch. 

f T€pov tovtov, kcll clvcl fj.£(rov dVT&v (pdpayyav fiaOtiav ovk eyovcrav 
TtXdros, kcll 6V avTTJs vb(Dp Tropevcrai vitokclto) V7rb to opos — 

4. KCU 77/309 bV(TfAaS T0VT0V CiWo OpOS TaTT€lVOT€p0V CLVTOV Kol OVK 

iyov v\jf0$, Kcii (pdpayyav fiaOeiav koI £rjpav ava pLccrov avr&v, kol 
dXkrjv (pdpayyav fiaQtiav kciI £r)pav en - ' aKpcov tS>v rpiG>v 6p£o)V. 

5. kol irao-ai (pdpayyis tlcriv /3a0eicu, €K irirpas oreoeaj' kclI 
bivbpov (ovk) tyvTeveTO in avrds. 6. . . . kcu k6avp.acra 7rept rrjs 
tyapdyyas koX XCav idavfxaa-a XXVII. I. kol €lttov' Aid tl ?/ 
yrj avTt] f) tv\oyt]p.£vr] kcu irao-a 7rXrjpr]s bevbpcav, avrr] be fj (pdpayfj 
K€KaTf]pap.ivr] eari; (totc dir^KpiOrj OvptriK 6 els t&v aymv 
ayy&cav, b$ /xer' ifxov qv, kol eurev*) 2. *H yrj Kardparos rots 
K€KarapapiivoLS kcrriv /xe'xpi al&vos' <58e kmo-vvayOria-ovTca iravrts 
ot \K€KaT7)pap.£voi\ rives kpovaiv rw oro/man avr&v Kara Kvpiov 
(f)U)vr}V airpeirij kol irepl tt}? b6£r]$ avrov o~K\r)pd \a\rjaovaiv. 
woe €Tticrvvay6rio~ovTai koli <5de eorai rd oiKr)Tr\piov. 3. eV 

f to-yjurois al&o-iv, eVoz/rcu ets opao~iv rrjs Kpio-em rrjs d\.rjdLvrj$ 



3. avrov 5. iroa* (papavyes 6. \ciav 

XXVII. I. <papav£ 2. oiKerijpiov 3. cuax aTOts — * v Tais rjp.(pais 

(hence eaovrai (is opaoiv) — a\r]0eiv7]s — 



read higher than this. avrwp emended from amov with Eth. Eth. 
adds leal after {iaOeiav. vnoKaTco vno. Eth. in>*jf7A . 4. ftade'iav 

kcu frptr. Eth. pttrt ' beneath it/ For *l£VXt . . . J&tWfr read 
with Gk. *dihrTl Mi 0^°^; Wfrftll*? ; and for ■ other deep and 
sterile ravines' read another deep and sterile ravine. 5. ovk 
tyvTeveTO. G reads HJ^ttlA., where the H may be a corruption 
of &.. 6. Before kcu iOavpacra Eth. adds kcu idavpaaa 7reot ra>v 

nerpwv, omitted by Gk. through like beginning. 

XXVII. I. rat. Eth. =rdre. After kckcit. Eth. adds pera^v avr&v. 
2. Before ^yrjl have added with Eth. totc dneKpidr) . . . Kal elnep. yij 
(Eth.=<pdpay£;) to be rendered ' valley/ being a transliteration of #% 
due to misconceiving it as a proper name. It is transliterated as 
yai in 11 Sam. xiii. 18; Ezek. xxxix. 15, &c. KeKarrjpauevoi is a 
gloss ; ot and nves are to be read olrtvts. For ol<r]Trjpiov we should 
read Kpirrjpiov with Eth. 3. Omit (D before &£$6 with G and 
Gk. alSxriv. Eth. dDVO^V ' days.' eo-ovrai els opaacv. So I have 
emended h rals fjnepais. They will be for a spectacle. Eth. 
&hah*ii 40A>lfcn>«; hChf ' there will be upon them the spectacle. 
But most probably we should read PfoahU ACUTa*! ftC&f, they 



Appendix C. 367 

ivavTiov t&v dt/catW ets rbv &iravTa xpovov, a>8e €v\oyrjo-ov(nv oi 
evo-e/3etj tov Kvpiov rrjs bo^s, tov fiaviXia rod alavos. 4. h t 
rat? rjfxipaLs rrjs KpCaecos avr&v dXoyricrovatv (avrbv) fa eAeet a>s 
fytpio-ev avTols. 5. totc 7]v\6yt]aa tov Kvpiov rrjs bofrs kcll tt)v 
ho£av avrov Zbrjkaicra Kal vfxvrjo-a fJLtyaXoTrpeir&s. 

XXVIII. 1. Kat tKeWev kTtopzv6r\v els to p.io-ov Mavbo(3apa, 
/cat Xbov avro eprjfxov Kal clvto fxovov, 2. irKrjpes bivbpw /cat 

and tcov (mtpiJLaTaiv vbo)p avofx^povv avaOev 3. fyaivoixzvov, f 

m vbpayoyds ba\jn\r]s d>? irpos (3oppav Zirl bvo-fM&v iravTodcv 
dvdyei vbaip Kal bpoaov. 



rara — aaefius — kv 4. rais = Trjs 5. kv 

XXVIII. 2. irXrjprjs ScvSpov — avo/j.0pov — avoOev 3. <paipofxevo 



themselves will be for a spectacle. els airavra xpdvov. Eth.=«s tov 
alatva ndcras ras fjpepas. cvaepels corrected from aaepfis. See Crit. 

Note, p. 10 1. rod al&pos. Eth. = aloaviov. 5. After tot* Eth. 
adds Ka\ eya>. After ilClb (an imperfect rendering of idr)\a><ra) add 
JMlfftl* with Grk., and for ' spake to Him ' read set forth His glory, 
vfivrjara. Hence, for HhCft- = cfivrjo-a read HaoGtb 'I lauded.' 
{A.eya\o7rpc7rS>s. Eth. flhtn>; £*&fc\ A0ft?« is a misleading attempt at 
a literal translation. Hence for ' remembered . . . befitting ' read 
lauded Him, gloriously. 

XXVIII. I. After firop€v6r}v Eth. adds irpos dvaroXds. Mavdo- 
$apa. This is a faulty transliteration of ^?*|P taken as a proper 
name. It recurs in still faultier form in xxix. 1, Ba(S8t]pa. In the 
LXX. this mistake is also found. See Schleusner on MaPdapins 
and Madpapins. After \iko-ov Eth. adds A,£*{1£ ' mountain range/ 
c8ov avro eprjpov. Eth. ChMPl 7.£«n>; 0fh*£4\ Thus for eprjfxov, an 
adj., we have ' a desert plain/ /cat avro fiovov. Eth. <DOrh*F corrupt : 
read (D»flfM* ( solitary/ Hence, for ' I saw here nothing save a 
plain. 2. Nevertheless' read / saw a desert and solitary plain. 
2. (but). 2. vXijfKs Mv&p&r, So Eth. For ' it was filled with ' 

read full of. For /cat dirb twv 0-7rep/zara>i/ Eth. reads diro rov anepparos 
tovtov Kal dvopfipovv— J&£A<|&. So I have emended from avonfipov. 
After dvopfipovv Eth. adds (MOA* ' upon it/ 3. <f)aiv6fuvov = 

ftftCK. So I have emended from (frmpopevo. as v8pay<ny6s 8ayJM\t)s. 
So G: hm>; Adfl; »(ttM: H£AC<1. TravroBev . . . dpoaov Km €KeWev. 
Eth.= teat nuPToBeu dvdyerai kcu eKeWev v8a>p /cat 8p6o~os somewhat trans- 
posed and corrupt. First restore CDXy°U?i to the beginning of 



368 The Book of Enoch. 

XXIX. I. Kat €K€L$€V €TT0p€v6r)V €tj &XXoV TOTTOV €V T<3 Bdfi- 

brjpa, /cat irpbs avaroXas rov opovs tovtov (dxo^v, 2. /cat Ibov 
Kpicrews bivbpa irviovra dpoojudYooi; Xifiavoov Kat <rp.vpvr]$ % Kat tcl 
bivbpa clvt&v ojuota Kapvais. 

XXX. I. Kat £7T€K€iva tovtojv i^yo^tiv irpbs avaroXas fxaKpav, 
Kat tSo:> tottov aXXov jxiyav, qbdpayyav vbaros, 2. iv a> Kat 
bivbpov yjioa apa)ixa.Tco(v) 6\xoiuiV o~yj.v(*i. 3. Kat tcl irapa 
tcl X € ^ r l T ® v <t> a payy<*>v tovtcov Ibov KivvapL<tifj.ov apa)fxcLTcov. 
Kat e7reKeti>a tovtov uyoixnv irpbs avaroXas, XXXI. I. Kat 
ibov biXXa opr], Kat ip avroTs aXo-q bivbpaiv, Kat €KTropev6p.€Vov ef 
avT&v vtKTctp, rd KaXovfMevov arappav Kat yaXfiavr], 

2. Kat €TT€K€Lva tG>v Spew tovtcov tbov aXXo opos 7Tpbs avcLToXas 

XXIX. 2. favpva — /capotes XXX. 2. ox vV0} 3- <papavycuv 

XXXI. 1. (Kiropevopievuv 



xxix. i in place of W. Next vocalize ?": a H"\ (DO)!' thus fOCV: 
°HK\ WUXd and omit (D before fa^lt". Hence, for ' there were 
many . . . xxix. 1 And I went ' read many watercourses which flowed 
as well towards the north as to the west caused water and dew to 
ascend on every side. xxix. 1 And thence I went. 

XXIX. 1. km eKeldev. See preceding note, iv t<S Bapfypa. See 
note on xxviii. 1. Eth.=a7r6 rov eprjp:ov. For /cat before 77730? G reads 
H' which.' <px6pr)v. Eth. 4?£A\Yb ' I approached.' 2. Before 
Xbov Eth. adds h«t irveovra. Eth. 'feft'fefi corrupt. Omit A before 
fill with G. Zfiota. See Crit. Note, p. 102. After Pr^tifc 
add AhC*lO, i. e. Kapvais with Gk. 

XXX. 1. eW/cen/a tovtcov. Eth. corrupt : 40 A>lfc 40 A: MTfc The 
translator also did not understand Ipnetim. See xviii. 9 (note). Hence, 
for ' above that (even) above these ' read beyond those. 4x°M v ^P 05 
dvaroXds. Eth. corrupt. For 40 A: Midi frflfh read P&lhi A^aA= 
tti-XPPW irpbs dvaroXas. fiaKpdv. Eth. = fcai ov paKpav. fieyav. Eth. 
omits. After vbaros Eth. adds h<n>; HhJ^^^O ' as that which fails 
not/ 2. «> w Kat. Eth. = /cat 1801/. ^P° a apwaarwi/, 'the appearance of 
fragrant trees/ So G: H£<n>ft&; 09: a»V\. See Crit. Note, p. 102. 
6potW <r X iW So G : hcn>; Xlt; UMlW. 3. Menra. Eth. £(1 
' over/ See xviii. 9 (note). For ' passing over these ' read beyond these. 

XXXI. I. aXo-r) bevdpcov. Eth. omits aXa-T]. imroptvopfvov. See 

Crit. Note, p. 102. Before vUrap Eth. adds Jun> = <»r. o-appav 
seems to be a transliteration of **}£ , a kind of balsam. This would 
suit perfectly here. In the LXX. prjTivr]^^. 2. cW/cctva. See 



Appendix C. 369 

t&v TTcpdraiv rijs yrjs, Kal ndvra rd bivbpa irkrjpr) Zk oTa/crijs Zv f 
SfMOLcafxan ap,vybd\oj(vy 3. foav rptfiwruf avrb evcooVoreooz; f 

trip Ttav dpa>p.a. XXXII. 1. ( K al p. €T d ravra ra dp^ara), 

els fioppdv irpbs dvaro\as re0€a/x<" turd oprj irXrjprj vdpbov xPW™v 
Kal (txlvov Kal KivvapLtafiov Kal iniripem. 

2. Kal cKtWev ZQcabtvcra Zirl Tas dpxds iravrcav t&v opiojv 
tovtuv, [xaKpav a7re\a>j> irpds dvarokas (ttjs yrjs). Kal biiprjv 
tirdvto ttjs ZpvOpds OaXdcro-ns, /cat mfav fxaKpav dird tovtov Kal t 

2 . n\r) P 7)s «£ avrijs — o/ioi . pari 3 . 810 — «y . dearepov — apcoparojv 

XXXII. 1. re6eafi€ — oxvpov 2. efoSfvffa— em a/cpwv /cat euro tovtov =» 
ixoucpav atrb tovtov Kal 



xviii, 9 (note, p. 354). Eth. 'over/ wrongly. Hence for 'over' 
read beyond. rrpos dvaToXds . . . dpvybdXa>u. Here both Gk. and 
Eth. are corrupt, but the latter less so. First, iv opoiaypaTi dfxvybdXw 
=Hhcn>; hCftO. & ora/cr^s. Clearly the original of e£ avrrjs was 
early corrupted into something like e* arepeas : hence (Dfti-O, and 
iu its wrong place. Next &£lh« is a corruption of ^Ct—ndvTa. 
Thus so far everything is clear. We have now 7rp6s dvaroXas tS>v 
irepaTw rijs yrjs over against wahfttti 00a*; H^VT. Gk. is not 
appropriate whereas Eth. is. Eth. = Kal h at™ bevbpa dXorjs. It is 
needless to pursue the corruption further. Hence, for ' those trees 
were full of a hard substance' read all the trees were full ofstacte. 
3. orav Tpipaanv ovto euooSfVrepoi/ vivep -ndv apcopa. Eth. Aflj 

£^&P; (lahirfi <*lo\ je.-ij&ft : te°it(ti hLah < if they took that 
fruit, it was better than all fragrant odours.' Gk. here is 
undoubtedly to be followed. By translating Gk. afresh into Eth. 
we see at once how the corruption arose, flfl; &-lll£Pi ^9a\9\ 
te°ltfc HLdh. Then by an error jEL-iflj&jjP; J&fcljP got transposed 
(as constantly happens in these MSS.) and were then emended as 
in our text ^iP'hPl J^iJ&fl. (lahfrPl $d> is a later explanatory 

gloss. Hence, for ' And the taste, odours ' read When one 

rubbed it, it smelt sweeter than any fragrant odour. 

XXXII. 1. Before els poppdv I have added with Eth. Kai p. r. t. d. 
omitted through hmt. irpbs dvaToXds. Eth. m>2V0£Vl"; h&(\C 
' over the mountains.' npos dvaroXds occurs suspiciously often 
(see xxxi. 2). a X lvov. 'Mastich.' Eth. O0C0; ffi>0H, less good. 

2. irdvTav. Eth. omits, rrjs yrjs. Eth. omits. o)X V'? ,, ^ oxp&v Kai 
dno tovtov. I have emended into <?X°H V f^Kpau dnb tovtov Kai = Eth. 

Bb 



370 The Book of Enoch. 

bie$r\v e-ndvoa tov Zame'A. 3. Kal rj\0ov irpbs tov Ttapabeiaov 

rrjs hiKCLioovvris' Kal Ibov paKpoOev t&v bevbpuiv tovtcov bivbpa 

f irXeCova kol fxeydXa cpvofxeva eKel \xeyaXa acpobpa KaXa Kal evbo£a 
kol fxeyaXoTTpeirr], Kal to bevbpov tt)s (ppovricrem, ov eo-Qiovviv 
(ay'101 tov Kapirov avTOv} Kal eitivravTai <ppovr](nv ixeyaXrjv. 

4. (ofjioiov to bevbpov eKelvo orpo/3iA.ea to vx^os* to, be cpvXXa) 
avTov Kepart(a) opioia' 6 be Kapirbs avTov axret Porpves ajxireXov 
IXapol XCaV fj be 007x77 avTov bihpexev iroppto airb tov bevbpov. 

5. tot€ elirov' c 12s KaXbv to bevbpov Kal m M\apt 177 bpacrei. 

6. rore aTT€Kpi6ri 'PacfjarjA, 6 ayios byyeXos 6 fi€T efxov &V Tovto 
to bivbpov (ppovrjcretos e£ ov e<payev 6 TtaTr\p ctov. 



3. e\6wv m rjXOov — irapaSiffov — tSo — Svoo fiev 5. emxapV — opaai. 

Here, as frequently, Kal has been transposed. Before ZcoTieK Eth. 
adds ' angel/ ZwrieX may therefore be merely the name of a place. 

3. uaKpoOev tcov bevbpcov tovtcov bevbpa ir\eiova Kal jaeyaXa = ' from afar 

trees more numerous than these trees and large.' But G 
interpreted differently: i.e. hrfrtlWa*: AXMrf: O80<: Oe<0: 

•flH^il (D(H\J?i = brfattm tcov bevbpcov tovtcov bevbpa 7roX\a Kai 
^ya\a. I have followed G in my Trans. YlrtiXTtlPav 4 is from 
h^ or fohtl= trans, ultra. (f>v6peva=£(ti> M 'tb I have restored 
from Bvco fiev. There is no question here about two trees. After 
eKel Eth. adds evcobrj. 4. rj be oo-prj avTov . . . bevbpov. Eth. = 9 be 
60-prj tov bevbpov efiaivev Kal buTpex<ev noppco. If we omit $itl(D*Cl 
(D and for A read Jl7°, Eth.=Gk. 5. For t6t€ Eth. reads koL 
For cos Kakov to bevbpov Eth. reads koXov to bevbpov tovto Kal cos koXov. 
6. For Tore Eth. reads Kai After cov Eth. adds Kal emev epoi 



APPENDIX D. 



ADDITIONAL NOTES ON THE ETHIOPIC TEXT AND 
TRANSLATION. 

XXXVII. 2. For holy words G reads ' words of the Holy 
One/ 3. For Kfc <P#<r<L read XA or AAA*. If the former, 
take tySi&L as a noun and cf. Art; 0*n>q, xcv. 7. 

XXXVIII. 4. G omits A before Am*. Hence, for tCM we 
should probably read hChR, and translate for the Lord of Spirits 
has caused the light of the face of the holy . . . to appear. 6. For 
them. So G A°<fl>\ Din. omits. 

XXXIX. 1. High heaven. So G. Din. 'high heavens/ 

3. In those days. So G: fttD-tt: m>VA£V. Din. 'at that time/ 

4. The holy. So G. Din. ' The righteous/ The righteous. 
So G. Din. 'the holy/ 5. His righteous angels. So G: 
ao^Klrfi 8\£*. Din. 'The angels/ 12. After a)£(lC1h 
I have omitted h with G. 

XL VIII. 4. I have omitted AfrWi with G. 

LXII. 10. Darkness will be piled upon their faces. Perhaps 
too free. Lit. ' Their faces will be increased with darkness/ 

LXIII. 10. Mammon of unrighteousness or 'riches of un- 
righteousness' ; for neither here nor in Matt. vi. 24: Luke xvi. 9 
does Eth. transliterate fxafxcovas. 

LXXVIII. 4. Additions are made to the moon. K^iDC^. 
Better perhaps ' to parts of the moon/ 

CVII. 3. Before £ftTd J v <h G adds SA^k V; a) = ' will save and/ 
For * will cause . . . destruction ' better render will comfort the 
earth because of the universal destruction or after the universal 
destruction. 



B b 2 



APPENDIX E. 



LATIN FRAGMENT OF ENOCH CVI. 1-18. 
(Found in MS. Brit. Mus. Beg. S. E. xin. Saec. vm. ff. 79 b -8o.) 

The following Latin fragment has been recently discovered 
in the British Museum by the Rev. M. R. James, King's 
College, Cambridge, who is engaged in editing a volume of 
Apocrypha Anecdota. By his kindness I am permitted to add 
this interesting fragment to my Appendix. According to 
Mr. James, this fragment is found in an eighth century MS. 
belonging probably to the Monastery at Rochester. It is 
without a title. It follows a penitential edict of St. Boniface, 
while it is preceded by an anonymous tract ( De vindictis 
peccatorum.' 

This MS. is a very imperfect representation of En. cvi. 1-18. 
It has suffered from additions, omissions, and corruptions, and 
is very seldom a literal rendering of the original for many 
words together. Notwithstanding, this fragment contributes 
to the formation of a better text of CVIm not a few instances, 
as will appear in the notes. 

This MS. further may point to a Latin translation, or at 
least to a partially completed Latin translation of Enoch; 
for (1) occurring in the midst of original Latin treatises it 
appears to have been found in Latin by the collector and 
scribe of these treatises. (2) It has suffered much in the 
course of tradition and may, therefore, go back to a date 
when the book of Enoch was not reprobated generally, and 



Appendix E. 373 

when a Latin translation would have been acceptable. (3) It 
does not show signs of being an excerpt from a collection of 
excerpts, such as we find in the Greek fragment of En. lxxxix. 
42-49 (see p. Ztf, notes); but, standing as it does without 
any introductory note or explanation, it looks more as if it 
were drawn directly from at least a larger Latin fragment 
of Enoch. 

I have followed the spelling and punctuation of the MS. as 
furnished to me by Mr. James. The italics denote expanded 
contractions. 



CVI. 1. Factum est autem [cum ess^ Lamech annorww 
tricentorum quinquagenta] natus est ei filiu(s) %. cui oculi 
sunt sicut radi solis capilli autem eius candi(di)ores in septies 
niue corpori autem eius (nemo hominum potest intueri) 
3. et surexit inter manws obstetricis suae et adorauit (et) 



CVI. 1 . The date here is a foolish addition of some copyist. It 
agrees neither with the Hebrew, Samaritan, nor LXX. chronology, 
which respectively give 182, 53, 188 years. 2. Oculi stmt 

sicut radi solis. This may safely be regarded as the true text. 
Cf. Eth. cvi. 10 and the words from the Petrine Apoc, quoted in 
the note to that verse, p. 303. The corresponding Eth. text 
£f£a<tfj~ wq^ ( so GG'M); fiO£V£0« is corrupt— possibly 
a corruption like \iai>\ hl6thi (IB'h&i hO&i'tlfr^vs iiktIvcs rjXiov 
ol 6(f)0a\ixol avrov. Hence, for ' his long locks were white as wool, 
and his eyes beautiful/ read were white as wool and his eyes were 
like the rays of the sun. In septies or septies, as in ver. 19, is 
a corruption of capitis. Several words have been lost through 
hmt. : see ver. 10 (note). Nemo . . . intueri may be original 

= ovde\s rwv dv0pama>v i8vvf]6r) avTt(3\e\j/ai. Cf. Apoc. Petri f. 1 9. 

After these words there is another lacuna. 3. Et surexit. 

For fl)Aft=et cum, read fl0flfl>7=et turn with GG 1 , and translate 
't*iJ Ju h not 'was taken,' but arose =surrexit. Hence, for 'when 
he was taken from the hand,' read thereupon he arose in the 
hands. Make the same change in ver. II. Before et adorauit, 
Eth. in vv. 3, II, adds aperuit os suum. Corresponding to 
adoravit here, there is oravit in ver. 1 1 . For adoravit or oravit, 



374 Tfo ifaai <?/" Enoch, 

dominum uiuentem in secula laudauit. 4, 5, 6. et timuit 

Lamech ne non ex eo natus esset nisi newtius dei et uenit ad 
patrem suum Mathusalem et narrauit illi omnia, 7. dixit 
Mathusalem ego autem non possum scire nisi eamus ad 
patrem nostrum Enoc 8. qwm autem uidit Enoc filium 

suum Mathusalem uenientem ad se [et] ait. quid est quod 
uenisti ad me nate 10. dix^ quod natus est filio suo 
[nomine] Lamech cui oculi sunt sicut radi solis capilli[s] 
eius candidiores septies niue corpori &utem eius (nemo 
f. 80 hominum potest intueri) 11. et surexit || inter manus 

obstetricis suae (eadem hora qua pracidit de utero matris 
suae) orauit dominum uiuentem in secula (et laudauit) 



Eth. has 1V7£ = collocutus est. This is wrong, and probably 
a corruption of 1*J)i?=gratiam petiit, oravit or celebravit. For 
' conversed with/ read prayed to. Dominum uiuentem in 
saecula. Eth. == Dominum justitiae. The same phrase recurs in 
ver. 11, where Eth. = Dominum coeli. Laudauit. Eth. omits 
here but gives in ver. 11 fldh-=benedixit, laudavit. Hence it is 
probable that Latin is right in both verses and that we should read 
prayed to and blessed in ver. 3 for 'conversed with/ and in 
ver. 11 for ' blessed/ 4, -5, 6. Very fragmentary but nearly 
right in sense. Nontius, clearly a translation of ayy^Xo?, more 
accurately rendered ' angel ' by Eth. Narrauit illi omnia sum- 
marises vv. 5, 6. 7. For Mathusalem, read Mathusalah. 
Nisi eamus. Eth. gives a different sense. After Enoc two clauses 
are omitted. 8. Very fragmentary. See p. 302. Quid est 
quod uenisti. Eth. = quia venisti. Here Eth. is corrupt. The 
corruption is clear from Gk. which ran l8ov iya> tckvov pov dia t'l 
r(k6es ; Here Eth. translator read dion instead of 81a ri. Hence, for 
' for thou hast come/ read why hast thou come ? 10. Capillis . . . 
corpori : defective and corrupt. The confusion of order and loss 
of words seem to have originated in the Latin version. The 
latter supposes the following transposition : Capilli autem capitis 
candidiores lana Candida, corporis autem ejus color candidior nive. 
The eye of the copyist straying from candidiores to candidior, he 
wrote nive instead of lana Candida before corporis. After nive 
there stood originally et rubrior ulla rosa =€pv6p6repos navros 
pobov. So Eth. and Apoc. Petri. Septies, a corruption of capitis. 



Appendix E. 375 

12. et timuit Lamech 13. et dixit Enoc | nontiatum est 
mihi (fili) quia [post quingentos annos] 15. mitte^ deus 
cataclismu^ aquae ut deleat omnem creaturam [xl.] ostendit 
oculis noslvis 16. et erunt illi -in- filii [et erunt nomina 
filioru^ ei^s • Sem • Cham • Iafeth] 18. et ipse uocabitur 
Noe [qwi iftterpr^atur requies quia requiem prestabit in 
archam]. 

13. Nontiatum est mihi. Eth.= nuntio tibi. 15. Mittet 
deus cataclismum aquae. Eth. = aqua cataclysmi erit. ut de- 
leat omnem creaturam. Eth. = et exitium magnum per unum 
annum erit. Ostendit oculis nostris. Eth. = vidi in visione 
should be read before nontiatum in ver. 13. 18. Et ipse uoca- 
bitur Noe. Eth.=voca nomen ejus Noe. Qui . . . requies . . . 
archam. Quite an arbitrary departure from Enochic text, partly 
in dependence on that of the LXX. : i. e. requies recalls the diava- 
iravaei of that version. Eth. = quia ipse erit vobis reliquiae. Reli- 
quiae = KaTdXeifxfxa and follows another meaning of the Hebrew- 
word nil See note on cvi. 18, p. 304. Observe that in cvii. 3 the 
derivation of Noah implied Gen. v. 29 from DPIJ, is reproduced. 



PASSAGES FROM THE SCRIPTURES 
AND OTHER ANCIENT BOOKS 

REFERRED TO IN THIS WORK. 



[When the chapter and verse of Enoch are given, the reference will be 
found in the corresponding critical or exegetical note.] 



Genesis 


Enoch 


Exodus 


Enoch 


Deut. 


Enoch 


i. 21 . . 


IX.7 


xix. . . 


Ixxxix. 29 


xxviii. 2 1, 2 2 ciii. 9 


ii. 9 • • 


xxv. 4, 5 


xxiv. 12 . 


Ixxxix. 32 


xxviii. 29, 




iii. I . . 


xl. 7 


xxv. 9, 40 


xlvii. 3 


66, 67 . 


ciii. 10 


iii. 22 . . 


xxv. 4, 5 


xx vi. 30 . 


xlvii. 3 


xxviii. 48 


ciii. 1 2 


iv. io . . 


xxii. 6, 7 


xxxii. 


Ixxxix. 32 


xxix. 5 , 


lxii. 16 


V. 21 . . 


lxxxiii. 2 


xxxii. 26-29 Ixxxix. 35 


xxxii. 10 . 


c. 5 


v. 24 . . p. 1 
v. 24(Ethiop. 


xxxii.32sqq. xlvii.3 


xxxii. 17 . 
xxxii. 41 . 


xix. 1 
xvii. 3 


vers.) 


lx. 8 


Leviticus 




xxxiii. 2 . 


i. 4 


v. 29 . . 

v. 32 • • 
vi. 1-4 . 
vi. 9 . . 
vii. 11 


cvii. 3 

lx. 1 

vi. 2; xl. 7 

lxvii. 1 

lx. 7; ci. 2; 


iv.3,5,16 
vi. 22 . . 
xvi. 8 . . 
xvi. 10, 22 


xlviii. 10 
xlviii. 10 
viii. 1 
x. 4 


xxxiii. 28 
xxxiv. 

Judges 
v. 5 . . 


IXV. 12 

Ixxxix. 38 
i. 6 


vii. 16 


cvi. 15 
Ixxxix. 1 


Numbers 




1 Samuel 




viii. 14 . 


cvi. 15 


xvi. 30 


Ixiii. 10; 


xxviii. 15 




viii. 21 . 


xciii. 4 




cvi. 13 


sqq. . 


Ixiii. 10 


viii. 22 . 


ii. 2 


xvi. 31 . 


xc. 18 


xxix. 9 . 


xlvi. 1 


ix. 4 . . 
ix. 17 . 


vii. 5 
xciii. 4 


xvi. 31-33 
xx. 26 


lvi. 8 
lxxxi. 9 


11 Samuel 




xvi. 12 


Ixxxix. 11 


xxiii. 19 . 


xlvi. 2 


xxii. 16 . 


xviii. 1 


xix. 24 . 
xxv. 8, 9 . 
xxxv. 29 . 


xviii. 11 
Ixiii. 10 
Ixiii. 10 


xxxii. 7, 18 
Deut. 


xxxvii. 5 


11 Kings 
ii. ii . . 


xxxix. 3; 
lxx. 2 


Exodus 
xiii. 4 . . 


lxxii. 6 


iv. 19 . . 
viii. 4 . . 
xxviii. 12 


xliii. 3, 4 
lxii. 16 
xi. 1 


xxii. 20 . 
xxiii. 10 . 


lxxxi. 9 
xx vii. 1 


xv. 7 . . 


xlviii. 8 


xxviii. 13, 




1 Chron. 




XV. 10 . . 


xlviii. 8 


30,31 


ciii. 11 


xxi. 16 


lxi. 1 



378 



The Book of Enoch. 



ii Chron. 


Enoch 


Job 


Enoch 


Psalms 


Enoch 


xxviii. 3 




xxxviii. 8- 




xlix. 15, 16 


li. 1 


Ezra 
iv-v. . . 


lxxxix. 72 


11 . . 
xxxviii. 16 
xxxviii. 22 


ci. 6 

lx.7 
xli. 4 


1. 10 . . 

li.7 • • 
lii. 7 . . 


lx. 7 
lxxxv. 3 
xlvi.7; xciv.8 


Nehemiah 




xxxviii. 24- 




lvi. 8 . . 


xlvii. 3 


ii. i . . 


lxxii. 6 


27 . . 


lix. 1, 3 


lviii. 6 


xlvi. 4 


iv-vi. . . 


lxxxix. 72 


xxxviii. 24, 




lviii. 10 . 


c. 1 


Job 




25, 35 • 


xli. 3 


lxii. 9 . . 


xli. I 


i. 6 . . 


xl.7 

i. 9; ix. 10; 
xcix. 3 


xxxviii. 32 


xlviii. 3 


lxv. (title) 


li. 1 


V. I . . 


xxxviii. 33 
xl, xli. 


xciii. 11 
lx. 7, 8 


Ixviii. 17 . 
Ixviii. 26 . 


i. 4 

lxv. 12 


v. 9 . . 


xciii. 11 


Psalms 




lxix. 23 . 


lx. 3 


vii. 9 . . 


lxiii. 10 


i.6. . . 


xciv. 1 


lxix. 28 . 


xlvii. 3 


ix. 2 . . 


lxxxi. 5 


ii. . . . 


cv. 2 


lxxii. . . 


xlvi. 3 


ix. io . . 


xciii. 11 


ii. 2 . . 


xlviii. 10 


lxxii. 10 . 


xxix. 2 


X. 21 . . 


lxiii. 10 


iii. 7 . . 


xlvi. 4 


lxxiii. 11 . 


xcviii. 6, 8 


xi. 8 . . 


xciii. 14 


vi. 5 • • 


lxiii. 10 


lxxiii. 24- 




xii. io . . 


lxxxiv. 4 


vii. 12 


xvii. 3 


27 • • 


li. 1 


xiv. 2 . . 


xlix. 2 


viii. 4 . . 


xlvi. 2 


lxxiv. 1 . 


lxxxix. 12 


xiv. 13-15 


li. 1 


ix. 13 . . 


cvii. 7-9 


lxxiv. 8 . 


liii. 6 


xv. 15. . 


i. 9 


xi. 6 . . 


xviii. 11 


lxxv. 4 . 


lxii. 1 


xix. 26, 27 


li. 1 


xii. 3 . . 


xci. 4 


lxxvii. 17, 




xxii. 13 . 


xcviii. 6-8 


xii. 4 . . 


v. 4 


18 . , 


xvii. 3 


xxvi. 7 


lxix. 16 


xiv. 1 . . 


lxxxi. 5 


lxxviii. 5,6 


lxxxii. 2 


xxvi. 10 . 


lxix. i8;ci.6 


xvi. 10, 11 


li. 1 


lxxviii. 69 


liii. 7 


xxvi. 11 . 


xviii. 3 


xvii. 8 


c. 5 


lxxix. 13 . 


lxxxix. 12 


xxvii. 1 . 


xxxvii. 5 


xvii. 15 . 


li. 1 


lxxx. 17 • 


xlvi. 2 


xxviii. 12- 




xviii. 1 0,1 1 


xiv. 8 


lxxxi. 16 . 


xcvi. 5 


14, 20-24 


xlii. 1, 2 


xviii. 14 . 


xvii. 3 


lxxxii. 5 . 


xviii. 1 


xxviii. 25 


lx. 12 


xviii. 15 . 


xviii. 1 


lxxxviii.12 


lxiii. 10 


xxviii. 26 


lx. 21 


xix. 10 


lxxxii. 3 


lxxxix. 9 . 


ci. 6 


xxx. 23 . 


lxiii. 10 


xxii. 14 . 


xcviii. 2 


xci. 5, 6 . 


lxix. 12 


xxxi. 6 . 


xli. 1 


xxiv. 2 


lxix. 17 


xcii. 5 


xciii. 11 


xxxiii. 23 


ix.io; xcix. 3 


xxix. . 


xciii. 11 


xciv. 17 . 


lxiii. 10 


xxxvi. 29 


xviii. 5 


xxx. 9 


lxiii. 10 


xcvii. 5 . 


i. 6; lii. 6 


xxxvi. 31 


lix. 1, 3 


xxxi. 19 . 


lxxvii. 1-3 


c. 3 • • 


lxxxix. 12 


xxx vii. 1-5 


lx.13 


xxxvi. 9 . 


xvii. 4; 


cii. 26 . . 


xci. 16 


xxxvii.4,5 


xciii. 11 




xcvi. 6 


civ. 3 . . 


xiv. 8 


xxxvii.5,13 


Hx. 3 


xxxvi. 12 . 


xlviii. 10 


civ. 9 . . 


lxix. 18; 


xxxvii. 9 . 


xvii. 2 


xxxvii.3,9, 






ci. 6 


xxxvii. 12, 




",29,34 


li. 5 


civ. 10, 13 


lxix. 17 


13 • • 


lx. 21 


xl. 5 . . 


xciii. II 


civ. 29 


lxxxi. 9 


xxxviii. 4 


xviii. 1 


xiv. 4-8 . 


xlvi. 3 


cvi. 37 . 


xix. 1 


xxxviii.4,5 


xciii. 13 


xlvi. 9 


lii. 8 


cvii. 2 3- 2 7 


ci. 4 


xxxviii. 6 


xviii. 2; 


xlix. 6 


xlvi. 7; xciv.8 


cvii. 39 . 


ciii. 9 




xciii. 2 


xlix. 7-12 


lxiii. 10 


ex. 1 . . 


lxi. 8 


xxxviii. 7 


xliii. 3, 4 


xlix. 8, 9 . 


xcviii. 10 


cxiv. 4, 6 


li. 4 



Index of Passages from Scriptures, etc. 379 



Psalms 


Enoch 


Isaiah 


Enoch 


Isaiah 


Enoch 


cxv. 17 . 


lxiii. 10 


iv. 3 . . 


xlvii. 3 


xiv. I . . 


xlviii. 10; 


cxxxvi. 6 


lxix. 17 


iv. 3 • • 


xc. 32 




lx.3 


cxxxvii. 7 


lxxxix. 66 


v. 10 . . 


x. 19 


xlix. 6 


xlviii. 4 


cxxxix. 16 


xlvii. 3 


v. 14 . . 


lvi. 8 


xlix. 19-21 


xc. 34 


cxliv. 3 . 


xlvi. 2 


v. 24 . . 


xlviii. 8 


xlix.12,22, 




cxlvi. 3 . 


xlvi. 2 


vi. . . . 


xiv. 18 


23 • • 


lvii. 


cxlvii. 4 . 


xliii. 1 


vi. 3 . . 


xxxix. 12 


liv. 11, 12 


xc. 27 


cxlvii. 14 . 


xcvi. 5 


ix. 5 . . 


lii. 8 


lv. 1 sqq. . 


xlviii. 1 


cxlix. 1 . 


xxxviii. 1 


ix. 6, 7 . 


xlix. 2 


lvi. 9 . . 


lxxxix. 56 


Proverbs 




xi. 2 . . 
xi. 3-5 • 


xlix. 3 
xlvi. 3 


lvii. 1 . . 
Ix. . . . 


lxxxi. 9 
xc. 27 


i. 20 . . 


xlii. 1 


xi. 4 . . 


lxii. 2 


Ix. 6 . . 


xxix. 2 


v. 1 . . 


lxxxv. 1 


xi. 9 . . 


xxxix. 5; 


Ix. 19, 20 . 


lxii. 14; 


viii. . . 


xlii. 1 




xlix. 1 




xci. 16 


viii. 28 . 


lxix. 19 


xiii. 8 . . 


lxii. 4, 5 


Ix. 21 . . 


xc. 32 


viii. 29 . 


ci. 6 


xiii. 17 . 


lii. 7 


Ix. 21,22 . 


xci. 13 


viii. 30 . 


lxxxiv. 3 


xiv. 2 . . 


xc. 30 


lxi. 1 . . 


xlviii. 10 


ix. 1-10 . 


xlii. 1 


xiv. 9, 11 


xiv. 4 


lxii. 3-5 . 


xc. 33 


x. II . . 


xvii. 4 


xiv. 9, 10 


lxiii. 10 


lxiii. 1-4 . 


lxxxix. 66 


xi. 1 . . 


xcix. 12 


xiv. 11-13 


lxviii. 4 


lxiii. 9 


xl. 2 


xi. 28 . . 


xciv. 8 


xviii. 6 . 


ii. 2 


lxiv. 1, 3 . 


i. 6 


xiii. 14 


xvii. 4 


xxi. 3 . . 


lxii. 4, 5 


Ixv . . . 


xxv. 4, 5 


xiv. 12 


xciv. 2 


xxi. 10 


lvi. 6 


Ixv. 6 . . 


xlvii. 3 


xiv. 27 


xvii. 4 


xxiv. 21, 22 


liv. 


Ixv. 17 . 


xiv. 5 ; lxxii. 


xvi. 2 . . 


xli. 1 


xxv. 6 


x. 19 




1; xci. 16 


xvi. 22 


xvii. 4 


xxv. 8 


li. 1 


Ixv. 19 . 


xc. 33 


xxi. 2 . . 


xli. 1 


xxvi. 17 . 


lxii. 4, 5 


Ixv. 19, 20 


xxv. 6 


xxiii. 5 . 


xcvii. 10 


xxvi. 19 . 


li. 1 


IXV. 20-2 2 


v. 9 


xxiv. 12 . 


xli. 1 


xxvi. 21 . 


i- 3 


Ixv. 20-23 


xci. 13 


xxx. 4 . . 


xciii. 12 


xxvii. 1 . 


lx.7 


lxvi. . . 


xxv. 4, 5 


ECCLESIASTES 


xxvii. 13 . 
xxix. 20 . 


lvii. 
c. 8 


lxvi.12,19, 

21 . . 


xc. 30 


i. 4. . . 


liii. 7 


xxx. 26 . 


lxxii. 37 


lxvi. 22 . 


xci. 16 


ii. 14-16 . 


cii. 6 


xxxii. 17 . 


xi. 2 


lxvi. 24 . 


xxvii. 1 ; xlvi. 


iii. 19-21 . 


cii. 6 


xxxiii. 7 . 


xl. 2 




6; xc. 27 


xi. 5 . . 


xciii. 11 


xxxiv. 3, 7 


c. 1 










xxxiv. 6 . 


lxii. 12 


Jeremiah 




Song of 
Solomon 




XXXV. 1 . 

xxxviii. 11, 


lxxxii. 16 


ii. 13 . . 
iii. 3 . . 


xcvi. 6 
lxxx. 2 ; cii 


ii. 1 . . 


lxxxii. 1 5-1 7 


18 . . 


lxiii. 10 


v. 22 . . 


lxix. 18; ci. 6 






xl. 2 . . 


lxxxix. 59 


v. 25 . . 


lxxx. 2 


Isaiah 




xl. 26 . . 


xliii. 1 


vii. 31, 32. 


xxvii. 1 


i. 18 . . 


lxxxv. 3 


xl. 31 . . 


xcvi. 2 


viii. 2 . . 


xcviii. 13 


i. 26 . . 


xc. 32 


xlii. 1 . . 


xl-5 


ix. 1 . . 


xcv. 1 


ii. 4 . . 


Hi. 8 


xlii. 6 . . 


xlviii. 4 


ix. 23 . . 


xciv. 8 


ii. 10, 19, 




xliii. 5, 6 . 


lvii. 


xii. 1 . . 


civ. 6 


21 . . 


xcvi. 2 


xliii. 19 . 


cvi. 13 


xii. 9 . . 


lxxxix. 56 



380 



The Book . of Enoch. 



Jeremiah 


Enoch 


Daniel 


Enoch. 


Amos 


Enoch 


xix. 2, 6 . 


xxvii. 1 


iv. 13, 17,231.5 


v. 24 . 


xxxix. 5 


xxi. 8 . . 


xciv. 2 


v. 27 . . 


xii. 1 


viii. 9 . 


lxxx. 4 


xxii. 13 . 


xciv. 7 ; xcix. 


vii.8,11,20 


v. 4. 


ix. 13, 14 


. x. 19 




13 


vii. 9 . . 


xiv. 18, 20; 






xxii. 19 . 


xcviii. 13 




lxxi. 10. 


Obadiah 




xxiii. 1 


lxxxix. 12 


vii. 10. . 


i. 9; xiv. 19, 


10-12 . 


lxxxix. 66 


xxiii. 5, 6 . 


xlvi. 3 




22; xl. 1 ; 






xxxi. 5 


x. 19 




xlvii. 3 ; 


MlCAH 




xxxi. 37 . 


xciii. 14 




lxxi. 2; 






xxxii. 35 . 


xxvii. 1 




xc. 20 


*• 3 • 


. i. 3 


xlix. 16 . 


xcvi. 2 


vii. 13 . 


xlvi. 2 


i. 3. 4 • 


Iii. 6 






vii. 14 


lxii. 6 


i. 4. . 


i. 6 






viii. 10,11, 




iii. 2, 3 


xc. 4 


Lamentations 


13, 2 5 • 


xlvi. 7 


iv. 6, 7 


xc. 33 


ii. 4 . . 


xvii. 3 


viii. 13 . 


i. 9 


v. 2 


. xlix. 2 


iii. 12 . . 


xvii. 3 


viii. 1 7 


lx. 4 






iii. 13 . . 


xvii. 3 


viii. 17, 18 


xiv. 14 


Habakkuk 


iii. 16 . . 


xlvi. 4 


x. 9, 10 . 


lx. 4 


ii. ii . 


c. IO 






x. 13, 20, 




iii. 9 . 


. xvii. 3 


Ezekiel 




21 . . 


lvi. 5 










X. 13, 21 . 


xx. 5 


Zephaniah 


i. 10 . . 


xiv. 18 


X. 21 . . 


xlvii. 3 


i. 18 . 


. Iii. 7 ; c. 6 
lxii. 14 


i. 15 . . 
i. 26 . . 


lxi. 10 
xviii. 8 


xi. 16, 41, 
45 • • 


xxvi. 1 ; 


iii. 15-17 


i. 28 . . 


xiv. 14 




lxxxix. 40; 


Haggai 




v. 5 . . 


xx vi. 1 




xc. 20 






X. 1 . . 


xiv. 18 


xii. 1 . . 


xx. 5; xlvii. 


i. 6, 7 . 


lvii. 2 


xviii. 23, 32 


xciv. 10 




3 ; l yi - 5 


ii. 7-9. 


. xc. 29 


XXV. 12 . 


lxxxix. 66 


xii. 2 . . 


li. 1 ; lviii. 3 


ii. 22 . 


. lvi. 7; c. 2. 


xxviii. 26 . 


x. 19 


xii. 2, 3 . 


cviii. 15 






xxxii. 1 7-3 2 


lxiii. 10 


xii. 3 . . 


xliii. 3, 4; 


Zechariah 


xxxii. 21 . 


lxiii. 10 




civ. 2 


i. xii . 


ix.10; xcix. 3 


xxxiii. 1 1 . 


xciv. 10 


xii. 4,9, 10 


civ. 12 


ii. 4 . 


xc. 34 


xxxiv. 5,8 


lxxxix. 56 


xii. 10 . . 


civ. 13. 


ii. 6-13 


xc. 29 


xxxiv. 26, 








iii. . . 


. xl. 7 


27 . . 


x. 19 






viii. 4 . 


. v. 9 


xxxv. 5 sqq. 


lxxxix. 66 


HOSEA 




ix. 10 . 


. Iii. 8 


xxxviii. 4-7 
xxxviii. 12 


lvi. 5 
xxvi. 1 


ii. 18 . . 


Iii. 8 


x. 10 . 
xii. 2, 3 


. xc. 34 
. lvi. 7 


xxxviii. 21 


lvi. 7; c. 2 


ii. 22, 23 . 


x. 19 


xiv. 5 . . 


i. 9 

ii. 2 


xxxviii. 22 


xviii. 11 


ix. 14 . . 


xcviii. 5 


xiv. 8 . . 


xl-xlviii. . 


xc. 29 


xii. 7 . . 


xcix. 12 


xiv. 13 


. lvi. 7 ; c 2 


xlvii. 8 . 


xxviii. 1 


Joel 




Malachi 




Daniel 




ii. 10 . . 


lxxx. 4 


i. 7. . 


. lxxxix. 73 


"• 31-45 • 


Iii. 


iii. 2, 12 . 


liii. 1 


iii. 16 . 


xlvii. 3 


iv. 13 . . 


i. 9 


iii. 16 . . 


lvii. 2 


iv. 1 . 


xlviii. 8 



Index of Passages from Scriptures, etc. 381 



St. Matt. 


Enoch 


Acts Enoch 


Hebrews Enoch 


(see p. 49) 




xv. 29 . . xcviii. 11 


(see p. 47) 


iii. 9 . . 


xii. 1 


xvii. 31 . xii. 9 


i. 4 . . . xlvi. 3 


v. 29, 30 . 


xxvii. 1 




xii. 23 . . xlvii. 3 


viii. 29 


xvi. 1 


Romans 




x. 28 . . 


xxvii. 1 


(see p. 45) 


St. James 


xiii. 43 . 


xliii. 3, 4 


i. 21 . . xcix. 8 




xviii. 9 


xxvii. 1 


viii. 38 . lxi. 10 


(see p. 42) 


xix. 28 . 


cviii. 12 


xiii. 1 . . xlvi. 5 


i. 8 . . xci. 4 


xxii. 30 . 


civ. 4 


1 Cor. 


1 Peter 


xxiii. 15 . 
xxvi. 24 . 


xxvii. 1 




xxxviii. 2 


(see p. 45) 


(see p. 42) 






vi. 11 . . xlviii. 7 


iii. 20 . . lx.5; lxi. 13 
iv. 18 . . lxii. 3 


St. Mark 






(see p. 49) 




11 Cob. 




ix. 48 . . 


xlvi. 6 


(see p. 46) 


11 Peter 


xii. 25 . 


civ. 4 


v. 3, 4. . lxii. 16 
Galatians 


(see p. 42) 
iii. 13 . . lxxii. 1 


St. Luke 








(see pp. 48, 49) 
i. 52 . . xlvi. s 


(see p. 46) 
i. 4 . . . xlviii. 7 


1 John 


ix. 35 • • 


xl. 5 




(see p. 42) 


x. 20 . . 


xlvii. 3 


Ephesians 


i. 9 . . . lviii. 5 


xii. 19. . 


xcvii. 8 


(see p. 46) 




xv. 10 (con- 




i. 21 . . lxi. 10 


St. Jude 


trast) . 


xcvii. 2 




(see p. 42) 


xvi. 8 . . 


lxi. 12 


Philippians 


4 . . . xxxviii. 2 


xvi. 9, 11, 

22 . . 


lxiii. 10 


(see p. 46) 
ii. 10 . . xlviii. 5 


6 . . . xii. 4 ; xv. 3 
13 . . . xviii. 13 


xvi. 23-25 
xxi. 28 . 


xxii. 1 1 
li. 2 


iv. 3 . . xlvii. 3 


14 . . . Ix. 8 ; xciii. 3 


xxiii. 35 . 


xl.5 


COLOSSIANS 


14,15 . . i. 9; v. 4; 
xxvii. 2 ; 






(see p. 46) 


lx.8; ci. 3 


St. John 




i. 16 . . lxi. 10 




(see p. 48) 






Revelation 


v. 22, 27 . 


lxix. 27 


1 Thess. 


(see pp. 42 -45) 


xiv. 23 


cv. 2 


(see p. 46) 


i. 4 . . . xc 21 
i. 18 . . lxiii. 10 


Acts 




11 Thess. 


ii. 7 . . xxv. 4, 5 


(see p. 48) 




(see p. 46) 


iii. 4, 5, 18 lxii. 16 


vi. 15 . . 


xlvi. 1 




iii. 5 . . xlvii. 3 


vii. 42 . . 


lxxx. 7 


1 Timothy 


iii. 10 . . xxxvii. 5 


x. 4 . . 


ix. 10 


(see pp. 46, 47) 


iii. 21 . . cviii. 12 


xii. 15 . . 


ix. 10 


i. 15 . . xciv. 1 


iv. 4 . . lxii. 1 6 ; 


xii. 23 . . 


xlvi. 6 


v. 21 . . xxxix. 1 


cviii. 12 


xv. 20 . . 


vii. 5 


vi. 16 . . xiv. 22 


iv. 5 . . xc 21 



382 



The Book of Enoch. 



Revelation Enoch 

vi. 8 . . Ixiii. 10 

vi. 10 . . xxii. 5-7 ; 

xxxvii. 5 ; 

xlvii. 2 ; 

xcvii. 5 

vi. 10, 11. xlvii. 4 

vi. 11 . . Ixii. 16 

vii. 1, 2 . lx. 12 
vii. 9, 13, 

14 . . Ixii. 16 

vii. 12. . lx. 1 2 

vii. 14 . . lxxxv. 3 

viii. 2, 6 . xc. 21 

viii. 3 . . ix. 10 

viii. 3, 4 . xcix. 3 

viii. 13 . xxxvii. 5 

ix. 11 . . li. 1 

ix. 20 . . xcix. 7 

xi. 10 . . xxxvii. 5 

xiii. 8 . . xlvii. 3 

xiii. 8,14. xxxvii. 5 

xiv. 6, 8 . xxxvii. 5 

xiv. 18 . lx. 12 

xiv. 20 . c. 3 

xvi. 5 . . lxvi. 2 

xvii. 8 . . xlvii. 3 

xix. 17 . lx. 12 

xx. 12, 15 xlvii. 3 

xx. 13, 14 Ixiii. 10 

xx. 14 . . xlviii. 9 

xxi. 1 . . lxxii. 1 

xxi. 2, 10 . xc. 29 

xxi. 27 . xlvii. 3 

xxii. 2, 14 xxv. 4, 5 

xxii. 17 . xvii. 4 

xxii. 19 . xlvii. 3 

Apocalypse 
of Peter 

cvi. 10; 373, 
374 

Ascension 
of Isaiah 
i. 5 . . . cviii. 1 2 
iii. 25 . . cviii. 12 
iv. 16, 17 cviii. 12 



Ascension 


Enoch 


ECCLESIAS- 


Enoch 


of Isaiah 




TICUS 




iv. 17 . . 


cviii. 9 


i. I . . . 


lxxxiv. 3 


iv. 18 . . 


lx. 12 


i- 25 . . 


xci. 4 


vii. 25 . . 


xxxix. 14; 


v. 8 . . 


Ixiii. 10 




lxxi. 11 


vii. 17. . 


xlvi. 6 


vii. 27 . . 


cviii. 7 


xi. 17 . . 


xcvii. 8 


viii. 14, 26 


cviii. 12 


xiv. 16 


Ixiii. 10 


ix.9, 10, 18 


cviii. 


xvi. 7 . . 


vii. 2 


ix. 20 . . 


xlvii. 3 


xvi. 26-28 


ii. 1 






xvii. 22, 23 


Ixiii. 10 


Assumption 


xxiv. 4, 7 


xlii. 1, 2 


of Moses 




xxiv. 14 . 


Ixxxii. 16 


(see pp. 33- 

34) 
iv. 8 . . 
x. 3 . . 


Ixxxix. 73,74 

i-3 
i. 6 


xxiv. 2 8-3 2 
xxx. 17 . 
xxxi. 1-7 . 
xxxix. 13 . 


xciii. 10 
Ixiii. 10 
xcix. 8 
Ixxxii. 16 


x. 4 . . 


xliv. 16 . 


lx. 8 


Baeuch 




xliv. 17 . 
xlix. 11-13 


cvi. 18 
Ixxxix. 72 


iii. 11 . . 


Ixiii. 10 


1. 26 . . 


xc. 4 


iii. 26 . . 


vii. 2 






iii. 29 . . 


xlii. 1, 2 






iii. 34 . . 


xliii. 1 


iv Ezra 




iv. 7 . . 


xix. 1 


(see p. 37) 




Apocalypse 
of Baruch 


". 39» 45 • 
iv. 1 . . 


Ixii. 16 

XX. 2 


(see pp. 35 
36) 




iv. 35 • • 
iv. 36, 37- 


xxii. 5-7 ; c. 5 
xlvii. 3 


xxiv. 1 


xlvii. 3 


v. 1-13 • 


lxxx. 


xxix. 3 


xlviii. 10 


v. 4 . . 


lxxx. 4 


xxix. 4 


lx.7 


[vi. 1]. . 


xlviii. 9 


xxx. . . 


li. 1 


[vi. 1-3] • 


xxvii. 1 


XXX. 1 . . 


xlviii. 10 


[vi. 2] . . 


li. t; lx. 6, 


XXX. 2 . . 


xc. 5 




p. 320 


xxxii. 2 . 


xc. 29 


[vi.47] . 


lx. 5 


xxxii. 6 . 


xiv. 5 


vi. 49-52. 


lx.7 


XXXV. 2 . 


xcv. I 


[vi.60,68] 


c. 5 


xxxxix. 7 • 


xlviii. 10 


[vi. 71] . 


civ. 2 


xl. I . . 


xlviii. 10 


vii. 26 . . 


xc. 29 


xliv. 14 . 


xlii. 1, 2 


vii. 28, 29 


cv. 2 


1-li. 6 . . 


li. 1 


vii. 29 


xlviii. 10 


li.5,10,12 


li. 4 


vii. 32 . 


li. 1 ; lx. 5 ; 


lvii. 2 . . 


xiv. 5 




c 5 ; p- 320 


lxx. 9 . . 


xlviii. 10 


vii. 33> 34 


1.4,5 


lxxii. 2 . 


xlviii. 10 


vii. 55 • 


Ixii. 10; 


lxxiii. 2, 3, 
6.7. . 


xxv. 4, 5 


viii. SI . 


civ. 2 
xlii. I, 2 



Index of Passages from Scriptures, etc, 383 



iv Ezra 


Enoch 


11 Maccabees Enoch 


Tobit 


Enoch 


xii. 32 . 


xlviii. 2 ; 10 


ii. 13 . . 


lxxxix. 72 


xii. 14. . 


x. 6 ; xl. 5 


xiii. 26 . 


xlviii. 2 


iii. 24 . . 


xxxvii. 2 


xii. 15 . . 


xc. 21 


xiii. 36 . 


xc. 29 


iv. 33, 35 


xc. 8 


xvii. 2 


lxiii. 10 


xiii. 52 . 


xlviii. 6 


vi. 26 . . 


li. 1 






xiv. 9 . . 


cv. 2 


vii. . . . 


c. 7 










vii. 9, 14, 




Testaments 


Book of 




23,29,36 


li. 1 


OF THE XII 


Jubilees 




Patriarchs 






ix. 5, 9 . 


xlvi. 6 






(see pp. 34, 
35) 




xii. 43, 44 


li. 1 


Levi 10 . 


lxxxix. 50 




xv. 8 sqq. 


xc. 13 


Dan. 5 . 


lxxi. 15 


i. . . . 


xcix. 7 






Benj. 6 . 


xl. 2 


ii. . . . 


lx. 12 






Sim. 5 ; 




iv. . . . 


vi. 6 ; lxxxiii. 


in Maccabees 


Levi 16; 






2 ; lxxxv. 5 


ii. 4 • • 


vii. 2 


Jud.18; 




v. . . . 


vi. 6 ; vii. 2 ; 
x. 9, 10, 12 


ii. 15 . . 


xiv. 22 


Zeb. 3 ; 
Nap. 4 ; 




vi. . . . 


lxxiv. 12 
vii. 2, 5; lx. 


Psalms of 




Benj. 9 


P-38 


Vll. . . . 


Solomon 




Reuben 5 ; 






8 ; xoiii. 3 ; 
xcviii. 11 


i. 8. . . 


xxxviii. 5 


Nap. 3 . 


vi-ix. 2 


viii. . . 


xviii. 6-9 ; 


iii. 16 . . 


li. 1 ; lviii. 3 








xxvi. 1 


v. 6 . . 


xii. 1 


Wisdom or 




x. . . . 


xvi. 1 ; xl. 7 ; 


viii. 14 . 


xxxviii. 5 


Solomon 




xxi. . . 


liv. 7-lv. 
vii.5; liv. 7- 
lv. ; xcviii. 
11 


xiii. 9 . . 
xiii. 10 . 
xiv. 6 . . 
xiv. 7 . . 


li. 1 
xlvii. 3 
lxiii. 10 
li. 1 


i. 13, 14 • 
ii. 1-5. . 
ii. 8 . . 


lxix. 1 1 
cii. 6 
lxxxii. 16 


xxiv. . . 


li. 1 


XV. 1 1 . . 


lxiii. 10 


ii. 23, 24 . 


lxix. 1 1 
li. 1 
cii. 6 


XXX. . . 


xlvii. 3 


xv. 15 . . 


li. 1 


iii. 1 sqq. 






xc. 6 


iii. 2-4 
iv. 7 . . 
iv. 7-14 . 






xvu. . . 


li. 1 
lxxxi. 9 


Judith 


i. 6 
xlvi. 6 


xvii. 17 . 
xvii. 18 . 


xxxviii. 5 
xxxviii. 1 


xvi. 15 . 
xvi. 17 . 


xvii. 36 . 
xviii. 6,8 . 


xlviii. 10 
xlviii. 10 


v. . . . 
v. 16 . . 

vi. 3 . . 
viii. 20 . 


lxiii. 
li. 1 
xlvi. 5 
li. 1 


1 Maccabees 


xviii. 1 1- 14 


ii. 1 


ii. 42 . . 


xc. 6 






ix. 4 . . 


lxxxiv. 3 


iii. 13 . . 


xc. 6 


Tobit 




ix. 15 . . 


li. 1 


v. 39 . . 


xc. II, 12 


iii. 10 . . 


lxiii. 10 


xi. 20 . . 


xlvii. 3 


vi. 29 . . 


xc. II, 12 


iii. 17 . . 


x. 6 ; xl. 5 


xiv. 6 . . 


vii. 2 


vii. 13. . 


xc. 6 


viii. 15 . 


xxxix. 1 


xiv. 12, 27 


xcix. 8 


vii. 41 , 42 


xc. 13 


xii. 12 


ix. 10 


xv. 8 . . 


li. 1 



INDEX OF NAMES AND SUBJECTS. 



Aaron, lxxxix. 18, 31, 37. 

Abel, xxii. 6, 7 ; lxxxv. 3, 4, 6. 

Abraham, lxxxix. 10 ; xciii. 5. 

Acheron, xvii. 6. 

Adam, xxxii. 6 ; lxxxv. 3-7. 

Alexander the Great, 244, 248. 

Alexander Jannaeus, 114, 264, 297. 

Alexandra, 108, 114. 

Ambrose, vi. 2. 

Anatolius, 40. 

Angel of peace, xl. 2 ; lii. 5 ; liii. 4 ; 
liv. 4; lvi. 2. 

Angels. See also Cherubim, Children 
of the Angels, Holy ones of the 
heaven, Ophanim, Sons of the heaven, 
Sons of the holy, Seraphim, Watchers. 

— intercede for men, ix. 10 ; xv. 2 ; 
xl. 6 ; xlvii. 2 ; xcix. 3, 16 ; civ. 1. 

— of the Presence, xl. 2. 

— of power and of principalities, lxi. 
10. 

— of punishment, xl. 7 ; liii. 3 ; lvi. 1 ; 
lxii. 11 ; Ixiii. 1. 

— symbolized by shepherds, lxxxix. 59- 
xc. 25. 

— symbolized by stars, lxxxvi. 1. 

— symbolized by white men, lxxxvii. 2. 

— fall of the, vi ; xv. 3 ; lxix ; lxxxvi ; 
cvi. 13, 14. 

— punishment of the, x. 1-15 ; xii. 4-6; 
xiv. 4-6 ; xix. 1 ; xxi. 7-10 ; lv. 5 ; 
lxvii. 11, 12 ; xc. 21-25 ; xci. 15. 

— the righteous will become, li. 4 : cf. 
civ. 4, 6. 



Angels, the holy, i. 9 ; xx. 1-7 ; xxi. 
5, 9 ; xxii. 3 ; &c. 

— the seven holy ones, xx. 7 (Greek) ; 
lxxxi. 5; xc. 21, 22. 

— the four, xl.; lxxxvii. 2, 3; lxxxviii. 1. 

— the three, xc. 31. 
Anger, 14. 
Antigonus, c. 2. 
Antiochus Cyzicenus, xc. 13. 
Antiochus Epiphanes, 26,56, 130, 251; 

c. 7. 
Antiochus Sidetes, xc. 13. 
Apocalyptic, object of, 22-24, 56— 57» 

108-109, 187-188, 222-223,264-265. 
Aristobulus I, xxxviii. 5 ; c. 2. 
Aristobulus II, 114 ; xxxviii. 5. 
Asses, used symbolically, lxxxvi. 4. 

— wild — symbolically used, lxxxix. 11, 
13, 16. 

Athenagoras, 38 ; xiv. 5. 
Augustine, 40-41 ; vi. 2. 
Azazel, vi. 6 ; viii. 1-3 ; x. 4, 8 ; xiii. 1; 
liv. 5 ; lv. 4 ; lxxxviii. 1. 

Baldensperger, 19, 114; xlvi. 6. 
Barnabas, Epistle of, 38 ; lxxxix. 50. 
Bartlet, 3I3-3M- 
Batiffol, 311. 

Behemoth and Leviathan, lx. 7, 8. 
Bensley, 318. 
Bissel, 310. 

Blood, eating of, vii. 5 ; xcviii. 11. 
Boars, wild — symbolically used, lxxxix. 
12, 42, 72 ; xc. 13. 



C C 



386 



The Book of Enoch. 



Book of life, xlvii. 3 ; cviii. 3. 

— of the holy ones, xlvii. 3 ; ciii. 2. 

— of unrighteousness, xlvii. 3 ; lxxxi. 4. 
Books of the living, xlvii. 3. 

— were opened, xc. 20. 

— were sealed, lxxxix. 70, 71. 
Bouriant, 309, 318. 

Bull — symbolically used, lxxxv. 3 ; 
lxxxvi. 1; lxxxix. 1, 10, II, &c. 

Cain, xxii. 7 ; lxxxv. 3. 

Camels — symbolically used, vii. 2 (Syn. 

Gk.) ; lxxxvi. 4. 
Castelli, li. 1. 
Celestial Physics, Book of, lxxii-lxxix ; 

lxxxii. 
Charles, 311. 
Chasids or early Pharisees, 29, 30, 94, 

114, 222-223,249-251, 263-264, 279, 

297. 
Cherubim, xiv. II, 18 ; xx. 7 ; lxi. 10 ; 

lxxi. 7. 
Cheyne, 20, 21, 127, 136, 139, 169, 

255, 307- 
Children of the angels, lxix. 4, 5 ; cvi. 5. 
Chronology, Hebrew, Samaritan and 

LXX, 103, 146, 170, 183, 216. 
Clemens Alex., 39; viii. 2, 3; xvi. 3 ; 

xix. 3. 
Clemens Kom., xlvii. 3. 
Cocytus, xvii. 6. 
Congregation of the righteous, xxxviii. 1, 

3 ; liii. 6 ; lxii. 8. 
Creation, New, xlv. 4; lxxii. 1 ; xci. 15, 

16. 
Cycle of Calippus, 190, 210, 312. 

— of Meton, 210. 

— Eight year or Octaeteris, 190, 201- 
202, 210. 

Cyrus, lxxxix. 59. 

David, lxxxix. 45-46. 

Deane, 19-20, 243. 

Death due to sin, lxix. 11. 

De Faye, 21. 

Delitzsch, 62, 162 ; vi. 2. 

Deluge, the, lxxxix. 3-4 ; xci. 5 ; cvi. 

— due to the fall of the angels, xxxii. 6. 



Demonology. See Angels of punish- 
ment, Demons, Satans. 

Demons, 52; xv. 8, 9, 11 ; xvi. 1; 
xix. (note) ; xcix. 7. 

De Quincey, xciii. 10. 

Didache, the, 140. 

Dillmann, passim. 

Dogs — symbolically used, lxxxix. 42. 

Doxologies, Enochic, xxii. 14. 

Dream- Visions, the, lxxxiii-xc. 

Drummond, 15-17, 155, 156, 243. 

Eagles — used symbolically, xc. 2, 16. 

Edersheim, 134, 139. 

Edna, lxxxv. 3. 

Egypt, Exodus from, lxxxix. 21-27. 

— Plagues of, lxxxix. 20. 
Eisenmenger, quoted on, vi. 6 ; xl. 2, 5 ; 

li. 1. 
Elect, the, i. 3. 

— and holy children, xxxix. 1. 

— of righteousness, the, xciii. 10. 

— One, the, xl. 5 ; xxxviii. 2. 

— One, Mine, xlviii. 9 ; lv. 4. 

— One of righteousness and faith, the, 
xxxix. 6. 

— Ones, His, lvi. 6. 

— Ones, Mine, xlv. 3, 5. 

— Ones, the holy and, li. 1. 

— righteous, the, i. 1. 

Elephants — symbolically used, vii. 2 

(Syn. Gk.) ; lxxxvi. 4. 
Elijah, lxxxix. 52 ; xciii. 8. 
Emendations, 5, 6. 
Enoch — its separate components, with 

their characteristics and dates. 

— Part I. I-XXXVI, 25-26, 55-57. 

— Part II. LXXXIII-XC, 26-28, 
220-223. 

— Part III. XCI-CIV, 28-29, 3 6o- 
265. 

— Part IV. XXXVII-LXX, 29-33, 
106-109. 

— Part V. LXXII-LXXXII, 32-33, 
187-191. 

— Part VI. Noachic and other Inter- 
polations, 24-25 ; with notes there 
referred to, especially on liv. 7 ; lxxi ; 
lxxx-lxxxi. 



Index of Names and Subjects. 



387 



Enoch, its influence on Jewish literature, 
33-38. 

— its influence on New Testament 
diction and doctrine, 42-53. 

— its influence on Patristic literature, 
38-41. 

— originally written in Hebrew, 21-22, 

325. 

— Ancient Versions of, their relative 
values, 318-325. 

— Ethiopic MSS. of, 2-5. 

— EthiopicVersion of — text of Laurence 
and Dillmann, 2-6. 

— Greek Version of — as found in Syn- 
cellus, 62-75, 83-86. 

— Greek Version of— as found in Vati- 
can MS., 237-240. 

— Greek Version of— as found in Gizeh 
MS., 326-370. 

— Greek Version of— as found in S. Jude, 

32 7- 

— Latin Version of, 320, 37 2 ~375- 

— Modern Versions of — English by 
Laurence, 6. 

— Modern Versions of — English by 
Schodde, 7-9. 

— Modern Versions of — German by 
Hoffmann, 6. 

— Modern Versions of — German by 
Dillmann, 6-7. 

— Modern Versions of — Hebrew by 
Goldschmidt, 309. 

— Modern Versions of — French by 
Lods, 310. 

— Slavonic, 1, 190, 357. 

— ' the scribe of righteousness,' xi. 3. 

— Translation of, lxx. 1. 
Esau, lxxxix. 12. 
Essenic elements, 246, 305. 
Eternal— word of ambiguous meaning, 

x. 5, 10. 

— Life. See Life, Eternal. 
Euphrates, lxxvii. 6. 

Eve, led astray by a Satan, lxix. 6. 

— history of, 1 ; lxxxv. 3-7. 
Ewald, 10, 242, 247. 

Faith, xxxix. 6 ; xliii. 4 ; lviii. 5 ; lxi. 
4, n. 

CC 



Fanuel, xl. 7. 

Fire, abyss of, x. 13. 

— furnace of, xcviii. 3. 

— river of, xvii. 5 ; lxxi. 2. 

Foxes — used symbolically, lxxxix. 42,55. 

Gabriel, xl. 6. 

Gamaliel II, 190. 

Ganges, 208. 

Garden of righteousness or of life, i. e. 

Eden, xxxii. 3; lx. 8, 23; lxi. 12; 

lxx. 3 ; lxxvii. 3. 
Garments of life, lxii. 16 ; cviii. 12. 
Gebhardt, 13-14. 
Gehenna, xxvii. 1 ; xlviii. 9 ; liii. 3-5 ; 

liv. 1 ; lxii. 12 ; lxxxi. 8; xc. 26, 27 ; 

cviii. 6. 
Geiger, 12. 
Gentiles, Conversion of the, 1. 2-5 ; xc. 

30 ; xci. 12. 
Giants, vii. 2. 
Gildemeister, 10, 237, 238. 
God, titles of — 

— Creator, lxxxi. 5 ; xciv. 10. 
1 — Eternal King, xxv. 3. 

— Eternal Lord of Glory, lxxv. 3. 

— God, i. 2 (Crit. Note). 

— God of the world, i. 3. 

— God of the whole world, lxxxiv. 2. 

— Great Glory, the, xiv. 20 ; cii. 3. 

— Great King, lxxxiv. 5. 

— Great One, xiv. 2. 

He that is blessed for ever, lxxvii. 1. 

— He that liveth for ever, v. 1 ; cvi. 3, 
11 (Latin Vers.)- 

— Head of Days, xlvi. 2. 

— Holy and Great One, i. 3. 

— Holy One, i. 2. 

— Honoured and Glorious One, xiv. 21 
(cf. ciii. 1). 

— King of Kings, lxxxiv. 2. 

— King of the world, xii. 3. 

— Lord, xxii. 14, and frequently. 

— Lord of Glory, xxii. 14. 

— Lord of Heaven, cvi. 11. 

Lord of Judgment, lxxxiii. 11. 

— Lord of the Mighty, lxiii. 2. 

— Lord of Kigbteousness, xxii. 14. 
Lord of the Rulers, lxiii. 2. 



388 



The Book of Enoch. 



God, titles of — 

— Lord of the sheep, lxxxix. 16. 

— Lord of Spirits, xxxvii. 2. 

— Lord of the whole Creation of the 
Heaven, lxxxiv. 2. 

— Lord of Wisdom, lxiii. 2. 

— Most High, xcix. 3. 
Goldschmidt, 309. 
Greek element?, 87. 

— Version. See under ' Enoch.' 

Hades or Sheol, xxii (note) ; li. 1; lvi. 8 ; 
lxiii. 10 ; xcix. 11 ; cii. 4-civ. 5. 

— 0. T. conception of, the goal of all 
and involving social not moral dis- 
tinctions, lxiii. 10 ; cii. II. 

— the intermediate state of the righteous 
and the wicked involving moral dis- 
tinctions, xxii ; li. 1 ; lxiii. 10 ; cii. 5. 

— the intermediate state of the wicked, 
lxiii. 10. 

— the final abode of the wicked -hell, 
lxiii. 10 ; xcix. 11 ; ciii. 7. 

Hallevi, 13, 21, 154, 176, 207, 208, 218, 

290. 
Hausrath, 17. 
Hell, li. 1. 
Hengstenberg, 312. 
Hermae Pastor, 132. 
Hermon, vi. 6. 
Herod, 130, 175. 
Hilgenfeld, 11-12, 174, 244. 
Hinnom, valley of (see 'Gehenna'), 

xxvi. 4, 6. 
Hoffman, 6, 21, 274. 
Hofmann, 9, 10, 243. 
Holtzmann, 13, 19, 175. 
Holy ones = angels, i. 9. 
Holy ones of heaven = angels, ix. 3. 
Holy ones = saints, ciii. 2 ; cviii. 3. 
Holy place, xxv. 5. 
Horn, the great •■= Judas Maccabaeus, 

xc. 9. 
House of the Great King = the temple, 

xci. 13 ; xciii. 7, 8. 
Humble, the, xxv. 4. 
Hyena — symbolically used, lxxxix. 55. 
Hyrcanus, John, 114, 251, 264, 297. 
Hyrcanus II, 115. 



Indus, 208. 

Inquiries, Critical, 9-21. 
Irenaeus, quoted, 38, 80. 
Isaac and Ishmael, lxxxix. 11. 

Jacob, lxxxix. 12. 

James, M. E. 372, 373. 

Jared, vi. 6; xxxvii. I; cvi. 13. 

Jaxartes, 208. 

Jehoshaphat, valley of, xxvi. 3 ; liii. 1. 

Jellinek, 10. 

Jerome, quoted, 40. 

Jerusalem, xxv. 5 ; xxvii. 1 ; lvi. 7 ; 

lxxxix. 51, 55, 56 ; xc. 27, 29. 
Jonathan Maccabaeus, 250, 251. 
Jordan, lxxxix. 37. 
Joseph, lxxxix. 13. 
Josephus, 62, 65, 78, 139, 175, 248, 

287. 
Joshua, the high priest, lxxxix. 72. 
Judas Maccabaeus, 222, 223, 249, 251- 

252, 253. 
Judges and Joshua, the, lxxxix. 39. 
Judgment, day of. For the different 

applications of this and of parallel 

phrases, see xlv. 2. 
Justin Martyr, 38, 62, 70. 

Kahle, 139. 

Kedron, xxvi. 3. 

Kings and the mighty, xxxviii. 5. 

Kites — used symbolically, xc. 2. 

Kostlin, 11, 106, 114, 251. 

Kuenen, 14. 

Lambs — used symbolically, 2 22 ; xc. 6, 7. 

Lamech, x. 1 ; cvi. 4, 10. 

Langen, 12. 

Laurence, 6, 274. 

Law, the (Mosaic), v. 4 ; xciii. 6 ; xcix. 

2, 14. 
Life, Eternal— meaning varies with each 

author, xxxvii. 4. 
Light, Eternal, xlv. 4. 
— of the Gentiles, xlviii. 4. 
Lions — used symbolically, lxxxix. 55. 
Lipsius, 17. 
Lods, 310, 318, 319, 326, 328, 331, 

336, &c. 
Liicke, 9, 251. 



Index of Names and Subjects. 



389 



Maccabees, Rise of the, 223, 249, 250. 

Mammon, lxiii. 10; 371. 

Mansions, xxxix. 4. 

Margoliouth, Prof., 225. 

Mercy, Ix. 5, 25 ; lxi. 13. 

Messiah, the. See notes on 30-31 ; 50— 

51 ; 312-317; xxxviii. 2 ; xlvi. 2, 3 ; 

xlviii. 10 ; xc. 37, 38. 
Messiah, the, variously conceived by the 

different authors, 30-31. 

— Titles of — the Righteous One, 51 ; 
xxxviii. 2. 

the Elect One. See « Elect One.' 

the Righteous and Elect One, liii. 6. 

— — the Elect One of Righteousness 
and Eaith, xxxix. 6. 

the Messiah or the Christ, 51; 

xlviii. 10. 
the Son of Man. See ' Son of Man, 

the,' 51,312-317; xlvi. 2,3. 
the Son of God, cv. 2. 

— symbolized by a white bull, xc. 37. 
Messianic Kingdom — its duration and 

character variously conceived by each 
author, 50, 107, 221, 262, 263; xlv. 

4,5. 
Michael, ix. 1; x. 11; xx. 5; xl. 4; 

lx. 4, 5 ; lxviii. 2, 3, 4. 
Montefiore, 139. 
Moon, the, 187 ; lxxiii-lxxiv. 
Moses, lxxxix. 16, 29, 34, 36, 38. 
Mount of Offence, xxvi. 4. 

— of Olives, xxvi. 3. 
Mountain, Holy, xxvi. 2. 

Nehemiah, lxxxix. 72. 

Neubauer, Dr., 84. 

Nile, lxxvii. 5. 

Noachic fragments. See under | Enoch.' 

Noah, x. 1; lx. 1; lxxxix. 1-9; cvi. 18; 

cvii. 3 J 375- 
Noldeke, 128. 



Ocean stream, xvii. 5. 
Oehler, 169. 
Onias III, xc. 6, 7, 8. 
Ophanim, lxi. 10 ; lxxi. 7. 
Oxus, lxxvii. 7. 



Palestine, xxvi-xxvii; lvi. 6, 7; lxxxix. 

40. 
Papias, x. 19. 

Parthians and Medes, lvi. 5. 
'Peace,' 'ye will find no peace/ v. 4. 
Peter, T. G., 19, 271. 
Pharisaic exclusiveness, xcvii. 4 ; civ. 6. 
Pharisees — their religious and literary 

strife with the Sadducees, 107-108 ; 

263-264 ; xcviii. 15 ; cii. 4-civ. 

— their varying relations with the 
Maccabees, 30, 107-108, 113-115, 
263-264 ; ciii. 14, 15. 

— ' the children of heaven/ ci. I. 
Philippi, 13. 

Philo, vi. 2. 

' Plant of righteousness/ x. 16. 

Ptolemaeus Lagi, 248. 

Raguel, xx. 4 ; 363. 

Ram — used symbolically, lxxxix. 43 ; 

xc. 10, 31. 
Ravens — used symbolically, xc. 2. 
Remiel xx. 7 (Giz. Gk. 2 ). 
Resurrection, 52, 57, 109. 

— the, 52, 57, 109, 223, 261, 262, 265; 
v. 7 ; xxii. 13 ; li. 1 ; lxi. 5 ; xc. 33 ; 
xci. 10 ; c. 5. 

Reuss, 19. 
Righteous, the, i. 8. 

— and holy, the, xxxviii. 5. 

— and holy and elect, xxxviii. 4. 

— one, the — used collectively, xci. 10. 

— One, the. See ' Messiah.' 
Rosenmuller, 65, 118, 180. 

Rufael or Raphael, x. 7 ; xx. 3 ; xl. 5 ; 
liv. 6 ; lxxxviii. 1. 

Sadducees, the enemies of the Pharisees 
and allies of the later Maccabees, 30, 
108, 263-264; xxxviii. 5; xciv. 5; 
xcv. 3 ; xcviii. 15 ; ciii. 14, 15. 

— support 0. T. view of Sheol, cii. 4- 
civ. 9. 

— ' children of earth/ c. 6. 
Samuel, lxxxix. 41, 44. 
Satans, 52, 53; xl. 7. 

— conceived in Similitudes as in 0. T., 
xl. 7. ^^ 



390 



The Book of Enoch. 



Satans, confused with fallen angels in 
lxix. 4. 

— = angels of punishment in liii. 3; 
lvi. 1 ; lxii. 1 1 ; lxxii. I 

Saul, lxxxix. 43. 
Schenkel, 169, 255. 
Schleiermacher, 312, 313. 
Schodde, 7-9, 120, 243, 251, 274. 
Schulz, 139, 162, 169. 
Schulze, 312. 

Schiirer, 18, 134, 136, 243, 250, 251. 
Schwally, 310. 

Sea, the Great = the Mediterranean, 
lxxvii. 5. 

— the Erythraean, xxxii. 2. 
Seleucidae, 248. 

Seraphim, xx. 7 (Crit. Note) ; lxi. 10 ; 

lxxi. 7; 357. 
Seth, lxxxv. 8, 9. 
Seven, a sacred number, lxxvii. 4. 
Sheep, white, black, and little — used 

symbolically, lxxxix. 12-xc. 

— Lord of the. See ' God.' 
Sheol. See ' Hades.' 

Shepherds, the seventy, lxxxix. 59 ; xc. 
1, 25. 

Sieffert, 12, 13. 

Siloah, the brook of, xxvi. 2. 

Similitudes, the, 29, 30, 106-186. 

Simon Maccabaeus, 222, 223. 

Sin, attributed in the main, not to Adam, 
but to the fall of the angels in the 
days of Jared, vi-viii ; x. 8 ; xvi. 3. 

— of Adam, xxxii. 6. 

— of Eve attributed to a Satan, lxix. 6. 

— due to evil knowledge introduced by 
the Satans, lxix. 1 1 . 

— attributed to man's own act, xcviii. 4. 
Sinai, i. 4 ; lxxxix. 29, 32, 33. 
Sinners, godless or unrighteous, the, 

xxxviii. 1-3 ; xli. 2 ; xiv. 2, 5, 6 ; 
liii. 2, 7 ; lxii. 2. 

— =the Sadducees, 263-264. 
Sirens, 355. 

Solomon, lxxxix. 48. 

Son of Man, the. See 51, 312-317 ; 

xlvi. 2 ; xlviii. 2. 
all judgment committed to the, 

lxix. 27. 



Son of Man,pre-existence of the, xlviii. 2. 

universal dominion of, lxii. 6, 

will sit on God's throne, li. 3 ; 

xlv. 3. 

'Son of Man ' — this phrase applied in in- 
terpolations to Enoch, lx. 10 ; lxxi. 14. 

Sons of the heavens, vi. 2. 

— of the holy angels, lxxi. 1. 
Spectacle of the wicked suffering, xxvii. 

3 ; xlviii. 9 ; lxii. 12. 
Spirits, the Lord of. See ' God.' 
' Spirits of the souls of the dead,' ix. 3 

(Syn. Gk.), 10 (Crit. Note) ; xxii. 3; 

cf. xvi. 1. 
' Spirits of the souls of the dead' crying 

for vengeance, xxii. 5-7. 
Spirits over natural phenomena, lx. 12. 
Stade, 139. 
Stanton, 18, 19. 
Stars, conscious existence of, xli. 5 ; 

cf. xliii. 2. 

— shooting, xliv (note). 

— 'powersofheaven,'xviii.i4(Giz.Gk.). 

— punished, xviii. 13-16; xxi. 1-6. 

— used symbolically of angels, lxxxvi. 

— used symbolically of righteous men, 
xlvi. 7. 

Styx, xvii. 8. 

Sword, period of the sword, 1 26, 263 ; 
xc. 19; xci. 12 ; xcix. 4. 

Synagogues, cabled ' houses of His con- 
gregation,' liii. 6. 

Tables, heavenly — a concrete expression 

for determinism, lxxxi. 1, 2 ; xciii. 2 ; 

ciii. 2 ; xlvii. 3. 
Temple, the, xc. 29 (?) ; xciii. 7. 
1 Ten thousand times ten thousand,' 

xiv. 22 ; xl. 1. 
Tertullian, 38, 39, 62, 66, 83, 91, 216, 

285, 320. 
Thomson, 20, 243. 
' Those who sleep not.' See ' Watchers,' 

xxxix. 12. 
Throne (of God), xviii. 8 ; xxiv. 3 ; xxv. 

3 ; xc. 20. 

— of Glory (of God and of the Son of 
Man), xlv. 3. 



Index of Names and Subjects. 



39i 



Thrones of the Elect, cviii. 12. 

Tideman, 14-15, 121. 

Tigers — used symbolically, lxxxix. 55. 

Tigris, lxxvii. 6. 

' Tongue of flesh,' xiv. 2. 

' Tower ' = paradise, lxxxvii. 3. 

— = temple, lxxxix. 50. 
Tree of life, xxv. 4, 5, 6. 

— of wisdom, xxxii. 3, 6. 

— dismembered = Israel, xxvi. 1. 

Uriel, ix. 1; x. 1 ; xix. I ; xx. 2; lxxii. 

1, &c. 

Vernes, 14. 

Volkmar, 12, 244. 

Vultures — used symbolically, xc. 2. 

Watchers = archangels in xx. 1 ; xxxix. 
12, 13 ; xl. 2 ; lxi. 12 ; Ixxi. 7. 

— = fallen angels, i. 5 ; x. 9, 15 ; xii. 

2, 4, &c. 

Waters of Dan, xiii. 7. 



Waters of life, xvii. 4; xxii. 9 (p. 361). 
Weber, 64, 92, 95, 100, 118, 120, 134, 

J 39> H3, *55> 162, 169, 179, 228, 

243, 257, 267. 
Weighing of men's deeds, xli. 1 ; xliii. 

2 ; lx. 12 ; lxi. 8. 
Weisse, II, 
Westcott, 17, ]8. 
Wieseler, 18, 202, 210, 212, 243. 
Wisdom, assessor of God, lxxxiv. 3. 

— allegory regarding, xlii. 1,2. 

— bestowed on the elect, v. 8 ; xci. 10 ; 
cf. xxxvii. 4. 

— poured out as water before the 
Messiah, xlix. 1 ; li. 3. 

— claimed for Enochic revelations, 
lxxxii. 2 ; xcii. I ; xciii. 10. 

— fountains of, xlviii. 1. 

— an assessor on God's throne, lxxxiv. 3. 
Wittichen, 13. 

Zion, xxvi. 2. 
Zockler, 310-31 1. 



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